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luendas habemus ratione peccatorum nostrorum etiam dimissorum. Porrö cum maximè congruat ut thesaurus ille otiosus non maneat, meritó creditur, sicut sponsus, quicquid* wivens acquirit sponsae et filiis suis relinquit, ita Christum er his terris evolantem, meritorum et satisfactionem suarum thesaurum ecclesia, reliquisse, quoad utilitates filiorum suorum uteretur. Probatur secunda pars de meritis et satisfactionibus sanctorum. Illinimirum multa præstiterunt satisfactoria opera, o in expiationem delictorum suorum non indigebant. ic B. Virgo, licet omnis peccati expers, dolores multos et acerbissimos pertulit; sic et Johannes Baptista ab utero materno sanctificatus, austeriorem duxit vitam, quae martyrio coronata fuit; sic apostolorum, martyrum, confessorum, virginum, aliorumque sanctorum plurimi longè graviora passi sunt quâm exigebant illorum peccata. Atqui hac satisfactionum affluentia penes ecclesiam manere merità censetur, instar alicujus depositi, quod in publicam fidelium utilitatem impendi possit, rid solutionis pro illorum debitis. Et quidem id apprimé consonat cum articulo symboli de communione sanctorum, ut quod ab uno agitur ad alios quodam jure pertineat. Hanc quidem de thesauro ecclesiae pro indulgentiis proferimus doctrinam expressè tradit Clemens WI. in citatā jam bullā quae incipit “Unigenitus,” his verbis: “In ará crucis immaculatus agnus non guttam sanguinis modicam, qua tamen propter unionem ad Werbum pro redemptione totius generis humani suffecisset, sed copiosé, velut quoddam profluvium noscitur effudisse: quantum ergö exinde ut nec . inanis, aut superflua tantae effusionis miseratio redderetur thesaurum militanti ecclesiae acquisivit? Quem |. thesaurum non in sudario repositum, sed per B. etrum coeli clavigerum ejusque successores, suos in terrá vicarios, commisit salubriter dispensandum. . . . . . Ad cujus quidem thesauri cumulum, B. Dei genetricis, omnium electorum a primo justo usque ad ultimum merita ad miniculum præstare noscuntur; de cujus consumptione seu immunitione non est aliquatenus formidandum, tam propter infinita Christi merita, quâm pro eo quod, quanto plures ex ejus trahuntur ad justitiam, tanto magis accrescit ipsorum cumulus meritorum.” Ibiut patet S. Pontifex in thesauro ecclesiæ pro indulgentiis recondit merita Christi et Sanctorum ; neque indicat diversum modum quo ista Prosint, nempe viâ tantùm suffragii et impetrationis: Ergò cùm merita Christi viâ solutionis operentur, idem dicendum de meritis et satisfactionibus superabundantibus sanctorum, quanquam

* What anile reasoning !

in gradu valdè dispari.

Vera (Ecumenici concilii Tridentini contra exsurgentes Lutheri, &c. historia, contra falsam Petri Suavis Polani, &c. A. P. Sfortiâ Pallavicino. S. J. postea. S. R. E. Cardinale Presbytero, &c. ; ac Latinè reddita a P. Joanne Baptista Giattino, Panormitano, ejusdem Societatis Jesu Sacerdote. Augustæ Vindelicorum, 1775.

EIist. Conc. Trid. Lib. viii. c. 8.

Few qf the scholastics discussed justification, and none qf the ancient Councils.

2. Sed ad veram rei narrationem accedamus; Cervinus in hanc sententiam disseruit: Justificationis articulum, de quo tunc agendum erat, obscuriorem evasurum, quam jam sancitus de peccato originali: etenim cùm de hoc veteres scholastici copiosè disputassent, de illo perpaucos egisse. . . . . .

8. His porrò Paceius addidit; ad justificationem expendendam non modo antiquorum scholasticorum deesse subsidia, sed etiam veterum conciliorum : Tridentinum id primum eniti.

Disagreements in the discussion respecting justification. *>

C. IV.—Minorum Theologorum ac Patrum varia de justificatione opinamenta.

Five differed from the rest and affirmed as follows : Sed quatuor quos nominavimus, et cum eis Joannes Utinensis Dominicanus affirmarunt hominem reddi justum per fidem quatenus ipse fidem, quatenus ipse fidentissimè credit a se per Jesu Christi merita peccatorum veniam obtineri.

5. Julii. 7. Solus in eo consessu Senensis Archiepiscopus cuncta Christo, nihil nobis attribuit, totam justitiæ accep

* The other four were Laurentius Mayocchius, ex ordine. Serv. B. Virginis : Gregorius Senensis Dominicanus, Gregorius Perfectus Patavimus, ex Eremitarum S. Augustini familia; et quidam alius ejusdem

ordinis.

tionem fidei adscripsit; reliquis præparationibus nihil ; quam sententiam Patres malè audierunt. 6. Julii. 11. Ex adverso minus rectè disseruit Cavensis, qui profusâ oratione omnia ipsi fidei arrogabat; arbitratus eâ positâ illicò justificationem subsequi, cujus individuæ essent comites spes et charitas, sed non causæ, sed quasi prodromæ. Hæc sententia patrum aures offendit, &c.

15. At non æquè accidit grata Julii Contareni, Bellunensis Antistitis oratio, cuncta fidei ac Jesu Christi meritis adscribentis, et nihil operibus, cùm hæc solùm fidei ac Justitiæ signa putaret, in quibus nulla vis inesset ad consequandam conservandamque justitiam.

The above are Protestant opinions ; other opinions are enumerated by Pallavicini—who remarks at the close of the chapter.—19. Tune sane patuit, quemadmodum pro hominum varietate, quæ uni eidemque corpori admoventur, umbra ab illo projecta variatur, ita pro variâ luce, quæ in hominum mentes incurrit, variam ab eodem imaginem conformari.

Hæc de primo Capite dictæ sententiæ memoriâ digniores, ferè omnes et variæ et discordes.*

When Rome was menaeed with the cholera in 1835, a miraculous picture of the Virgin was solemnly carried in procession through the streets of Rome, and laid upon the altar of one of the churches, and mass was offered up, &c. The Pope, his cardinals, all the religious orders, and secular clergy änd the military attended the procession. The account of it was published at Rome by a French priest, who witnessed it. if; work is entitled “ Relation historique de l'Image miraculeuse de la Sainte Vierge, peinte par S. Lue; venerée a Sainte Marie Majeure, portée processionnellement, a, Rome, en Septembre, 1S85. Per M. 1'Abbè Menghi d'Arville. Dedièe a son eminence Le- ' Prince Cardinal Odescalchi.—A Rome. Octobre, 1835.”

The frontispiece of this work consists of an engraving of the miraculous picture, and the following prayer put up by those who venerate it.

• This clearly proves that until the final decision of the Council of Trent, there was no unity of opinion among Romanists on the doctrine of justification.

Priére qui se recite devant cette miraculeuse image. Je vous salue, auguste reine de la paix, très Sainte Mére de Dieu; par le sacrè coeur de Jesus votre fils et Prince de la paix, faites que sa colére s'eteigne, et qu’en paix il regne encore sur nous. Souvenez vous, O tres-pieuse Vierge Marie, qu'on n'a jamais oui dire que youzayez abandonné quicomoue a reclamé votre protection, &c.

TRANSUBSTANTIATION.

This monstrous doctrine, which was first authoritatively decreed by the Roman Church, in the fourth General Lateran Council, and which is still believed by all Roman Catholics, is supported by the misinterpretation of a few passages of the New Testament, and by figurative passages extracted from the writings of the Fathers. The passage upon which the Church of Rome principally relies is (Matth. xxvi. 26.) “This is my body.” The Romish priests affirm that, however incomprehensible the doctrine may be, and however opposed it may be to our daily experience, we are bound implicitly to believe what Christ so clearly declared. We are ready to confess, that if it can be shewn that Christ . that the bread was in very deed his body, and that the wine was in very deed his blood, it would be our duty unhesitatingly to believe his words; but what we maintain is, that he made use of a figure of speech common to the Jews, and that he never intended that his words should be literally understood. Why are we to adopt, a novel rule of interpretation, and to assign to God’s Word a meaning which, where similar expressions are contained in the Scriptures, neither the Church of Rome nor Protestants, nor any men in their senses, adopt? When the Jews were said to eat the passover, they did not understand that they eat the destroying angel passing by the houses of the Israelites. When it was said, “this is the passover,” all that the Jews understood was, “this is the commemoration of the passover;” and when our blessed Saviour said of the to. “this is my body,” all that the Apostles understood by this declaration must have been, this is the representation or fi of my body, which is designed to commemorate that it was offered up for the sins of the world, until I come. To which of the following passages will Roman Catholics assign a literal interpretation?

Gen. xl. 12. “The three branches are three days.” - 18. “The three baskets are three days.” — xli. 26. “The seven good kine are seven years.” - 26. “The seven good ears are seven years.” — xlix. 9. “Judah is a lion's whelp.” - 14. “Issachar is a strong ass couched down between two burdens.” - 17. “Dan shall be a serpent by the way.” - 21. “Napthali is a hind let loose.” - 22. “Joseph is a fruitful bough.” Deut. xxxiii. 22. “Dan is a lion's whelp.” Psalm xviii. 2. “The Lord is my ...” - lx. 8. “Moab is my washpot.” — lxxxiv. 11. “For the Lord God is a sun and shield.” Sol. Song. iv. 12. “A garden inclosed is my sister.” vii. 4. “Thy neck is a tower of ivory.” Isaiah v. 7. “For the vineyard of the Lord of Hosts is the house of Israel.” - xl. 6. “All flesh is grass.” - 7. “Surely the people is grass.” — xlviii. 4. “Thy neck is an iron sinew, and thy brow brass.” Jer. v. 16. “Their quiver is an open sepulchre.” — li. 7. “Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord's hand.” 20. “Thou art my battleaxe and weapons of war.” Ezek. v. 5. “This is Jerusalem.” — xxii. 18. “They are even the dross of silver.” — xxxvii. 11. “These bones are the whole house of Israel.” Daniel iv. 20. “The tree which thou sawest, &c. it is thou, O King.” - ii. 48. “Thou art this head of gold.” — vii. 17. “These great beasts, which are four, are four kings.” — viii. 20. “The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.” - 21. “And the rough goat is the king of Grecia.” Hosea x. 11. “And Ephraim is as an heifer that is taught.” Micah vii. 4. “The best of them is a brier.”

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