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cessful New York merchant, President cludes native Americans and one Amerof the New York Board of Trade and ican by adoption. It would not be easy Transportation; Edward M. Bassett, to prepare another list of men as broadly formerly Democratic Representative in qualified, even without regard to the Congress, leader in traffic reforms, and practicability of obtaining their consent; expert in property values in two of the and it is safe to say that in their various boroughs of New York; Milo R. Malt- callings they have as high a standing as bie, student of municipal conditions and had the judges of any of the State courts public utilities, former professor of eco- when they were placed upon the bench. nomics, and experienced executive offi- The announcement of the appointment cial; and John E. Eustis, lawyer, former of these men should not rouse in the Park Commissioner and school official, people of the State expectation of marand active as a member and officer of vels; but it ought to awaken confidence. the Citizens' Union, The Chairman of the Commission for the rest of the State is Frank W. Stevens, of Jamestown,

A conference in New

Steel Rails lawyer, who has held several public

York last week of prom

and the Public offices, and won distinction as prose

inent railway managers cutor of charges against a judge of the and influential officials of the steel-manuState Supreme Court a few years ago. facturing corporations gives weight to His associates are Charles H. Keep, of the complaints which have recently been Buffalo, formerly Assistant Secretary of made that the breaking of steel rails conthe Treasury of the United States, and stitutes a serious danger to the traveling for seven months head of the State public. It is the railway managers themDepartment of Banks; Thomas M. Os- selves who have given voice to these borne (of whom the readers of The complaints. In New York State during Outlook will recall a sketch published in the first three months of the present year the issue for March 23 of this year), for- it is stated that there were nearly three merly Mayor of Auburn, and a highly suc- thousand cases of defective rails. In cessful man of business; James E. Sague, the single month of February four hunof Dutchess County, mechanical engi- dred and forty-nine rails were found to

, neer and practical railway man; and Mar- be broken, or to contain dangerous flaws, tin S. Decker, of Ulster County, lawyer, on the Union Pacific Railway system. for ten years Assistant Secretary of the It should be said that both the railway Inter-State Commerce Commission, and officials and the steel officials of the one of the men who drafted the present country recognize the importance of this Cuban railway law. With study of this matter and are apparently doing all they list of men one's confidence in their can to remedy the difficulty by harmoniability increases. It includes Repub- ous collaboration. Nevertheless, the pub

. licans such as Mr. Willcox, Mr. Stevens, lic wants to know and ought to know the and Mr. Keep, Democrats such as facts, and it appears to us that here is a Mr. Bassett, Mr. Osborne, and Mr. phase of railway operation of which the Decker, and at least one Independent, Inter-State Commerce Commission might Mr. Maltbie. "It includes college men well take cognizance. The railway men such as Mr. Bassett, of Hamilton and have placed the blame for breaking Amherst, and Mr. Keep and Mr. Os- on the manufacturers, alleging that steelborne, of Harvard; and men whose makers have used a low quality of ore education has been chiefly that gained and have adopted a process less thorin the public schools, professional ough than they ought to employ, because schools, and practical life. It includes of its greater economy. The steel-makers

, the various callings of the law, engineer- on the other hand, declare that the railing, transportation, business and schol

way managers have used too light a rail arly research, each of which furnishes for their increasingly heavy trains, and preparation for the work of the Com- that they must be willing to spend missions. And it includes men varying

money in railway construction. It is in age from thirty-six to sixty. It in- reported that one of the great trunk lines



of the country, as a result of the difficulty that fractional part of its system a sum of getting durable rails, has insisted that amounting to one million and a half of hereafter its contracts for steel rails shall dollars. If this is the cost of mere rails be carried out in accordance with speci- for seventy-five miles of four-track railfications prepared by its own engineers way or three hundred miles of single and under the observation of its own track, the gigantic total cost of steel for inspectors. The whole matter, we think, the entire system is almost staggering. should become the subject of National Ought the railways of the country to be action. It patently constitutes another burdened with quite so heavy a tariff as evidence of the desirability of Govern- is now laid upon them? mental supervision over every department of transportation in inter-State commerce. If it is necessary for Con

At Yale President Had

Commencement gress to appoint a Commission to watch

ley's baccalaureate was

Notes the manufacture of armor plates for our

insistent, as always, upon war-ships, how much more necessary is it the principles of ethical religion. To that a Government Commission should keep the hands clean and the heart pure insist upon certain standards of manu- from the subtler forms of evil, said he, facture in the rails which bear millions no code of rules will suffice, but only a of our citizens on their peaceful pursuits. great purpose which looks outside of There is every reason to believe that self to exalt the social standards of truth the steel manufacturers of the country, and honor. “ The only men who are both from commercial motives and mo- safe are those whose standards of honor tives of honor, are endeavoring to turn are what the world calls quixotic—which out the best steel rails possible under really means that they are Christian.” prevailing conditions; there is every rea- Increased requirements are to be made son to believe that the railway managers for entrance to the Law School and the of the country are putting the best pos- Medical School, at the cost of an exsible equipment into the construction of pected reduction of numbers, at least for their roads. The chief thing that is

a time.

Yale is decisively committed needed is entire and authoritative pub- against any shortening of the four years' licity as to the facts. It is not unlikely course, but certain semi-professional that an investigation and publication of studies are to be allowed students prethe facts would indicate that the tariff paring for a professional career. The has something to do with the unfor- three years' courses of the Sheffield tunate steel rail conditions prevailing at Scientific School attract such numbers present. So far as we know, there has that it promises to become ere long the been little complaint of English, Belgian, largest department of the University. or German steel rails, and yet a tremen- Gifts during the year have swelled dous duty keeps foreign rails out of the the Endowment and Extension Fund to country and forces our railway-builders $3,000,000--three-fourths of the required to pay the enormous price of twenty- amount.- -The Harvard alumni wereineight dollars a ton for their rails, while formed by President Eliot that $8,000,000 the same rails have been sold for export has been added to the endowment of at nineteen and twenty dollars a ton. The the University during the past six years. average man hardly realizes that the rate Each successive class at its twenty-fifth paid here makes a price of fourteen dollars anniversary now puts, it was said, for a single hundred-pound rail such as $100,000 into Harvard's treasury. Thus the New York, New Haven, and Hartford private liberality does for Eastern road now uses on its four tracks between universities what State treasuries do for New York and New Haven. A rail is Western. The honorary LL.D. at Harthirty feet long, and there are eight lines vard, going mostly outside of the counof them extending for seventy-five aniles try, was given to President Wilson, of to New Haven. A little simple multi- Princeton, Secretary Root, Professor plication shows that the New Haven Vinogradoff, of Oxford, the Duke of the road has to pay for rails alone to equip Abruzzi, the French Ambassador, M.

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Jusserand, and Ambassador Bryce, who son was by only a yard or two at the received a most enthusiastic greeting finish, and Columbia's achievement in from the assembly. A School of Busi- leading for a mile, fighting every yard of ness Administration is announced at

the course, forging to the front again in Harvard for a two years' course of post- the last half-mile, and only dropping a graduate study in the lines required for, trifle behind in the last seconds, was the scientific treatment of business as indeed remarkable, especially consideran intellectual profession. This ideal, ing Columbia's lighter weight and Coralready recognized in the German schools nell's longer training and traditions of of commerce and in departments of triumph. Really the Columbia crew commerce in some. American universities, were applauded as genuine athletic may be traced to its genesis long ago in heroes, and almost divided honors with the so-called commercial colleges. Cornell. An interesting and novel feaWesleyan University has removed itself, ture of this university race was the first despite the opposition of many of the appearance of a crew from the United older alumni, from the status of a de- States Naval Academy at Annapolis. nominational institution. The Trustees They were unable to cope with the two have unanimously accepted the amend- leading crews, but finished third easiment to its charter granted by the Con- ly, defeating Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, necticut Legislature, abolishing the Georgetown, and Syracuse. Cornell's requirement that its President, with a time

20 minutes 23 seconds. majority of the Trustees and Faculty, The Varsity four-oared race was won must belong to the Methodist Episcopal by Syracuse ; the Freshman eight-oared Church. President Raymond's resigna- race by Wisconsin. At New London tion has been accepted, but it is under- much sympathy was expressed with stood that he will accept the headship Harvard because on the very day before of a new department of study.

the race she lost by illness one of her very strongest men ; his substitute, how

ever, as all agree, did fine work, and The fact that both at Pough- experts credit Yale's victory to her The College Boat Races

keepsie and New London possession of just a little superior reserve

the eight-oared intercol- force when the last splendid spurt at legiate races, although closely and hotly the end was called for. Both crews contested, were won without the slightest rowed in fine form, and no closer-concharge of unfairness or sharp practice, tested race is on the long Yale-Harvard strengthens the common claim that of all record. One correspondent pithily decollege sports boating is the most open scribes the race thus: “ Cheek by cheek and generous in its rivalry. Certainly, and jowl by jowl the sixteen splendidly as a picturesque summer open-air festi- trained young athletes fought out the val, in which the spectators themselves battle of sweeps over those four heartfurnish a great part of the spectacle, breaking, nerve-racking, muscle-rending these annual contests on the Hudson miles, with inches only separating the and the Thames leave little to desire, two boats until the finish was in sight, At Poughkeepsie on Wednesday some when the Yale oarsmen had more in twenty thousand, at New London on reserve and were able to make the Thursday some sixty thousand, people spurt which won the battle." Yale's waited patiently until almost dark to see time was given as 21 minutes 10 seconds ; races well worth waiting for; and the Harvard's as only three seconds more. brilliant colors of the crowds, their vocif- Owing to the dusk and the closeness of erous enthusiasm, the shouts and songs, the race, the result was for some time in the moving observation trains, and the doubt among the spectators. The Freshfollowing fleets of yachts and steam- man and four-qared university races, boats, combined to make up variegated postponed until Friday, were won respecand blood-stirring aquatic pageants tively by Harvard and Yale. On Saturunique in their enjoyable and exciting day Harvard won the deciding game at qualities. Cornell's victory on the Hud- baseball from Yale by a score of 7. to 2.



In point of age, history, Juvenal, and Dr. Twain, if it could be Mark Twain at

architectural and nat- carried on in English, would “shake the Oxford

ural beauty, personal sides of the entire literary world with association, and direct or indirect influ- laughter." Oxford on this occasion conence upon the literature and politics of ferred honorary degrees upon Ambassathe modern civilized world, Oxford is dor Whitelaw Reid, some distinguished the most distinguished university in English statesmen and scientists, and Christendom. An honorary degree from

An honorary degree from upon Auguste Rodin, the French sculpOxford is, therefore, one of the great tor, Hubert Herkomer, the English etcher, academic distinctions of the day—an Rudyard Kipling, the British novelist,

— honor not lightly given nor to be lightly and Camille Saint-Saëns, the French prized by the man who is fortunate musician; thus recognizing, as every enough to receive it. Mr. Clemens, institution of liberal education ought to more widely and affectionately known as do, the place and authority of asthetic Mark Twain, has just received this honor beauty in any general scheme of educafrom Oxford, and has now the right to tion. By a happy coincidence, a great place upon the title-page of his next historical pageant, which The Outlook book, “ Mark Twain, Litt.D., Oxon.” hopes later to describe in more detail, Lord Curzon, the Chancellor of the Uni- was enacted during Mark Twain's stay versity, in conferring the degree, said, in at Oxford, which elicited the University Latin, to Mark Twain : “You doctors interest and sincere admiraare one of the finest, most agreeable, tion. He is reported in the cable and most witty men of the day; you despatches to have commented upon it have made the sides of the entire literary as follows: "It was beyond anything I world shake with laughter; and so, by at all imagined. The Americans can do virtue of my own authority, and with a few things well, I admit; but America the authority of the whole University, I has not the history, and it has not this," admit you to the honorary degree of waving his hand toward the scenery Doctor of Letters.” It is not, however, surrounding the pageant ground. Then merely as the most celebrated humorist he added, with a humorous reference of modern times that Mark Twain de- to the drizzling rain which set in serves this honor, which is a source of steadily in the course of the last scene, pride to his countrymen as well as to “Nor has America that weather which himself; nor is it because he is merely a may be said to inspire men to noble gifted man of letters. We like to think fortitude." that it is because he is a fine product of modern democracy—springing from the people, educated by contact with the

The resolution

A Declaration people, and championing with a human

Against Obstruction

passed last week sympathy—which is none the less pro

in the English found because it so often expresses itself House of Commons by the overwhelmin a jocose form—the fundamental causes ing vote of 432 to 147 should be taken by of the people that make for a nobler the House of Lords as a serious warning. civilization. Mark Twain has never It is not unlikely to be the precursor of been a pessimist, a cynic, or a destroyer one of the most fundamental legislative of faith in human nature. He has helped acts in modern English history. Certo eradicate meanness and pettiness of tainly, if the peers insist in the future spirit in the individual, in commerce, upon the policy of such obstruction as and in government, by holding it up to was maintained by them in the matter of a simple and yet merciless ridicule. We the Educational Bill, they must face a should not be surprised, in fact, if when determined effort by the Liberal party he comes home he has something jovial to curtail their powers. That such action to say about the Latin which the Uni- would be justifiable has now been firmly versity of Oxford still uses on formal asserted by the House of Commons. occasions. We think a little conference The text of the resolution (an amendon this subject between Cicero, Horace, ment from the Labor party declaring for




the abolishment of the House of Lords one session. Another method proposed having been defeated) reads as follows: by some reformers is to submit to a pop

That, in order to give effect to the will of ular referendum all bills on which the the people as expressed by their elected repre- two houses disagree. But the considersentatives, it is necessary that the power of ation of definite plans is a matter for the the other house to alter or reject bills passed future ; what is important now is that a by this house should be so restricted by law as to secure that within the limits of a single long step forward has been taken toward Parliament the final decision of the House gaining the supremacy of the will of the of Commons shall prevail.

whole people against hereditary partisanIt is believed to be Sir Henry Campbell- ship. Bannerman's intention to introduce a bill to incorporate this expression of

Elsewhere in this issue

At The Hague will be found the first of opinion into law, just as soon as the Lords shall again nullify any important several articles from The Outlook's staff measure which really expresses the will correspondent at The Hague. In these of the English people. Mr. Asquith, papers he will give personal impressions who closed the debate, expressed the of the place, the men who represent the general sentiment when, after declaring nations of the earth at this great gatherthat he had reluctantly accepted the ing, and the spirit and purpose of the asproposed method of dealing with an in- sembly. Last week was occupied chiefly tolerable evil only after being convinced in the filing, before the four different that a friendly modus vivendi was not Commissions into which the Hague Conattainable, he roundly asserted that "the ference is divided, of proposals subHouse of Lords had ceased to hold the mitted by the different nations for conposition of a dispassionate, unprejudiced sideration and discussion. Among these umpire; the peers had fallen into the proposals are several on the all-important hands of guides outside their chamber, topic of arbitration, aiming to make it who had degraded them from their posi- the ordinary course to be followed by tion of a revising authority into an in- disputants, and also to make the Hague strument of a single party; the situation Tribunal permanent. Another proposal had become dangerous and intolerable." of great moment was that of the United The Premier calls his resolution just States embodying the so-called Drago adopted " the preface to the volume," Doctrine, which can be most concisely and within his own party the opposition expressed in the statement that the he has met has been rather from those nations should agree that, when a parwho ask for instant and sweeping action ticular country desires to submit to arbithan from those who fear to infringe on tration questions relating to the collecting the hereditary privileges of the peers. of debts due from it, there should be no Apart from the obstructive obstinacy of attempt at forcible collection until arbithe Lords, their House has become a tration has been fully tried. Dr. Drago byword for its inefficiency, indolence, himself is willing to add that force may and submissiveness to a few able leaders be used if the debtor state refuses to like. Mr. Balfour. To reconstitute its obey either its own courts or the Hague principle of membership so as to make it Tribunal. Nothing could be fairer or more in any true sense representative is hardly directly in the scope of international possible--although it has been seriously arbitration than this proposal ; and if we proposed to appoint peers for life only; may rely upon the cable despatches of the the only alternative is to restrict its past week, General Horace Porter, who sphere of action. The method of effect- has formulated the doctrine for coning this, as outlined by the Premier, will sideration by the Hague Conference, is probably be to follow with some modi- justified in his impression that opposition fications a system, of conferences be- will not be met with from Great Britain, tween the two houses when they are France, Germany, or Russia. Holland, unable to agree, with a final power of pas- whose capitalists have had many bad sage in the House of Commons which will South American debts, is inclined to enable it completely to enact a measure in

oppose the doctrine. The German

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