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It was

another of the defendants in the crim- in the mines; and that he tried to sell inal conspiracy, remarked that it was intelligence to the State authorities or the “ hard luck." The last chapter in mine-owners or both while he was, as he the career of this admitted assassin claims, the paid assassin of the unions. was the killing of ex-Governor Steunen- Other black spots in his career have burg by means of a bomb attached to been brought to light which have a his gate. Until that crime Orchard had tendency to discredit him as a witness. escaped arrest. All the time that his One thing is certain : the crimes he has criminal career lasted he lived, he says, described were committed in the manner on the funds of the organization and he has outlined, and he furnished a was in the confidence of the officers. mass of minute details that it would They complimented him when he suc- appear impossible to supply unless his ceeded in accomplishing his murderous story is true. The jury, which is sworn work, and they consoled him when he to weigh the evidence and do even justice failed. They urged him on, after set- between the State and the defendant, is ting out the work for him to do.

an intelligent and representative one. under the instructions of the officers of With one exception, the twelve men of the organization that he made three the jury are men over fifty years of age. attempts to assassinate ex-Governor Pea- Nine of them are American bom, two body, of Colorado. On each occasion were born in Scotland, and one in Canhis intended victim was saved by a ada. All are men who know what it mere chance. It was on the orders of means to meet obstacles and overcome Moyer, Haywood, and Pettibone that them. They have all been farmers in

. he watched the house of Sherman Bell, Idaho or other sections of the West, and in Denver, looking for an opportunity to have been described as of the class of emshoot him through a window. It was by pire-builders who have transformed the their direction that he planted a bomb arid desert with its wastes of sage-brush at Justice Goddard's gate, which was into fertile farms and blooming orchards. discovered before it accomplished its They know little of labor unions, and mission of death. They sent him from they do not believe in a class struggle. Denver to Idaho under orders to kill Haywood's counsel appear satisfied Governor Steunenberg, while Haywood with the jury, but pointed out that made the remark that if he succeeded, and out of between two and three hundred then went to Paterson, New Jersey, and men summoned for jury service only wrote a few letters to mine-owners calling three or four were labor union men. their attention to the murder and warn- There can hardly be a doubt that the ing them that their turn would come jury will return a verdict in accordance next, it would have a good effect. Hay- with the evidence, and those who are wood said that would be almost as good inclined to condemn one side or the as killing them, because then they would other in this trial may well await that be living in constant dread and would verdict before passing judgment. be afraid to oppose the union rule. All this was in substance the story told by Orchard on the witness-stand, but the

Unfortunately, the amount of credence to be given it is

A Strong Plea for

term “ industrial

Industrial Education something the jury has not yet deter

education” sug. mined. It has been shown on cross- gests to a large number of people in examination that the witness is a biga- : this country the idea that it is some mist; that he has been a hard drinker kind of a system for making lazy peoand an inveterate gambler all the time ple work, or for training those who are he has lived in the West; that he was poor in pocket and slow of brain to in the pay of detectives for a railway in do the “ menial” things of life so as to Colorado when he first met the defend- provide time in which the graduates of ants; that he first suggested the idea institutes of “higher education ” can do of blowing up the Vindicator mine; the thinking of the country. There is, that he was an ore thief while he worked

it is true, some ground for this misappre

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sion, because industrial education as by some form of definite action becomes s understood to-day in Germany has merely a form of amusement. Philoen most largely applied in this coun- sophical speculation, literary analysis, to those schools which are engaged art criticism, are important, but they are training men and women to become a means to, not an end of, education. ciently self-supporting in various Those teachers who are endeavoring to des, such as carpentry, steam-fitting, carry on, in conjunction with that bookcklaying, dressmaking, millinery, ma- learning which Matthew Arnold calls ne sewing, and the like. President knowing the best that has been said and osevelt, in his recent Western trip, thought in the world, the development de an address at the State Agricul- of skill in some sort of handicraft, are al College at Lansing, Michigan, a exerting an educational influence in the ge part of which was devoted to a country that is greatly needed. nsideration of the need in this country industrial education, and to a correcn of false notions about it. He made

Two men, young in years

A Political ht of the fear of pauper labor, against

and not old in political ex

Siege nose competition it is so often alleged

perience, have effected great at the American workingman needs transformations in their respective States. otection. What we have to fear, espe

One is Senator Everett Colby, of New ally when we contend for our share of Jersey; the other, Mr. Winston Churchill, e world's markets, " is the competition of New Hampshire. At a mass-meeting

the highly skilled workingman of in Newark, New Jersey, last week, both e countries of greatest industrial effi- these men were present. The occasion ency."

was marked by a spirit which we believe We have been fond, as a nation, of speak; this country. It is a spirit, not of mere

is increasing in influence and power in g of the dignity of labor. meaning thereby anual labor. Personally, I don't think that pride and party names, or ambition for e begin to understand what a high place public office, much less of desire for anual labor should take ; and it never can ke this high place unless it offers scope for personal gain, but rather an eagerness e best type of man. We have tended to

in the public service. Naturally, such a gard education as a matter of the head spirit does not display itself in any rapid ly, and the result is that a great many of organization. It is true that in New ar people, themselves the sons of men who orked with their hands, seem to think that Jersey there is the New Idea wing of the ey rise in the world if they get into a

Republican party, and in New Hamposition where they do no hard manual work shire there are the Lincoln Republicans ; hatever ; where their hands will grow soft but in neither State is there even the nd their working clothes will be kept clean. uch a conception is both false and mis

germ of a new party. There is what is hievous. There are, of course, kinds of

rather a new kind of political ambition. ubor where the work must be purely mental, It is this ambition which Mr. Colby nd there are other kinds of labor where expressed in these words : nder existing conditions, very little demand ndeed is made upon the mind, though I

What is more, we are not trying to make a m glad to say that I think the proportion of

killing in one grand-stand campaign, but men engaged in this kind of work is dimin

instead we are inaugurating a veritable siege shing. But in any healthy community, in

of reason that will ultimately starve the ny community with the great solid qualities thought, and thought means growth and the

bosses out of business, for reason means vhich alone make a really great nation, the ulk of the people should do work which

progress of ideas, and the political boss who nakes demands upon both the body and the

is made to feed on ideas soon gets bloodnind. Progress cannot permanently, con

poisoning and retires from the field. You sist in the abandonment of physical labor,

cannot kill a sound idea that is based on out in the development of physical labor so

reason and the right of the people to control that it shall represent more and more the

their own government. Let a sound idea work of the trained mind in the trained

once take root and it gathers unto itself all the elements of truth, as a plant gathers in

moisture from the air and licks it up from It is quite true that a boy must be the soil... trained to think well before he can act If Mr. Churchill's address was more pugwell

. But thinking that is not followed nacious than Mr. Colby's, it exhibited




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the same kind of spirit, for it from political activity. He did not culdirected, not against political opponents, tivate by his action the friendliness of but against those politicians and those the Republican machine. His nominacorporation managers who are indifferent tion now indicates that the days of the to the public interests. It is this spirit Quay ring are over. -Pennsylvania that makes the present reform movements is now among the States that have made likely to endure.

the bucket-shop illegal. As Boston and Philadelphia were the centers of activity

in this form of gambling, the action of The Republicans Massachusetts and Pennsylvania has Pennsylvania

assembled in State Republican Convention

had very great effect. Convention

last week in Pennsylvania recorded their approval of two men—one eminent in

A victory on behalf of

The Louisville the Nation, the other in the State. By

the freedom of the bal

Election Contest their indorsement of Senator Knox as a

lot was lately won in candidate for the Republican Presiden- Kentucky. The Court of Appeals of tial nomination, they brought before the that State has handed down a decision people of the Nation a name which has in a group of cases popularly known as been mentioned in connection with the the Louisville Election Contest, and has Presidency only in personal conversa- thus brought to an end a piece of litiga tions or in the newspapers. There is in tion unparalleled in the State. It decides this public indorsement unquestionably that the election in Louisville in Novem a genuine sentiment, not merely of ad- ber, 1905, involving the election of all mumiration for Senator Knox personally, nicipal officers and almost all the county but also of confidence in the principles officers, is void. The election was charfor which he has stood and the methods acterized by great violence and gross which he has followed while he has been frauds. The "City Club,” a non-partisan in public office. He appeals to men of organization joined with the Republican conservative cast of mind; but it is party, was defeated; the “machine noteworthy that the reason which the Election contests, begun within two Republicans gave for his indorsement weeks after the elections, were carried was the efficiency with which he had through the courts. Attorneys on becarried out what seems to many to be half of the contestants served without the radical policy of the President. remuneration. Citizens subscribed $35,They incorporated in the declarations 000 to help pay the cost of the litigation. of their platform these words concerning Chancellors of the Circuit Court heard Mr. Knox uttered by President Roose- testimony and arguments, and over sixvelt last October:

teen months after the election decided During the last few years the National

that the election was valid. The case Government has taken very strong strides in was at once appealed. Within a little the direction of exercising and securing ade- more than a month the Court of Appeals, quate control over the great corporations, composed of five Democrats and one Re. and it was under the leadership of one of the most honored public men in our country, publican, reversed the decision, decided one of Pennsylvania's most eminent sons- against the Democratic “machine," the present Senator and then Attorney- asserted that it was impossible to deterGeneral Knox—that the new departure was mine who was elected, and declared every begun.

office involved in the election to be vacant. The Convention also took notable action The positions made vacant are to be in nominating for the office of State filled by appointment; until these appointTreasurer Mr. John C. Sheatz, of Phila- ments are made the contestees will condelphia. Mr. Sheatz, when in the Legis- tinue to discharge the duties of the offices, lature, acted valiantly on behalf of the It was shown that polling-places had been Personal Registration Bill. His course raided, ballots had been burned, police for a time was so bravely solitary that bad refused protection, Republican offihe seemed well on his way to retirement cials had been repressed and supplanted



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by Democrats, and other outrages com- since dead and buried, has actually carmitted. With majorities on the face ried on business under another nameof the returns ranging from 4,000 to that of the Honduras Lottery Company6,000, the number of voters disfranchised all these years, illustrates the difficulty of numbered 6,292. At the same time the dealing radically with what The Outlook Court condemns certain unfair practices long ago characterized as a wideof certain of the Fusionists. The Court spread and corrupt form of gambling.” comments bitterly upon the action of the The victory won in the passage of the police in refusing to testify and taking Federal law in 1895 was indeed a great shelter under the law forbidding self- It was the outcome of a moral incrimination :

campaign of supreme importance waged Suppose a secret murder had been com- against a vicious power intrenched bemitted, and the police on that beat, when hind political and personal influences. asked about it, should say, “I decline to

Already Louisiana had, to its undying answer, for fear of incriminating myself.” This, under the rule invoked, would protect honor, rejected a proffered bribe of the witness from answering, but how long $31,000,000 for the renewal of the lottery would it justify his retention on the roll of charter, and the power of the lottery had police?

been restricted by stringent State legisYet, the Court points out, such police íation the country over. In 1877 Conhave been retained in their places by gress had forbidden the transportation their beneficiaries. The conspiracy to of lottery tickets and advertisements by steal the election, the Court says, is as mail; but this proved ineffective, as the plain as the conspiracy which was matter was shipped by express. The charged against King George and the new law prohibited absolutely the shipCouncil to rob the colonies of their rights. ment of lottery tickets and advertisements The Court adds :

from State to State by means of the No people can be said to govern them- express or any other agency.

The conselves whose elections are controlled by stitutionality of this provision was conforce, fraud, or fear. .. No people are tested in the courts, but was finally wholly civilized where a distinction is drawn between stealing an office and stealing a

established by a drastic decision of the purse.

Supreme Court. The fight in Congress The effect of the decision will be to

to secure this legislation was memorable

one, and our readers will recall the notaput heart into those everywhere who are fighting against the tyranny of political ble part taken by the late Senator Hoar, corruption.

of Massachusetts, by General George D. Johnston, of Louisiana, and by Dr.

Samuel H. Woodbridge, of the MassaTwelve years ago,

chusetts Institute of Technology; while A New Anti-Lottery

when the National. The Outlook inay be permitted to menVictory

anti-lottery law was tion also the special series of articles signed, The Outlook said: “ The long written for its columns by the late Charles fight for anti-lottery legislation, which B. Spahr, then a member of its staff, began in several States sixty years ago, who visited Louisiana under commission has now triumphed in every State in the from The Outlook to study the subject Union and in the National Government, thoroughly in all its bearings and to

: . The lottery is now an outlaw from carry on as well in its editorial columns one end to another of our country. ... an energetic war against what was reThe fight is finished, and we can press on

garded as a National evil of portentous to new conflicts with greater faith and proportions. courage.” But an editorial in one of the daily papers last week begins with these words : • The Federal Government has

But now it seems that the

The Mobile won another notable victory in its long


lottery evil was scotched campaign to stamp out the lottery evil.”

and not killed. Last week The fact that the Louisiana Lottery, no fewer than thirty defendants pleaded supposed by most people to be long guilty before a United States court in


To quote


Mobile to indictments charging con- object and intention, the case against spiracy to cause the inter-State carriage the directors, stockholders, and agents of lottery advertisements. As reported of the Honduras Lottery Company was in the press, they also agreed to surren- considered by the Government to be der to the Government for destruction complete. The fact that pleas of guilty a large quantity of lottery tickets, plates, were entered by those accused and the and other paraphernalia, and to sell out fines paid seem to show that they also a printing establishment in Wilmington, believed that they had no adequate Delaware, where for years the lottery defense. Thus a new, and what we tickets have been surreptitiously printed. may with considerable confidence hope The aggregate of fines imposed on these will prove to be a final, victory over the defendants amounted to $284,000; but lottery forces has been won. of far more importance than the fines the concise comment of the New York was the virtual admission that it was Tribune, the lottery is “opposed to impossible for such a gambling associa- good morals, and, like the race-track evil, tion longer to exist and do business in the breeds only indolence, degeneration, and United States. Some of the defendants crime. The Government's successful are men of social standing and promi- crusade against the lottery is a material nence, which adds to the disgracefulness gain for public decency and social prog. of their conduct. The story told of the subterfuge and trickery employed by the Honduras Lottery Company, the mana

The Legislature of

Missouri Legislation gers of which were the successors of the

Missouri, with the

An Unfair Law officers of the old Louisiana Lottery

formal executive Company, is a singular illustration of the approval of Governor Folk, has estabpersistence of lawbreakers when large lished a precedent of very doubtful profits are in sight. A private printing character through the enactment of a house was maintained with elaborate law requiring civic leagues and similar secrecy in Wilmington to prepare the organizations not only to file full statetickets and circulars; these were taken ments of their campaign contributions as personal baggage by messengers to and disbursements (to which no New York; thence in separate packages could take any reasonable exception), but to Washington ; and thence to various to publish the names of their informants cities throughout the country used as and the entire information upon which centers of operation. The officers and their recommendations to vote either agents of the company operated under for or against candidates may be based. ass'imed names and used a secret code. The bill likewise brings such organizaThe drawings were held at Puerto Cortez tions within the provisions of the libel in Honduras, and to this point every act, as applied to newspapers, and enmonth were taken the ex-Confederate deavors to make them as fully responsiofficers whose names were used as a ble for their utterances as newspapers. guarantee of good faith and who person- The bill is primarily aimed at the Kanally superintended the drawings. Lists sas City Civic League, which for some of the winning numbers were brought years past has exercised a wholesome back to this country by these persons, influence in that community through its were printed in Mobile, Alabama, and criticism of the records of public officials thence were sent to the State agencies and through its investigation of the through the country. To carry out this character and antecedents of candidates complicated machinery both State and for public office. If the State of MisNational laws were violated every day, souri is successful in putting such organiand as it has been held that it is a zations out of business, or of seriously violation of the National law not only curtailing their usefulness, we may look actually to transport lottery tickets and for a general effort throughout the councirculars from State to State, but also to try in the same direction, because civic do acts which would amount to a con- and voters' leagues are increasing in numspiracy having that transportation as its ber and efficiency, and are becoming


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