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that writers on the Bible are either to be outside of Germany, and concludes with the hortatory commentators upon it or to write counter Reformation in Roman Catholicism into it their own imaginings; but they are so that reached its limit in the Council of Trent. to interpret its inner and spiritual meaning It is the beginnings of the several movethat this meaning can be applied to the life ments in that memorable period to which, as of to day. We do not know of any modern less known but deserving attention, Dr. interpreter who has done this more success- Lindsay, with contemporary sources of infully than Professor Genung in his interpre- formation at hand, has given comparatively tation of the Book of Job and the Book of large space. Ecclesiastes. Our point of view of the wis

This book might be entitled,

Freedom dom literature would be somewhat different

in the Church

as it is, “Freedom in the from Professor Genung's. He says that it

Church,” land regarded as a is "what in our nomenclature would be plea for liberty of interpretation of the Creed called philosophy.” We would say that this in all Protestant Churches, but pre-eminently analogue in our time would be that type of

in the Episcopal Church, or as a History of religious thought and life which is known by

the Apostles' Creed and its various interprethe phrase ethical culture. It is that phase tations, or as a monograph on the doctrine of religion which is based, not upon visionary

of the Virgin Birth, or as a history of the nor upon purely intellectual processes, but doctrine of the Incarnation. The first aspect upon the experience of life. It is a note

the author evidently regards as pre-eminent, worthy fact that all three types—the pro- the other subsidiary. He takes up the ordiphetic, the philosophical, and the empirical- nation vows of the Episcopal clergyman and are interpreted by the Bible. For the study

shows that his pledge "to minister the Doc. of this last type the reader will find much of trine and the Sacraments and the Discipline value in Professor Genung's book, and he of Christ as the Lord hath commanded and will find it presented in a thoroughly readable as this Church hath received the same, and interesting form.

according to the commandments of God,” is As we observed in speaking, not to be interpreted as a pledge to interpret History of the

a year ago, of the first vol- the Creed according to any established traReformation

ume of this work,' it brings dition, since every clause in the Creed has forth new information for many who regard received in the Church at different times themselves as sufficiently familiar with the different interpretations. “Maker of heaven subject. Comparing the table of contents and earth” no longer means that God created with that of a former standard work, such as something out of nothing. “He descended Professor Fisher's in 1873, this appears at a into hell” has a different interpretation by glance. Two pages then sufficed for the Pearson from that of the early fathers. “He remarkable movement historically termed ascended into heaven" no longer means that

Anabaptism.” Further investigation shows Christ went upwards before the eyes of his it to be, as Principal Lindsay says, "a very disciples, taking with him his body-flesh complicated affair," rapidly spreading over and bones. “He shall come to judge the Europe, and securing an enormously larger quick and the dead” is understood by some number of adherents than had been imag- to mean, he shall return again at the end of ined.” The story of their struggle amidst the world when the judgment shall begin, by fierce persecution to reproduce the primitive others that he comes perpetually in every freedom and simplicity of Christianity is oi movement which furthers the growth of his deep interest to all moderns who oppose kingdom, and the judgment is continuous clericalism and State establishments of relig- and culminating. The phrase," born of the ion. The fanatical excesses into which some Virgin Mary," primarily signified not so Anabaptists were carried, especially in the much a virgin birth as a human birth, and oft-told episode of Munster, are not passed “conceived by the Holy Ghost," whatever over, but the unjust reproach which such its mystical meaning, was not interpreted by incidents have long left resting upon the Augustine as it has been by some disputants whole movement is now at length removed. in recent discussions, for Augustine affirms The Socinian movement also receives a that “it is clear beyond a doubt that He discriminating criticism, discovering points (Jesus] was not born of the Holy Spirit as of likeness to and of difference from the His Father, in the same sense that He was modern Unitarian school of thought, often born of the Virgin as his Mother."

The inaccurately termed Socinian. The volume pledge of the Episcopal clergyman "to mincovers the Reformation period in Europe ister the Doctrine as this Church hath 1 A History of the Reformation. By Thomas M. Lindsay,

received the same, does not mean as it hath D.D., LL.D. (International Theological Library. Edited by Charles A. Briggs, D.D.) Charles Scribner's Sons, New 1 Freedom in the Church. By Alexander V. G. Allen, York. $2.50, net.

The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.50,

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received it from tradition, thus identifying says Vladimir, her husband, “and I believe the Reformed Church with the Church of that American President capable of bursting the past; but the doctrine as set forth in the into the council-room, knocking their heads Articles of Religion, whose object at every together, and holding them by their throats turn is to protest against the errors involved until they signed a treaty of peace." in the commandments of men, which Rome had added to the Christian faith.” In other The Winning of

For the use especially of words, the priest pledges himself to teach the West

young students of Amerithe Creed in that spirit of liberty which

can history, books of remmakes the tradition of the Church always

iniscence describing our forefathers' piosubject to re-examination and retesting by neering westward to the Pacific are worth

more than the studied accounts written at the commandments of God as they are found in the Scripture. We do not need to say to

arm's length by present-day historians. our readers that this view of the obligation

There is always an appreciative audience of the Episcopal priesthood is the one which

waiting for the autobiographic description, The Outlook has strenuously maintained. albeit in homely phrase, of the adventures, Professor Allen supports it by a wealth of privations, and final success of those who scholarship which makes it clear that it is no

early journeyed to the Pacific slope in the new doctrine devised for the convenience of

faith that it would produce what it has. liberal ministers in our time, but is the doc

Only by such contemporary accounts may trine which the Church has inherited from

we understand by what fiber of grit and the time of Cranmer and the English Refor: pluck our country has been made. Among mation.

pioneers' reminiscences Mr. Meeker's' de

serve prominent place. When twenty-two Whether this journal' of a Prisoners in

years old he trekked across the plains and Russian prisoner's wife in Japan

over the mountains from the Missouri to Japan, published under the

Puget Sound. Fitly to celebrate that understriking title “ As The Hague Ordains," is taking, he has now, at the age of seventy-six, an actual record of daily events as they returned in the same way. While abundantly occurred in Matsuyama or not, it holds a

discursive, his books should be of vivid intremendous human interest. The Princess

terest to old and young alike. Sophia hurried from Petersburg to Japan, across America, to be at the side of her

The aim of this little book?

A Modern View husband, taken prisoner in Manchuria. She

is so admirable and the

of the Bible writes with wit and a delightfully feminine

spirit is so praiseworthy abandon, showing her prejudices openly that we regret to speak of it in criticism and yet filled with a just spirit, far beyond rather than in commendation. But it appears that of the Russian prisoners with whom to us to be inadequate in its treatment of a she talks and to whom she is allowed to theme where inadequacy is tantamount to minister as a nurse in hospital. The revela

It rightly discards the old idea of an tions she makes in regard to the “pre- infallible book on which the world is dearrangements of the Japanese in battle, hos- pendent for all its knowledge of God and of pital, and care for prisoners only confirm the spiritual life. But in doing so it puts too the fine reports we had during the war. Of light an estimate on the Old Testament, mixed English and Russian parentage, the The historic fact remains that this collection Princess is open to argument, and when the of sacred literature is the product of the argument is backed up by facts she yields most religious of the ancient nations, and very gracefully. She is courteously treated contains what is still a true expression of the by the Japanese officials, and spends a year or deepest spiritual life of the most spiritual of more waiting on her wounded husband, to be

modern men and women. Whittier has supreleased in the end through the astounding plemented but not supplanted the Psalms; peace procured by “that terrible American Phillips Brooks is not a substitute for Isaiah; President, Il Strenuoso.“ Never more will there is no modern summary of social righta peace conference go to America,” she eousness which for terseness, clearness, and writes; “the Americans are too literal. A compactness is comparable to the Ten Compeace conference is for the purpose of mandments; and neither Thomas Jefferson, making peace, they argue ; therefore, Make

· Pioneer Reminiscences of Puget Sound. The Tragedy peace! Quick! At once! Immediately! Oh! of Leschi. By Ezra Meeker. Lowman & Hanford, Se

attle, Washington. $1. sooner than that, even, if the Roosevelt hap

The Ox-Team, 1852-1906. By Ezra Meeker. Published pens to be ruling.” " Another day's delay,”

by the Author, 118 N. Senate Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 50c. Postage, 9c.

- The Religious Value of the Old Testament in the Light 1 As The Hague Ordains : Journal of a Russian Prisoner's of Modern Scholarship. By Ambrose White Vernon, ProWife in Japan. Henry Holt & Co., New York. $1.50, net. fessor of Biblical Literature in Dartmouth College. T. Y. Postage, 12c.

Crowell & Co., New York.



Jeremy Bentham, nor any of the leaders of possible to recommend it as a product of the Red Host has suggested a scheme of sound scholarship. political order that makes the ideal of the

A Great Expository preaching is always Hebrew Commonwealth antiquated. Mr.

attractive when well done, and Vernon gives very effectively some religious


is an art that many covet. As values in the Old Testament; but he fails to a master of this art Dr. Maclaren is widely make clear the religious value of the Old esteemed. The thirty volumes'in which his Testament, which is inherent in and is devel- life-work in this line is now being made oped out of its teaching that Jehovah is a available to the Christian world, while not righteous God, that he demands righteous- a commentary on the entire Bible, contain an ness of his children, and that he demands anthology of the passages best suited for nothing else-a doctrine as old in Hebrew homiletic treatment in the expository method. history as the Book of the Covenant, which, Thirty-six passages from Exodus against despite Mr. Vernon's assumption to the eleven from Leviticus indicate this selective contrary, we think to be quite the oldest principle of the work. The Scripture is used book in the Old Testament, at least four uncritically in the traditional way; eg., the centuries older than the prophets. The story of Nadab and Abihu, slain by fire from teaching of the Old Testament that God heaven for infraction of ceremonial law, is requires nothing but righteousness of his represented as a divine judgment; the angel children, and the further teaching that man who encountered Joshua as the pre-existent is made in the image of God and shares his Christ; Elijah's ascension to heaven in a divine life, and so can be holy as God is chariot of fire as historical, and the corporeal holy, with the corollaries which grow out return of Christ to earth as assured. But of that teaching-political, sociological, and Dr. Maclaren is always intent on spiritual individual—is still far in advance of most of truths, felicitous in drawing instructive the religious teaching of our times even in modern parallels to ancient experiences, inChristian churches and Christian literature. genious in making unpromising sentences Amerigo Mr. Ober's series of brief biog- yield fruitful lessons, and putting fresh point

into trite texts. raphies of the discoverers and

The six volumes of the Vespucci

early explorers of America now in: present issue form the second series of the cludes a life of the voyager after whom, by a

five, which are sold only in series of six singular freak of fortune, the New World was

each. named. Like all the other books of this


One verse in the Koran, in series, it is written in a pleasing vein, and

which women are forbidden to

· Womanhood brings out in an effective way the romance,

appear unveiled before any tragedy, and daring of the achievements of man except certain relatives, is responsible Amerigo Vespucci and those other bold

for a condition which “lies at the root of all mariners who in the long-gone fifteenth cen

the most important features that differentiate tury ventured so bravely into unknown seas. progress from stagnation.” In this book, For several reasons, however, it is less satis

edited by Annie Van Sommer and Samuel factory than its predecessors. Far too much

M. Zwemer, is collected a mass of testimony prominence is given to secondary figures, and undoubted facts that merely lift the edge thereby hindering the clear-cut development

of the sad truth as to the lives of women in of the hero's personality, concerning which

Mohammedan communities. It would be at best very little information is obtainable. quite impossible to speak plainly of such There is also too liberal a piecing-out of the

conditions as exist, and are known by those narrative by quotations from earlier biogra- who visit the zenanas, harems, and seraglios phers, as well as from Vespucci's own writ

of the Orient. One point made in this book ings. And, what is most regrettable, Mr. Ober

is not perfectly recognized even by those of has paid scanty attention to the results of

us who read about the Moslems. The unirecent investigations which have brought to

versality and ease of divorce, the absolute light a number of new and important facts

freedom of the husband, and the utter helpwith respect to Vespucci and the men with

lessness of the wife, are revelations to many. whom he had relations. In the matter of the A mere sentence, repeated three times, is Toscanelli correspondence, for example, he

irrevocable, and the wife is cast out to a life proceeds throughout on the assumption that

of sorrow, shame, and poverty very often. its authenticity has been placed beyond ques- 1 Expositions of Holy Scripture. Second Series. By tion, whereas the very reverse is the case.

Alexander Maclaren, D.D., Lit.D. Exodus, Leviticus, and

Numbers. Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and First Accordingly, although the work contains much really substantial information, it is im

Book of Kings. St. Mark, 2 vols.
Ist vol. A. C. Armstrong & Sun, New York. $7.50, net.

2 Our Moslem Sisters. Edited by Annie Van Sommer and 1 Amerigo Vespucci. By Frederick A. Ober. Harper & Samuel M. Zwemer. The Fleming H. Revell Company, Brothers, New York. $1.50, net.

New York. $1.25, net.

Book of Samuel. Second Book of Samuel and the First

Acts of the Apostles, 1 Powers of the American People, Congress, President final stages that culminated at Appomattox. and Courts, according to Evolution of Constitutional ConOver these, however, as over Appomattox



In Persia a sad-faced drudge told the writer, assassination of Lincoln is distinctly inade“I am the twenty-fifth wife; some quate. On the other hand, there is much divorced, some are dead; to-morrow it may that might be singled out for exceptionally be my turn to go.” Polygamy is prevalent warm praise-as, for example, his two chapamong the rich, but the poor man can sup- ters on the spirit of the North and the spirit port only one wife at a time, so divorce is his of the South at the beginning of the last year refuge. The best men seem ashamed of the of the war, and his discussion of "military practice, and say that it is forbidden by the severities." Koran, explaining that Mohammed was

This book'is remarkable allowed peculiar privileges. No one can

Powers of the read the sad story of darkness and wrong

American People

as a curiosity in litera

ture. It is written by a without recognizing a duty toward the women

Japanese scholar, a doctor of laws, a lecturer of the East. Woman's medical work is of the Law School of the University of especially effective, removing prejudice and Indiana, and said in the title-page to be the opening doors. Egypt, all Africa, Palestine, first Japanese attorney ever admitted to an Turkey, Bulgaria, Persia, India, Java, and

American Bar. As an interpretation of the all Malaysia are darkened by this unholy. American Constitution by a foreign observer revelation to Mohammed.

it is interesting, but it has also other value. The The Last Half

pleasing features While there are some imperfections in the

which characterized Dr. style, and while for the general reader the of tre Civil War James K. Hosmer's pre

book would be more valuable if it had undervious contribution to the“ American Nation” gone revision by an English scholar, it is a serial History of the United States are again remarkably clear and comprehensive statein evidence in the present volume,' in which

ment of the fundamental principles of our he carries the story of the Civil War from

American Constitution, and might well be Chickamauga to Appomattox. As before, commended to the lay reader who desires he enables the student to follow readily and to obtain a non-partisan impression and intelligently the intricacies of the successive scholarly view of the nature of our Governand simultaneous campaigns and battles, his ment and the functions of its various departtreatment is scrupulously fair, and his narra- ments. tivegraphic and attractive, developing with no

The recent congress at Geneva,

Liberal small skill the increasing impressiveness and


Switzerland, of liberal and tragedy of the colossal struggle. As before,

progressive Christians has too, due regard is bad to the consideration of been fitly commemorated in a volume conthe contrasting social and economic condi- taining many of the addresses and 'sermons tions of the war-time North and South, and to delivered there ? by such men as the Rev.

: 2 the non-military factors that played a part in Drs. Samuel A. Eliot from this country and determining the conflict. A brief discussion Estlin Carpenter from England, Professor of the “ arbitrary arrests” opens the volume, Pfleiderer from Germany, Réville from Dr. Hosmer being evidently very much of France, Eerdmans from Holland, and MonDr. Rhodes's opinion with respect to the tet from Switzerland. Unfortunately, the course pursued by Lincoln in dealing with volume is printed in type too small for weak the “copperheads.” A survey of the finan- eyes. cial measures of the war follows, and the

The Heroine of

These poems 3 are the current of military events is then renewed

work of a nature lover, with a study of the Chickamauga campaign,

the Hudson

whose imaginative outso treated that the non military reader will pourings exhibit the defects as well as the find no difficulty in grasping the significance perfections of the source of her inspiration. of its various phases and the tactics to which

Pruning might make the wildwood more they gave rise. This may also be said of conventional, but then the charm of the forest the remaining chapters of a purely military tangle would be lost. “ Bird of the Lonely nature, treating in turn the varying vicissi. Lake,” Apostrophe to Niagara,” “ Mount tudes of the Chattanooga struggle, the Vir- of the Holy Cross," are titles that indicate ginia campaign of ’64, Sherman's Atlanta

the author's favorite themes. campaign and his march to the sea, and the

struction, by Masuji Miyakawa. The Wilkins-Sheiry Com

pany, Washington, DC $3, net. itself, Dr. Hosmer seems to us to have passed 2 Actes du Troisiéme Congrés International du Christian

isme Libéral et Progressif. Publiés par les Soins du Prorather hurriedly; and his treatment of the fessor Édouard Montet, President du Congrés. Georg &

Cie, Geneva, Switzerland. 1 The American Nation. Edited by Albert Bushnell Hart. 3 The Heroine of the Hudson, and Other Poems. By Vol. XXI. Outcome of the Civil War. By James K. Hos- Lillian Rozell Messenger. The Hermitage Prese, Richmer, LL.D. Harper & Brothers, New York: $2, net. mond, Va.


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... 328


NEW YORK, JUNE 15, 1907 Volume 86

Price $3 a year Vumber 7

10 cents a copy CONTENTS

who admits that he was himself one of 1 Professional Assassin. 303 Should Franchises be

the hired murderers. With every appearOrchard's Testimony.... 303 Capitalized ? A Plea for Industrial School-boy English ..... 314 ance of exactness and truthfulness, and Education

304 A Chapter of Experience 317 4 Political Siege..

in the most cold blooded and callous way, 305 The Spectator... 315 Pennsylvania Republic American Discontent Orchard told of trafficking in human

cin Convention..... 306 with Criminal Law. By The Louisville Election George W. Alger...... 321 life at a stipulated price for each victim. Case....

306 The Military System of Nineteen human lives were destroyed A New Anti-Lottery Vic- Germany. By Karl O. tory. 307 Bertling.

by his own hands, according to his Missouri Legislation.... 308 Seeing New York in a

admissions on the witness-stand, and The Recount Bill

310 Horse-Car. By Arthur A Great Railway Merger 310 B. Reeve....

331 he asserted that he was but one of a The Wine Crisis in Some Recent BiographiFrance.. 311 cal Studies.

335 number who were engaged in the same Irish Affairs.. 312 Comment Current

villainous work. The summary below The Hudson Celebration 313 Books....


of Orchard's testimony last week comes The subscription price of The Outlook is Three Dollars a year, payable in advance. Ten cents a copy,

to The Outlook by telegraph despatch Postage is p epaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in

the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, from its special correspondent at Boisé, Guam, Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Caral Zone, Cuba, and Mexico. For Canada $1.20 should be Mr. Luke Grant, who at a later date added for postage, and for all other countries in the Posta! Union $1 56 should be added for postage.

will describe this exceedingly dramatic Change of address. When a change of ad-fress is bordered and immensely significant trial in spe

new given. The notice should be sent one week before the change is to take effect.

cial articles in The Outlook, the readers Orders and instructions for advertising must be received eight days before the Sa urday on which it is intended the

of which will remember Mr. Grant's advertisement shall appear. Copyright, 19.7. by the Outlook Company. Entered as article entitled “The Moyer-Haywood second-class matter in the New York Post-Office.

Trial” in the issue for April 6 last; it THE OUTLOOK 287 Fourth Avenue, New York

may be added that a re-reading of this Chicago Office, 1436 Marquette Building

article will be found informative by all

who wish to understand the origin of The testimony of Harry these cases and the history of the labor A Professional

Orchard in the trial at war in Colorado and Idaho, out of which Assassin

Boisé of William D. Hav- these acts of violence grew. wood, Secretary of the Western Federation of Miners, who is charged with the murder of ex-Governor Steunenberg,

Orchard's hands pulled the

Orchard's furnishes probably the most remarkable

wire which fired the fatal

Testimony story of murder and assassination to

explosion under the railway which an American jury has ever been station at Independence, which resulted

called upon to listen. It appears almost in the death of fourteen men. - beyond belief that in this age and coun- he who hurled the bomb in the shaft of

try conditions such as were described the Vindicator mine which killed two by the witness could exist. That men men. In cold blood he shot down a who occupied positions of leadership detective in Denver, on the street, after

, among their fellows, and enjoyed the dogging his victim for two miles. He confidence and respect of a large num- planted a bomb in a vacant lot for Jusber of law-abiding American working- tice Gabbert, but missed his intended men, could surround themselves with a victim, and killed another whose life he band of assassins paid to kill those who did not seek. In relating the story of opposed their rule seems incredible. that murder, Orchard said that the deYet that is what the officers of the West- fendant Haywood made the remark: “It ern Federation of Miners have done for is too bad you missed Gabbert and years, if we are to believe this witness, killed an innocent man." Pettibone,


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