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This volume' presents a The Mystery of

and Diderot, the founders of the famous group of lectures by a dis- Encyclopædia ; Galiani, the mirthful Italian Hamlet

tinguished scholar, trans- wit; Vauvenargues, the short-lived aphorist; lated by Elizabeth Wilder, and prefaced by d'Holbach, the blatant atheist and model an introduction from that lifelong student of host; Grimm, the German journalist and Shakespeare, Professor William J. Rolfe. warmest friend of Diderot; the enigmatical The translator has made a selection from a Helvetius ; the statesmanlike Turgot; the body of lectures, and gives to the reader, not ubiquitous Beaumarchais; and Condorcet, the substance of the whole book, but such the luckless-a notable if not altogether parts of it as are necessary to the presenta praiseworthy company. Each is made the tion of the lecturer's theory of Hamlet subject of a biographical study, sympathetic,

. Readers of The Outlook are familiar with animated, rich in touches that bring the hero the leading interpretations of this profoundly and his times very near to the reader ; and, interesting and perplexing play, from the though no profound analysis of character is time of Goethe to that of Mr. Sidney Lee. made, and little attempt to measure the indiThe theory presented by Professor Werder vidual with relation to his influence on the may be briefly stated : The duty which the thought of his own day and of posterity, Ghost imposed upon Hamlet was not merely there is throughout a stimulating informathe killing of the King, but bringing him to tiveness that should lead to a lively desire justice, the killing being the objective form for closer acquaintance with all ten of the which justice must take on. The King, under Voltairean gentlefolk. Even in the least an elective monarchy, had a legal right to the successful of the studies—those of Vauve- . throne. It was necessary, therefore, that he

nargues, Turgot, and Beaumarchais—these should be shown as the murderer of his qualities are plainly discernible; and, apart brother, and seizer of the crown by a crime. from an occasional and sometimes pardonHamlet's aim, therefore, was to force the able lapse into extravagance of statement, King to a confession, and his whole course there is little to criticise in the rest. Espeof action was dictated by that purpose. It cially good are the portraits of d'Alembert, was not the throne, but the unmasking of the Diderot, d'Holbach, and Grimm; although villain, the securing of a confession, and his it is perhaps as well to point out that if Mrs. punishment, which led Hamlet through all Frederika MacDonald makes valid her conhis apparent vacillations. This is the secret tention that Diderot and Grimm conspired of the uncertainties and apparent inconsist- to ruin Rousseau's reputation, it will be in encies of Hamlet's course, and that course order for the author of the present work to finds its logical climax in the production of do some radical revising. the play within the play, when the King,

Striking political changes during without actually making a confession, reveals

The New

the past month in China make the his villainy. The argument is presented

Far East

publication of recent observations with great clearness and force.

of expert observers in the Orient especially The author of the latest The Friends of

timely. It is a satisfaction to call attention biography of Voltaire has to two books' on the Far East which deVoltaire

now added a delightful serve particular notice. Both have been supplementary volume ? that will be enjoyed written by men of long experience in the by all its readers, irrespective of their ac- Orient; both are full of interesting informaquaintance with the previous work or with tion ; both point out that the great event and the fascinating if stormy age in which Vol- the possible peril of the twentieth century taire lived and wrote. By the “friends” of lies in the development of China; finally, Voltaire are meant not only those with whom both volumes are valuable as books of referhe was intimate but also others personally ence because they contain the texts of imporlittle known to him, yet“ whose aim was his tant state papers, of the Anglo-Japanese, aim, to destroy from among the people Portsmouth, and Peking treaties, and the 'ignorance, the curse of God,' and who were, Japanese Korean protocol. In addition, Mr. as he was, the prophets and the makers of a Putnam-Weale's book a includes admirably new dispensation.” On the basis of this lib- detailed exhibits of China's foreign trade and eral definition room is found for d'Alembert an inquiry into the assets and liabilities of 1 The Heart of Hamlet's Mystery. , Translated from the 1 Signs and Portents in the Far East. By Everard Cotes.



G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. $2.50, net. Putnam's Sons, New York. $1 50, net.

2 The Truce in the East and Its Aftermath. By B. L. The Friends of Voltaire. By S. G. Tallentyre. G. P. Putnam-Weale. The Macmillan Company, New York. $3, Putnam's Sons, New York. $2.50, net.

German of Karl Werder By Elizabeth Wilder. G. P.


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China in international commerce, also tables ification lights up the entire course of exposhowing the Japanese public debt, the cost sition and criticism which forms the book, of the Russian war to Japan, and the com- The largest space is deservedly given to parative strength of the Japanese navy and Kant, and here the arrangement of material the navies of the Great Powers. While both is relatively new. Uncommon also is the authors are keenly interested in the dangers estimate put upon Schopenhauer, as essenconnected with large Japanese and Chinese tially a monistic idealist within easy distance armaments, Mr. Cotes points out that, if of Hegel. The author's standpoint is the England, America, and Japan unite to guar- conviction that“ Hegel's essential argument antee Chinese integrity, we need not worry for monistic spiritualism" is irrefragable. about signs of unrest as seen in the boycott Among present writers Royce is most nearly of American goods, the attempt to win back followed, but with clearly noted divergences. control of the customs, the campaign against Stress is constantly put upon the immediateBritish-Indian trade “under the guise of a ness of self-consciousness, as the startingcrusade to abolish the undoubted evils of point of philosophy and the guarantee of the Chinese opium habit," and a determina- truth.. In guarantee of the estimates and tion to supplant European and American criticisms of the systems surveyed the writenterprise in railway, mining, commercial, ers speak for themselves in ample citations, and industrial undertakings. As an Anglo- and a touch of personal interest is added by Indian journalist Mr. Cotes is, of course, brief biographies. These, with annotated specially sensitive concerning the potentiali- bibliographies and critical excursus, form a ties of India as England's coadjutor in the large appendix, of value to serious students. future of the Far East. This part of his gen- Insight, poise, and a fine blending of clarity eral survey forms the volume's distinctive fea- with brevity make this an eminently serviceture. Mr. Putnam-Weale's book is especially able book for all such. Such a work, in interesting as a continua tion of his earlier pub- addition to her well-wrought“ Introduction lication “The Re-Shaping of the Far East.” to Psychology,” gives Professor Calkins a Persistent Although, as the author remarks,

distinction among American women as meri

torious as it is unique. philosophy since Hegel's time Problems can be credited with no origi- Half-Science

An accomplished biologist native work, but only with variations of ex

professor at the Sorbonne in isting systems, this volume? exhibits attract- Paris, presents in this volume' the mechani. ive freshness both of arrangement and of cal theory of life. According to this, life is thought. In a historical view modern phi

not the cause but the effect of chemical losophy is clearly the result of an evolution- processes, which work mechanically, that is, ary process, in which we have the survival with uniformity and precision, in an invariof the fittest. What great thinkers have able sequence of antecedents and conseseverally contributed to it is found in the quents. He expects that scientists will in systems which they have successively form

time be able to discover the secret of these ulated. A systematic introduction to mod- processes, and to originate life thereby at ern metaphysics, which now for a century will. Granting the possibility of this, it has been, at least qualitatively, monistic, would demonstrate, at most, that life is the quite naturally comprises the history of phi- concomitant, not the effect, of those processes, losophy since the dawn of its modern period and appears whenever the conditions of its in Descartes. Such a fusion of propædeutic appearance have been prepared. So much and history is a striking feature of the pres

must be said to those who fear certain inferent work. Another distinctive feature of it,

ences already set up in anticipation of the and a fresh contribution to clear thinking, is supposedly revolutionary nature of the exits grouping of systems from the view-point pected discovery. The mechanical processes of the final question of philosophy—the na

that build up and sustain living bodies are ture of ultimate reality--is it One, or Many ?

exhibited in the present volume with remarkof one kind, or more than one ? of the same

able clearness and completeness. On this nature as our consciousness, or absolutely side of the subject given in its title it is all other? In congruity with these distinctions, that could be desired. It is the physical all modern systems are here grouped as,

side only: “the study of life," either numerically or qualitatively, monistic author, “ belongs to chemical physics." To or pluralistic ; the monistic systems as non

be convinced of the absence of all essential idealistic or idealistic; the idealistic, as

difference and all absolute discontinuity spiritualistic or phenomenalistic. This class- between living and not-living matter” is a

mark of “the enlightened mind.” The 1 The Persistent Problems of Philosophy. By Mary Whiton Calkins. The Macmillan Company, New York, 1 The Nature and Origin of Life. By Félix Le Dantec. $2,50, net.

A.S. Barnes & Co., New York. $2, net.


says the

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"purely objective” study of living beings, to ests of the Empire and introduce greater which this biologist limits his science, regards steadiness in the domestic industrial world;" consciousness, the psychical side of life, as (4) the system of industrial education; and “ an unverifiable hypothesis.” But the signs (5), the fundamental cause of ail, the characof fright, of grief, of guilt, of hate, of love, teristics of the German people. On the which human faces exhibit, are material for question of the relation between the tariff an objective study without which human system and the economic prosperity of the intercourse is impossible. That conscious- country he scarcely touches-an omission ness is not operative in directing vital move- that is distinctly regrettable—but he does ments is an amazing assertion, tantamount to develop much that will be found not only a confession of willful ignorance of unim- new but surprising by most of his readers. peachable facts accepted by unprejudiced Thus, in opposition to the view that the science,

economic progress of the United States has Germany's Prize essays do not al

been due largely to the force of individual

initiative, Dr. Forrest insists that in the case Industrial Growth

ways-one is tempted
to write do not often-

of Germany a most powerful contributory deal with subjects of interest to the general

factor has been the subordination of indireading public ; but this cannot be said of

vidual initiative to habits of obedience and Dr. Earl Dean Howard's “ The Cause and discipline, for which he gives chief credit to Extent of the Recent Industrial Progress of

the army system. Here, of course, there is Germany."! To Americans in particular

room for honest difference of opinion; as the phenomenal rise of the German Empire also with regard to his view of the connecduring the past quarter of a century from a

tion between industrial progress and the position of economic insignificance to one of

Kartel. There is no questioning, however, prime economic importance is of the great

the intrinsic value of his work, which assurest interest; and anything tending to throw

edly makes for a clearer understanding of light on the means whereby this develop

modern Germany and her people. ment has been attained soould be warmly

Had Colonel Charles

The Chancellorsville welcomed, and the more warmly since in

Richardson chosen to

Campaign Germany we are forced to recognize one of

utilize his personal exour two most formidable competitors in the periences as the basis for his “ The Chanworld's markets. For his iacts Dr. Howard

cellorsville Campaign,” he might have made has gone directly to official sources; his

an interesting contribution to Civil War statements are supported by official statistics, literature; but as it is, his narrative is quite so far as it has been possible to obtain such; negligible. Barring a tedious and—to readand his conclusions are based on an investi

ers not familiar with the ground—difficult gation that has clearly been open-minded, description of the scene of conflict, his judicial, and thorough. In beginning be

account of the operations of Early and Sedgtakes, properly enough, a survey of the eco

wick about Fredericksburg displays little nomic history of Germany prior to the politi- originality, and consists for the most part of cal unification from which her industrial quotations from official reports strung toprogress really dates; and he finds that the gether in a commonplace way. In fact, more chief causes of her backwardness were the

than half the book is given over to an appengeographical position that so long made her

dix of abstracts from reports of the operathe battle-ground of Europe, the conserva

tions of the Army of the Potomac. tism of her people fostered by her peculiar

Under an apt title and

The Wild Flowers agricultural system, her inadequate trade

written by a nature-lover

of England and transportation facilities, and her obso

of unusual skill in delete banking system.

Coming to the period scription as well as in observing, this book ? of progress, which he finds chiefly charac- will bring back pleasant me!mories to all who terized by a transition from reliance on agri

know the English fields and hedgerows. The culture to reliance on manufactures and

author is an artist, too, and gives us really commerce, he specifically locates the causes charming full-page pictures in color of primof her amazingly rapid economic growth in rose, orchis, anemone, hawthorn, broom, (1) increased domestic consumption due to gorse and heather, harebells, poppies, and a increased population and a generally higher score of other wild-growing beauties. The standard of life; (2) the betterment of trans

year is followed month by month-a convenportation facilities; (3) the Kartel system,

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ient and agreeable arrangement. “ which is able to promote the export inter- 1. The Chancellorsville Campaign: Fredericksburg to

lishing Company, New York. $1. Postage, 10c. 1 The Cause and Extent of the Recent Industrial Progress 2 Nature's Own Gardens. Written and Illustrated in Colour of Germany

By Earl Dean Howard, Ph.D. Houghton, and Line, By Maud M. Clarke. E. P. Dutton & Co., New Mifflin & Co., Boston. $1, net.

Salem Church. By Charles Richardson. The Neale Pub

York. $6.



YORK, JUNE 29, 1907

Volume 86 Number 9

Price $3 a year 10 cents a copy





penalty which the President, if he obtains International Unselfish- The Czar's Coup d'État. 450 ness....

authority from Congress, will decline to The Drama Once More. 451 The Hague Conference. 440 Heaven on Earth........ 454 exact. The relief to China is greater The Crisis in France. ... 441 The Spectator.... 455 New Alliances Abroad.. 442 Imagination in Natural than these figures indicate, for the twentyImmigrants

Pay History. A Letter from four millions was by agreement to be Extortionate Railway John Burroughs....... 457 Fare?...

443 The Attacks on Japa- paid by China during a period of thirtyThe Recount Bill.... 443

nese. From a Special A Popular Uprising.

nine years, with interest which would 444 Correspondent.... 400 College Events .. 445 First Impressions of

have brought the total amount taken The Smoke Nuisance.... 446 America. By W. H. By Air-Ship to the North



from the Chinese treasury to thirty-eight Pole...

446 The Revolt of a Hero. millions. If it ever were true that the The Intercollegiate Civic By Elliott Flower...... 467 League.

447 Studies in Social History 472 State is, as Nietzsche makes Zarathustra А Proposed Church Comment Current

call it, “ the coldest of all cold monsters,” Union... 448 Books....

475 The Scottish Churches.. 449 Letters to The Outlook. 481 it certainly is not true in these days. Published by the Outlook Company, 287 Fourth Avenue,

Once upon a time it was a very common New York. Chicago Office, Marquette Building; Lawrence F. Abbott, President. William B. Howland,

belief that, however unselfish it might be Treasurer. Karl V. S. Howland, Secretary.

right for an individual to be, a nation Lyman Abbott, Editor-in-Chief. H. W. Mabie, Associate Editor. R. D. Townsend, Managing Editor.

in its relations with other nations would The subscription price of The Outlook is Three Dollars a year, payable in advance. Ten cents a copy,

be and ought to be invariably selfish. The Postage is prepaid by the publishers for all subscriptions in the United States, Hawaiian Islands, Philippine Islands, ghost of this idea peeps between the Guam. Porto Rico, Tutuila (Samoa), Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, and Mexico. For Canada $1.20 should be lines of occasional editorial articles on added for postage, and for all other countries in the Postal Union $1.56 should be added for postage.

international subjects even nowadays. Change of address : When a change of address is ordered, both the new and the old address must be given. The notice Indeed, a large part of the argument should be sent one week before the change is to take effect. Orders and instructions for advertising must be received

of the self-styled anti imperialists was eight days before the Saturday on which it is intended the

based on the idea that it is imposadvertisement shall appear. Copyright, 1907, by the Outlook Coinpany. Entered as

sible for a Christian nation really to second-class matter in the New York Post-Office.

be Christian; and that to pretend Of the twenty-four mill- that it could be helpful to the weak, International

ions of dollars which that it could really be a neighbor to a Unselfishness

China is under obligation dependent people, that it could bear to pay to the United States as indemnity another's burden, was to act the hypoon account of the Boxer uprising, the crite. An offer, however, of twenty-seven

, United States Government now proposes. millions to a nation which has no legal to remit over thirteen millions—over one- right to the money, and which could not half. This was communicated by the obtain it by any forcible means, is a someState Department to Sir Chentung-Liang- what too material evidence of sincerity Cheng, the retiring Chinese Ambassador, to be greeted with cynical skepticism. last week. All that the United States The fact is, this proposal is in fine acwill receive from China, if Congress cord with American tradition. Of course agrees to this proposal, is enough to magnanimity is not exclusively a Chrisreimburse the American property-owners tian virtue ; but from any point of view who suffered loss, and to pay the share which is antagonistic to the Christian of the cost incurred by the United States point of view, it is actually a vice; and in restoring order. The balance of in any case it is a trait which ought to twenty-four millions which the United be exhibited by any people that has States is entitled by treaty arrangement such a moral inheritance as ours. It is to receive would be in the nature of a true that this Nation has failed all too penalty exacted from China for failing to frequently to follow the altruistic improtect life and property. It is this pulse, sometimes eve: when to do that


would have cost us little. Our treat- sent, I ask you to join in laboring to ment, for instance, of the Philippines achieve the impossible but forever to be has not been flawless. To use the phrase desired ideal, permanent peace of the of Paul, we have not yet attained. It is world." to be hoped that in this case Congress will not fall behind the high mark set

Of the four Commisby the executive.

The Question of sions into which the

original Russian proThe second International The Hague

gramme was divided, M. Victor BourPeace Conference

geois, of France, Count di Tornielli, of Conference

opened on June 22 in the Italy, M. Beernaert, of Belgium, and Knights' Hall, in the Bittenhof Palace at Professor Martens, of Russia, were apThe Hague, with an attendance of 209 pointed acting presidents. The German delegates, representing forty-seven coun- delegation presented a proposal for the tries, from whose dress military orders constitution of an international court of and decorations of all sorts

appeal for naval prizes, to which the conspicuously absent, even the naval support of England was immediately and military experts appearing in pledged by one of her delegates, and civilian dress. The hall, with its arched that of the United States by General oak roof, bure white walls, and stained- Porter. A letter from Mr. Choate was glass windows, was a somber back- read announcing that he would present ground for formal and rather uninter- to one of the Commissions the question esting introductory exercises. The of the collection of public debts by delegates were placed at green baize force, and that he might also present tables in the alphabetical order of their other questions not mentioned in the countries, Germany and America on the programme. The Drago Doctrine will President's right. The large number of thus be brought before the Congress for representatives from the Central and serious consideration. The American South American Republics made the attitude on the question of the limitation Latin element conspicuous in the assem- of armaments has been defined in the bly. Special significance attaches to the statement that our Government regards fact that for the first time a Congress this matter as pre-eminently a European representing the entire civilized world question, and, in view of the divergence had assembled, with the whole field of views among the European Powers, of international relations open to it. and the unwillingness of any of them to Whether it accomplishes much or little assume the responsibility, does not feel in the way of definite action, the mere justified at the outset of the Conference statement of this fact is evidence of a in interjecting an issue which might progression of opinion and of condition jeopardize the important work achievso great as to be revolutionary. The able. Nevertheless, the United States Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs called does not want to see the door closed, the Congress to order, and made a brief and the reservation is made to protect speech welcoming the delegates on be- her right to introduce the subject if for half of the Queen. M. Nelidoff, Russian any reason later she should decide to do Ambassador to France, proposed Dr.

It would be absurd from every van Goudriaan as honorary President, point of view to surrender the leadership and W. H. de Beaufort, head of the of this great movement into Russian Holland delegation, as Vice-President. hands at a time when Russia is the most The Czar of Russia initiated the Hague prominent representative of reactionConference; it was therefore appropriate arism in the world. More than any that his representative should give the other country she needs the opportunity introductory address, which may be dis- to reorganize her government and to missed by a brief characterization : it develop her resources in a period of peace. was without color and it was pessimistic. Her military prestige has received an In closing the speaker said: “ On behalf almost fatal blow at the hands of the of the gracious Sovereign I here repre- Japanese. She is apparently on the



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