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that writers on the Bible are either to be hortatory commentators upon it or to write into it their own imaginings; but they are so to interpret its inner and spiritual meaning that this meaning can be applied to the life of to day. We do not know of any modern interpreter who has done this more successfully than Professor Genung in his interpretation of the Book of Job and the Book of Ecclesiastes. Our point of view of the wisdom literature would be somewhat different from Professor Genung's. He says that it is what in our nomenclature would be called philosophy." We would say that this analogue in our time would be that type of religious thought and life which is known by the phrase ethical culture. It is that phase of religion which is based, not upon visionary nor upon purely intellectual processes, but upon the experience of life. It is a noteworthy fact that all three types-the prophetic, the philosophical, and the empirical are interpreted by the Bible. For the study of this last type the reader will find much of value in Professor Genung's book, and he will find it presented in a thoroughly readable and interesting form.

History of the Reformation

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As we observed in speaking, a year ago, of the first volume of this work,' it brings forth new information for many who regard themselves as sufficiently familiar with the subject. Comparing the table of contents with that of a former standard work, such as Professor Fisher's in 1873, this appears at a glance. Two pages then sufficed for the remarkable movement historically termed "Anabaptism." Further investigation shows it to be, as Principal Lindsay says, a very complicated affair," rapidly spreading over Europe, and securing an enormously larger number of adherents than had been imagined." The story of their struggle amidst fierce persecution to reproduce the primitive freedom and simplicity of Christianity is of deep interest to all moderns who oppose clericalism and State establishments of religion. The fanatical excesses into which some Anabaptists were carried, especially in the oft-told episode of Munster, are not passed over, but the unjust reproach which such incidents have long left resting upon the whole movement is now at length removed. The Socinian movement also receives a discriminating criticism, discovering points of likeness to and of difference from the modern Unitarian school of thought, often inaccurately termed Socinian. The volume covers the Reformation period in Europe

1 A History of the Reformation. By Thomas M. Lindsay, D.D., LL.D. (International Theological Library. Edited by Charles A. Briggs, D.D.) Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $2.50, net.

outside of Germany, and concludes with the counter Reformation in Roman Catholicism that reached its limit in the Council of Trent. It is the beginnings of the several movements in that memorable period to which, as less known but deserving attention, Dr. Lindsay, with contemporary sources of information at hand, has given comparatively large space.



in the Church

This book might be entitled, as it is, "Freedom in the Church," and regarded as a plea for liberty of interpretation of the Creed in all Protestant Churches, but pre-eminently in the Episcopal Church, or as a History of the Apostles' Creed and its various interpretations, or as a monograph on the doctrine of the Virgin Birth, or as a history of the doctrine of the Incarnation. The first aspect the author evidently regards as pre-eminent, the other subsidiary. He takes up the ordination vows of the Episcopal clergyman and shows that his pledge "to minister the Doctrine and the Sacraments and the Discipline of Christ as the Lord hath commanded and as this Church hath received the same, according to the commandments of God," is not to be interpreted as a pledge to interpret the Creed according to any established tradition, since every clause in the Creed has received in the Church at different times different interpretations. "Maker of heaven and earth" no longer means that God created something out of nothing. "He descended into hell" has a different interpretation by Pearson from that of the early fathers. "He ascended into heaven " no longer means that Christ went upwards before the eyes of his disciples, taking with him his body-flesh and bones. "He shall come to judge the quick and the dead" is understood by some to mean, he shall return again at the end of the world when the judgment shall begin, by others that he comes perpetually in every movement which furthers the growth of his kingdom, and the judgment is continuous and culminating. The phrase, "born of the Virgin Mary," primarily signified not so much a virgin birth as a human birth, and "conceived by the Holy Ghost," whatever its mystical meaning, was not interpreted by Augustine as it has been by some disputants in recent discussions, for Augustine affirms that "it is clear beyond a doubt that He [Jesus] was not born of the Holy Spirit as His Father, in the same sense that He was born of the Virgin as his Mother." The pledge of the Episcopal clergyman "to minister the Doctrine as this Church hath received the same, does not mean as it hath

Freedom in the Church. By Alexander V. G. Allen, The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.50.


received it from tradition, thus identifying the Reformed Church with the Church of the past; but the doctrine as set forth in the Articles of Religion, whose object at every turn is to protest against the errors involved in the commandments of men, which Rome had added to the Christian faith." In other words, the priest pledges himself to teach the Creed in that spirit of liberty which

makes the tradition of the Church always subject to re-examination and retesting by the commandments of God as they are found in the Scripture. We do not need to say to our readers that this view of the obligation of the Episcopal priesthood is the one which The Outlook has strenuously maintained. Professor Allen supports it by a wealth of scholarship which makes it clear that it is no new doctrine devised for the convenience of liberal ministers in our time, but is the doctrine which the Church has inherited from the time of Cranmer and the English Reformation.

Whether this journal' of a Prisoners in Russian prisoner's wife in Japan Japan, published under the striking title "As The Hague Ordains," is an actual record of daily events as they occurred in Matsuyama or not, it holds a tremendous human interest. The Princess Sophia hurried from Petersburg to Japan, across America, to be at the side of her husband, taken prisoner in Manchuria. She writes with wit and a delightfully feminine abandon, showing her prejudices openly and yet filled with a just spirit, far beyond that of the Russian prisoners with whom she talks and to whom she is allowed to minister as a nurse in hospital. The revelations she makes in regard to the "prearrangements" of the Japanese in battle, hospital, and care for prisoners only confirm the fine reports we had during the war. Of mixed English and Russian parentage, the Princess is open to argument, and when the argument is backed up by facts she yields very gracefully. She is courteously treated by the Japanese officials, and spends a year or more waiting on her wounded husband, to be released in the end through the astounding peace procured by "that terrible American President, Il Strenuoso." "Never more will a peace conference go to America," she writes; "the Americans are too literal. A peace conference is for the purpose of making peace, they argue; therefore, Make peace! Quick! At once! Immediately! Oh! sooner than that, even, if the Roosevelt happens to be ruling." "Another day's delay,"

As The Hague Ordains: Journal of a Russian Prisoner's Wife in Japan. Henry Holt & Co., New York. $1.50, net. Postage, 12c.

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says Vladimir, her husband, "and I believe that American President capable of bursting into the council-room, knocking their heads together, and holding them by their throats until they signed a treaty of peace.”

The Winning of the West

For the use especially of

young students of American history, books of remneering westward to the Pacific are worth iniscence describing our forefathers' pio

more than the studied accounts written at arm's length by present-day historians. There is always an appreciative audience waiting for the autobiographic description, albeit in homely phrase, of the adventures, privations, and final success of those who early journeyed to the Pacific slope in the faith that it would produce what it has. Only by such contemporary accounts may we understand by what fiber of grit and pluck our country has been made. Among pioneers' reminiscences Mr. Meeker's' deserve prominent place. When twenty-two years old he trekked across the plains and over the mountains from the Missouri to

Puget Sound. Fitly to celebrate that undertaking, he has now, at the age of seventy-six, returned in the same way. While abundantly discursive, his books should be of vivid interest to old and young alike.

A Modern View

The aim of this little book? is so admirable and the of the Bible spirit is so praiseworthy that we regret to speak of it in criticism rather than in commendation. But it appears to us to be inadequate in its treatment of a theme where inadequacy is tantamount to error. It rightly discards the old idea of an infallible book on which the world is de pendent for all its knowledge of God and of the spiritual life. But in doing so it puts too light an estimate on the Old Testament. The historic fact remains that this collection of sacred literature is the product of the most religious of the ancient nations, and contains what is still a true expression of the deepest spiritual life of the most spiritual of modern men and women. Whittier has supplemented but not supplanted the Psalms; Phillips Brooks is not a substitute for Isaiah; there is no modern summary of social righteousness which for terseness, clearness, and compactness is comparable to the Ten Commandments; and neither Thomas Jefferson,

1 Pioneer Reminiscences of Puget Sound. The Tragedy of Leschi. By Ezra Meeker. Lowman & Hanford, Seattle, Washington. $1.

The Ox-Team, 1852-1906. By Ezra Meeker, Published by the Author, 118 N. Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 50c. Postage, 9c.

The Religious Value of the Old Testament in the Light of Modern Scholarship. By Ambrose White Vernon, Professor of Biblical Literature in Dartmouth College. T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York.


Jeremy Bentham, nor any of the leaders of the Red Host has suggested a scheme of political order that makes the ideal of the Hebrew Commonwealth antiquated. Mr. Vernon gives very effectively some religious values in the Old Testament; but he fails to make clear the religious value of the Old Testament, which is inherent in and is developed out of its teaching that Jehovah is a righteous God, that he demands righteousness of his children, and that he demands nothing else a doctrine as old in Hebrew history as the Book of the Covenant, which, despite Mr. Vernon's assumption to the contrary, we think to be quite the oldest book in the Old Testament, at least four centuries older than the prophets. The teaching of the Old Testament that God requires nothing but righteousness of his children, and the further teaching that man is made in the image of God and shares his divine life, and so can be holy as God is holy, with the corollaries which grow out of that teaching-political, sociological, and I individual-is still far in advance of most of the religious teaching of our times even in Christian churches and Christian literature.

Amerigo Vespucci

Mr. Ober's series of brief biographies of the discoverers and early explorers of America now in cludes a life of the voyager after whom, by a singular freak of fortune, the New World was named. Like all the other books of this series, it is written in a pleasing vein, and brings out in an effective way the romance, tragedy, and daring of the achievements of Amerigo Vespucci and those other bold mariners who in the long-gone fifteenth century ventured so bravely into unknown seas. For several reasons, however, it is less satisfactory than its predecessors. Far too much prominence is given to secondary figures, thereby hindering the clear-cut development of the hero's personality, concerning which at best very little information is obtainable. There is also too liberal a piecing-out of the narrative by quotations from earlier biographers, as well as from Vespucci's own writings. And, what is most regrettable, Mr. Ober has paid scanty attention to the results of recent investigations which have brought to light a number of new and important facts with respect to Vespucci and the men with whom he had relations. In the matter of the

Toscanelli correspondence, for example, he proceeds throughout on the assumption that its authenticity has been placed beyond question, whereas the very reverse is the case. Accordingly, although the work contains much really substantial information, it is im1Amerigo Vespucci. By Frederick A. Ober. Harper & Brothers, New York. $1.50, net.

possible to recommend it as a product of sound scholarship.

A Great Expository preaching is always attractive when well done, and Expositor is an art that many covet. As a master of this art Dr. Maclaren is widely esteemed. The thirty volumes' in which his life-work in this line is now being made available to the Christian world, while not a commentary on the entire Bible, contain an anthology of the passages best suited for homiletic treatment in the expository method. Thirty-six passages from Exodus against eleven from Leviticus indicate this selective principle of the work. The Scripture is used uncritically in the traditional way; eg., the story of Nadab and Abihu, slain by fire from heaven for infraction of ceremonial law, is represented as a divine judgment; the angel who encountered Joshua as the pre-existent Christ; Elijah's ascension to heaven in a chariot of fire as historical, and the corporeal return of Christ to earth as assured. But Dr. Maclaren is always intent on spiritual truths, felicitous in drawing instructive modern parallels to ancient experiences, ingenious in making unpromising sentences yield fruitful lessons, and putting fresh point into trite texts. The six volumes of the present issue form the second series of the five, which are sold only in series of six each.

Moslem 'Womanhood

One verse in the Koran, in which women are forbidden to appear unveiled before any man except certain relatives, is responsible for a condition which "lies at the root of all the most important features that differentiate progress from stagnation." In this book,2 edited by Annie Van Sommer and Samuel M. Zwemer, is collected a mass of testimony and undoubted facts that merely lift the edge of the sad truth as to the lives of women in

Mohammedan communities. It would be quite impossible to speak plainly of such conditions as exist, and are known by those who visit the zenanas, harems, and seraglios of the Orient. One point made in this book is not perfectly recognized even by those of us who read about the Moslems. The universality and ease of divorce, the absolute freedom of the husband, and the utter helplessness of the wife, are revelations to many. A mere sentence, repeated three times, is irrevocable, and the wife is cast out to a life of sorrow, shame, and poverty very often.

1 Expositions of Holy Scripture. Second Series. By Alexander Maclaren, D.D., Lit.D.Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and First Book of Samuel. Second Book of Samuel and the First Book of Kings. St. Mark, 2 vols. Acts of the Apostles, 1st vol. A. C. Armstrong & Son, New York. $7.50, net. 2 Our Moslem Sisters. Edited by Annie Van Sommer and Samuel M. Zwemer. The Fleming H. Revell Company, New York. $1.25, net.

In Persia a sad-faced drudge told the writer, "I am the twenty-fifth wife; some are divorced, some are dead; to-morrow it may be my turn to go." Polygamy is prevalent among the rich, but the poor man can support only one wife at a time, so divorce is his refuge. The best men seem ashamed of the practice, and say that it is forbidden by the Koran, explaining that Mohammed was allowed peculiar privileges. No one can read the sad story of darkness and wrong without recognizing a duty toward the women of the East. Woman's medical work is especially effective, removing prejudice and opening doors. Egypt, all Africa, Palestine, Turkey, Bulgaria, Persia, India, Java, and all Malaysia are darkened by this unholy revelation to Mohammed.

The Last Half of the Civil War

The pleasing features which characterized Dr. James K. Hosmer's previous contribution to the "American Nation serial History of the United States are again in evidence in the present volume,' in which he carries the story of the Civil War from Chickamauga to Appomattox. As before, he enables the student to follow readily and intelligently the intricacies of the successive and simultaneous campaigns and battles, his treatment is scrupulously fair, and his narrative graphic and attractive, developing with no small skill the increasing impressiveness and tragedy of the colossal struggle. As before, too, due regard is had to the consideration of the contrasting social and economic conditions of the war-time North and South, and to the non-military factors that played a part in determining the conflict. A brief discussion of the "arbitrary arrests opens the volume, Dr. Hosmer being evidently very much of Dr. Rhodes's opinion with respect to the course pursued by Lincoln in dealing with the "copperheads." A survey of the financial measures of the war follows, and the current of military events is then renewed with a study of the Chickamauga campaign, so treated that the non military reader will find no difficulty in grasping the significance of its various phases and the tactics to which they gave rise. This may also be said of the remaining chapters of a purely military nature, treating in turn the varying vicissi tudes of the Chattanooga struggle, the Virginia campaign of '64, Sherman's Atlanta campaign and his march to the sea, and the final stages that culminated at Appomattox. Over these, however, as over Appomattox itself, Dr. Hosmer seems to us to have passed rather hurriedly; and his treatment of the

1 The American Nation. Edited by Albert Bushnell Hart. Vol. XXI. Outcome of the Civil War. By James K. Hosmer, LL.D. Harper & Brothers, New York. $2, net.

assassination of Lincoln is distinctly inade quate. On the other hand, there is much that might be singled out for exceptionally warm praise—as, for example, his two chapters on the spirit of the North and the spirit of the South at the beginning of the last year of the war, and his discussion of " military severities."

Powers of the American People

This book 'is remarkable as a curiosity in literature. It is written by a Japanese scholar, a doctor of laws, a lecturer of the Law School of the University of Indiana, and said in the title-page to be the first Japanese attorney ever admitted to an American Bar. As an interpretation of the American Constitution by a foreign observer it is interesting, but it has also other value. While there are some imperfections in the style, and while for the general reader the book would be more valuable if it had undergone revision by an English scholar, it is a remarkably clear and comprehensive statement of the fundamental principles of our American Constitution, and might well be commended to the lay reader who desires to obtain a non-partisan impression and scholarly view of the nature of our Government and the functions of its various departments.

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1 Powers of the American People, Congress, President and Courts, according to Evolution of Constitutional Construction, by Masuji Miyakawa. The Wilkins-Sheiry Company, Washington, D. C. $3, net.

2 Actes du Troisième Congrès International du Christianisme Libéral et Progressif. Publiés par les Soins du Professor Edouard Montet, President du Congrès. Georg & Cie, Geneva, Switzerland.

The Heroine of the Hudson, and Other Poems. By Lillian Rozell Messenger. The Hermitage Press, Richmond, Va.

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Volume 86

Number 7

NEW YORK, JUNE 15, 1907

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The subscription price of The Outlook is Three Dollars a year, payable in advance. Ten cents a copy; Postage is p epaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Caral - Zone, Cuba, and Mexico. For Canada $1.20 should be added for postage, and for all other countries in the Postal Union $1 56 should be added for postage. Change of address: When a change of address is ordered, both the new and the old address must be given. The notice should be sent one week before the change is to take effect.. Orders and instructions for advertising must be received eight days before the Sa urday on which it is intended the advertisement shall appear. Copyright, 197. by the Outlook Company. Entered as second-class matter in the New York Post-Office.

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A Professional Assassin

The testimony of Harry Orchard in the trial at Boisé of William D. Havwood, Secretary of the Western Federation of Miners, who is charged with the murder of ex-Governor Steunenberg, furnishes probably the most remarkable story of murder and assassination to which an American jury has ever been called upon to listen. It appears almost beyond belief that in this age and country conditions such as were described =by the witness could exist. That men who occupied positions of leadership among their fellows, and enjoyed the confidence and respect of a large number of law-abiding American workingmen, could surround themselves with a band of assassins paid to kill those who opposed their rule seems incredible. Yet that is what the officers of the Western Federation of Miners have done for years, if we are to believe this witness,

Price $3 a year 10 cents a copy

who admits that he was himself one of the hired murderers. With every appearance of exactness and truthfulness, and in the most cold-blooded and callous way, Orchard told of trafficking in human life at a stipulated price for each victim. Nineteen human lives were destroyed by his own hands, according to his admissions on the witness-stand, and he asserted that he was but one of a number who were engaged in the same villainous work. The summary below of Orchard's testimony last week comes to The Outlook by telegraph despatch from its special correspondent at Boisé, Mr. Luke Grant, who at a later date will describe this exceedingly dramatic and immensely significant trial in special articles in The Outlook, the readers of which will remember Mr. Grant's article entitled "The Moyer-Haywood Trial" in the issue for April 6 last; it may be added that a re-reading of this article will be found informative by all who wish to understand the origin of these cases and the history of the labor war in Colorado and Idaho, out of which these acts of violence grew.


Orchard's hands pulled the Orchard's wire which fired the fatal Testimony explosion under the railway station at Independence, which resulted in the death of fourteen men. It was he who hurled the bomb in the shaft of the Vindicator mine which killed two men.

In cold blood he shot down a detective in Denver, on the street, after dogging his victim for two miles. He planted a bomb in a vacant lot for Justice Gabbert, but missed his intended victim, and killed another whose life he did not seek. In relating the story of that murder, Orchard said that the defendant Haywood made the remark: "It is too bad you missed Gabbert and killed an innocent man." Pettibone,

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