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to answer the question;" and this:attitude thus showed that the bordereau was in was appkoved: by Colonel Joaġust him- Esterhazy's handwriting, and not in the self, the President of the court. The handwriting of Dreyfus. He pointed out latter's reputation for impartiality, there the identity of letters therein with letters fore, has suffered somewhat. During the admittedly written by Esterhazy, proving week the reported "confession ” of Drey- that while the resemblance was not apparfus the day after his degradation in Janu- ent in Dreyfus's handwriting, in Esterary, 1895, came up again, and was thus hazy's there were marked peculiarities in explained by the prisoner :

punctuation and in the manner of beginI said to Captain Lebrun-Renault: “ I am

ning fresh lines, also noticeable in the innocent. I will declare it in the face of the bordereau, but not found in the prisoner's whole people. That is the cry of my con- chirography. M. Charavay, an expert science. You know that cry. I repeated it who in 1894 had testified that Dreyfus all through the torture of my degradation.” Du Paty de Clam asked me if I had not

was the author of the bordereau, confessed given documents of no importance in orier to to a change of opinion. The reasons for obtain others in exchange. I replied that not this change were the publication of Esteronly was I absolutely innocent, but that I de- hazy's letters, the discovery of the Henry sired the whole matter should be cleared up: forgery, the inquiry of the Court of CassaThen I added that I hoped that within two or three years my innocence would be established. tion, and Esterhazy's confession. “ It is I told Du Paty de Clam that I wanted full a great relief to my conscience,” M. Chalight on the matter, that an iniquity had been

ravay added, “to be able to say before you, done and that it was impossible for the Government to fail to use its influence to discover and before him who is the victim of my the whole truth. “ The Government,” I said, mistake, that the bordereau is not the work “has means, either through the military at- of Dreyfus, but of Esterhazy.” tachés or through diplomatic channels, to reach the truth." And I also said, “ It is awful that a soldier should be convicted of such a frightful crime. Consequently, it seems to

Perhaps the most inter

Captain Freystaetter me, I who asked only for truth and light, that

esting testimony of the the Government should use all the means at

entire trial was that given by Captain its disposal to secure that light.” Du Paty de Clam replied: “There are interests at stake Freystaetter on Saturday of last week ; higher than yours.”

at all events, his evidence is equaled in importance only by Colonel Picquart's.

Captain Freystaetter has as brilliant a Towards the end of the military record as has any French offiThe Handwriting week M. Bertillon, the cer. He was a member of the 1894 court Experts

expert in chirography, martial. Two years ago his conscience and a famous specialist in measurements compelled him to disclose the fact that of the human body, began his ingenious Dreyfus had been condemned not only by testimony. He tried to prove (1) that the secret but also by illegal evidence. The bordereau was a doctored document ; (2) witness declared that the proofs of the that it could have been manufactured condemnation were to be found in the only by the prisoner; (3) that it had bordereau and in four secret pieces sent been written in a free hand by means of to the court by General Mercier. Coloa key-word placed beneath tracing-paper nel Maurel, the President of the 1894 in such a way as to be quite visible. The court martial, had previously admitted to basic objection to M. Bertillon's testimony the present court martial that he had read is that its premises were all wrong. The one, but only one, of the secret documents testimony of another handwriting expert, sent by General Mercier to the 1894 M. Gobert, contradicted the above. He prosecution, and withheld from the deasserted that the handwriting of the bor- fense. Maître Labori, therefore, called dereau was natural and fuent, but that it upon Colonel Jouaust to have Colonel was almost illegible, whereas Dreyfus, even Maurel confront Captain Freystaetter. when writing rapidly, always wrote legibly. On this Colonel Maurel repeated, with M. Gobert suggested that the judges com- evident embarrassment, that he had only pare the bordereau with a letter admitted looked at one document, but, he added, to be in Esterhazy's handwriting, and with “I did not say that only one piece documents written by the prisoner. He was read. I admit, after what Captain

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Freystaetter says, that other documents profound effect on them. The vehemence may have been produced.” Freystaetter of Roget's deposition, however, can be replied: "Not only did I see them, but I explained by his undoubted realization assert that Colonel Maurel had them in that he and his brother generals are his hands. And, what is more, I assert quite as much on trial as is Dreyfus. The that he made a commentary on each docu- testimony of the Generals must needs be ment as it passed through his hands." received by the members of the court with Maurel haltingly replied that he did due deference. All of those members are not remember, and refused to say more. graduates of the Military Polytechnic Freystaetter added that he had written School, and from their early youth their Maurel a letter recalling the scene at respect for military convention and tradithe secret sessions of the court martial of tional discipline is nothing less than relig1894, and announcing his intention of ious. The Generals occupy a higher telling the truth, as he was now doing. military rank than the judges, and overawe Maurel acknowledged this with a nod, but them. Hence the judges are constantly still refused to say anything more. The subject to an illegitimate army pressure. admission of prevarication on the part of There are seven members in the court. the President of the court martial of 1894 According to law a court martial has a Colmade the Freystaetter testimony of ex- onel as its President when the prisoner is tremest pertinence, a pertinence increased a Captain, and two members are of the when the witness confronted General same rank as the accused. It is not Mercier. The former had said that a necessary that the verdict be unanimous. despatch from a foreign attaché, reporting Hardly any legal evidence against Dreyfus the arrest of Dreyfus, had been com- has been adduced bearing upon the real municated to the judges of the 1894 court question before the court; indeed, Lord martial, and that this despatch was a Russell, Chief Justice of England, is forgery. It was an erroneous translation quoted as saying that there has been no of the Panizzardi despatch, and those testimony in support of the charge against who communicated it knew it to be erro- Dreyfus that would warrant an English neous, for at that date they possessed a magistrate in holding him for a regular correct translation. As no contradiction trial. The one specific question is : Did had been offered to Freystaetter's state- Dreyfus communicate to a foreign government, and as Mercier had previously testi- ment the facts mentioned in the bordereau ? fied to having given an order that the tele- The Court of Cassation, the Supreme gram should not be communicated, and, Court of France, has already established further, that his order had been carried the fact that the conviction of Dreyfus out, Maître Labori asked the President of in 1894 was illegal. It has directed the the court to demand an explanation from present court martial to obtain evidence Mercier. The latter denied Freystaetter's bearing on the question before it, but for declaration that the Panizzardi despatch three weeks the court martial has heard was in the dossier, shouting, “ It's a lie,” evidence bearing upon the entire subject. possibly forgetting that Freystaetter's evi- Perhaps this implied disdain of the Court dence had been admitted by Colonel of Cassation results partly from the reMaurel. To this Freystaetter replied: peated demand of the Dreyfusards to "I swear that what I have said is true. probe the justice of their cause to the And I remember not merely the despatch, bottom, but more likely it is due to the but I have a vivid recollection of the fact vanity and obstinacy, if not terror, of the that the first words were, · Dreyfus is guilty creatures of the General Staff. The arrested. Emissary warned.'

reiteration of hearsay or presumption from them is not evidence, and the only evi

dence, except that mentioned in our first The Court Regarding the probable verdict paragraph, worth considering has been

on Dreyfus, an impression has that contained in the received renderings of gained ground that the judges are preju- the Schneider and Panizzardi despatches. diced against him. This would not be Both of these renderings are now shown unnatural-indeed, the testimony of Gen- to be forgeries. Indeed, the Schneider

Roget, for instance, made a visibly despatch was the eleventh forged docu

ment which the prosecution has produced not want another Ireland. It is merely comas evidence.

mon political justice that the Government is determined to obtain.

On Saturday of last week Mr. ChamberLast week a Blue Book lain, addressing an audience at Highbury, The Transvaal

relating to the proposed said : Transvaal reforms was published by the

The knot must be loosened or we will have British Government. It opens with a

to find other ways of untying it. If we are

forced to that, then we will not hold ourselves despatch from Sir Alfred Milner suggest- limited by what we have already offered, but, ing arbitration of the varying interpreta- having taken the matter in hand, we will not tions of the Anglo-Dutch Conventions of let go until we have secured the conditions 1881 and 1884. Sir Alfred, though reit

which establish our paramount power in South erating his favorable opinion as to limited equal rights and privileges promised by Pres

Africa and secure to our fellow-subjects the arbitration in certain circumstances after ident Kruger. the Outlanders' grievances had been redressed, declares that the scheme of reform put forth by the Transvaal Gov.

The German Emperor and

The Prussian ernment is absolutely unacceptable. On Cabinet Crisis King of Prussia has deJuly 1 Mr. Chamberlain, the British

clined to receive the resignaColonial Secretary, cabled that the Gov- tion of the Prussian Cabinet, which was ernment would not accept the Transvaal due to the Prussian Landtag's adverse proposal, but toward the end of the vote to the Government on the two Canal month proposed an inquiry into the new bills, which had been introduced into that Transvaal reformed franchise law. In body as coming from the Emperor himthis proposal he declared that under no self. A change of Cabinet, however, circumstances would the British Govern- would hardly mark the importance of ment admit the intervention of a foreign that adverse vote much more clearly; no power regarding the interpretation of the Prussian needs such an event to emphasize Conventions. He added that, if the Trans- the fact that, for the first time since the vaal would agree to the exclusion of the Franco-German war, the Agrarian Conforeign element, he was willing to consider servatives, generally fervent supporters of how and by what methods such a question the monarchy, have openly defied a manof interpretation could be decided by date of their sovereign. For the moment some judicial authority, the independence the Socialists have joined hands with the and partiality of which would be beyond Agrarians “in upholding the principles of suspicion. On the last day of July Mr. constitutional right.” It is not impossible Chamberlain invited President Kruger to that the Emperor may dissolve the Diet, appoint delegates to inquire into the fran- but he must know that such an event chise law, adding that, if an inquiry took might bring about the encountering by his place, the British delegates would be in Government of a considerably increased structed to press for an early report. Sir opposition, the Agrarians, or Junkers, Alfred Milner also informed President hitherto having been invariably on his Kruger that, while the inquiry must be side. Germans who are not Prussians confined to the political representation of are taking a special interest in the matter the Outlanders, he, as British Commis- because of the fact that the Prussian Prime sioner, was prepared to discuss, not only Minister, Prince von Hohenlohe, is also the franchise, but also other matters. In the Imperial German Chancellor. It is support of Mr. Chamberlain's policy, as rumored that Prince von Hohenlohe wishes disclosed by the Blue Book, the London to resign both offices if his resignation of papers are practically unanimous. The one be accepted. His services to Ger“ Standard " voices the general opinion: many during the term of his Chancel

Nobody in England wants war, and the lorship, since 1894, have been not inconGovernment is doing all it can to avoid a rup- siderable, and there is a natural dread ture. Still less do we want the Transvaal among Germans at making further changes itself

. Apart from its gold reefs its territory in the personnel of the Government during is almost worthless. Its mines will probably the reign of the present Emperor. Neverbe exhausted in half a century. We do not desire the Boers as fellow-subjects. We do theless, his subjects have been getting

The Situation

accustomed to many and rapid changes- islands sympathizes with the insurgents; a contrast to the order of things during only those natives whose immediate selfpreceding reigns.

interest requires ir are friendly to us. The insurgent army is in no way ready to give

in, and its policy of retreating is the one An obviously necessary best adapted to the accomplishment of its in the Philippines preliminary to a decision

preliminary to a decision ends.” Mr. Bass makes many criticisms as to what should be

on the equipment of the army, and states our future course in the Philippines is a that there were five thousand men in the full understanding of the actual situation general hospital when he writes—sixteen there. A very clear statement on this per cent. of the whole army—a large part point has just been made by the special of whom are broken down by over-exercorrespondent of “Harper's Weekly,"

· Harper's Weekly," tion made necessary by bad planning. Mr. John F. Bass. Mr. Bass has military He asserts that the real figures as to as well as newspaper experience, and the numbers of men in hospital have favors the energetic pushing of the mili- been suppressed. He holds, in common tary campaign to an end. Of General with the opinions expressed by General Otis, Mr. Bass writes that he is “the King and other experienced officers, that impersonation of industry," that he di- one hundred thousand men are needed to rects the minutest details, approves the carry out a systematic plan for occupying smallest bills, forms personally the plans the territory. This correspondent is most for everything done. This indefatigable strongly impressed with the belief that the industry, however, the correspondent im- plans and methods adopted for crushing plies, is a source of weakness, for General the enemy have varied frequently, and Otis works in an office, has never been urges the adoption of a definite and conout on the lines, has never seen a fight or tinuous plan. He says unreservedly that a skirmish, and other officers assert that " the American outlook is blacker now it is impossible for the general-in-chief (June 12] than it has been since the beginunder these conditions to make intelligent ning of the war.” We give these criticisms, plans. Mr. Bass then states the limits of not as final or as being necessarily corour military lines. Although he writes in rect in every particular, but as embodying June, and the subsequent advances to the observations of one of the best corAngeles on the north and to Imus on the respondents on the spot, and as a contrisouth have increased the extent of our bution toward the complete understanding lines, the difference is not a very material of the situation, which, as we have said,

He points out that on last Decora- is the prime requisite to the forming of an tion Day the insurgents were still within intelligent policy for the future. three miles of the city on the south, and that the graves of American soldiers buried near Camp Dewey could not be

An equally grave view is decorated because the ground was held

taken in a letter from the by the insurgents ; that we control only a

Manila correspondent of the New York small part of Laguna de Bay, and that “ Tribune”-a letter which has been for"out of one hundred and twenty-three warded through San Francisco by mail, miles of railroad from Manila to Dagupan, evidently to avoid the censor's superwe hold only thirty-nine miles, or less

vision. As the New York " Tribune than one-third” (to this must now be certainly cannot be suspected of antiadded a few miles reaching to Angeles); expansion tendencies, the letter has the that the land along the railroad and at its

more weight. This correspondent, writeast held by the insurgents is very fertile, ing under date of July 22, says: and furnishes supplies to their army in

In Manila talk of the ending of the war abundance; that no effort has been made

deals no longer with weeks, but with months to land troops at Dagupan to attack the and even years. Among the mass of people insurgents along the railroad upon two here, military men and foreign residents, there sides, as Mr. Bass thinks could be done.

is only one opinion. The whole effort of the He states positively and without qualifica insurgents for three months was to hold off

the Americans until their ally, the rains, came. tion that “the whole population of the In this they have been as successful as they


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