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country was the most“ backward”in five

man on a salary, the clerk and the bookdecades. To the great Middle West grain "keeper, as well as the small merchants region particularly the outlook for weeks and tradesmen of various kinds who are was discouraging. Not only was there an carrying on business to some extent on average of very low temperature to hold borrowed money—these may find it an back the growing crops, but as late as

added burden. The enormous consumpMay 27 killing frost as far south as south- tion of breadstuffs in this country leaves ern Kansas. In that State alone 600,000 each year a smaller margin for export. acres of wheat were ruined in a few The fact that the farmers have more old hours and the yield of much more was wheat on hand now than at any similar impaired. Added to this unseasonable date in twenty years accounts for some weather was the damage done by the of the confidence with which they congrain louse, or green bug," which sider a lessened return from their fields. appeared for the first time since 1901. They constitute about the only thorIt fed on the young wheat of northern oughly independent class in this Nation. Texas, Oklahoma, and southern Kansas, The predictions of reversal of prosperity causing a loss of millions of bushels. at the end of seven years of plenty have Oklahoma expects less than a half-crop, not held good—this eighth year conwhile Kansas will produce nowhere near tinues the farmers' high tide of profit. the high figures of the past six years of plenty. The States farther north are in better condition, and will have a fair,

Signs that the

The Modern Education though late-harvested, yield. Experts

of Ministers

theological semisay the world will raise about 250,000,

naries of America 000 bushels less wheat this year than are becoming conscious of the fact that last, half the shortage being in America the conditions of modern life demand and half in Europe. The United something more than the traditional curStates, which produced 735,000,000 riculum are welcome. The Chicago Thebushels last year, will harvest about ological Seminary has made announce630,000,000 bushels this

ment of new courses to be given next Already prices of foodstuffs have ad- year, which it is believed will greatly vanced. Wheat and flour are higher; help its students to meet the exigencies corn and oats have risen in sympathy. of present-day life when they enter upon The farmers are reported to have been the practical work of the ministry. These much excited when wheat went to a courses comprise three departments of dollar in the speculative market late in study in which progress has been evident May, and to be organizing to hold back during recent years, Biblical criticism their crop so that such a price may be a and psychological research have comregular thing at the interior stations. bined to make great changes in the ideals Whether or not this movement be suc- of what, for the lack of a less clumsy term, cessful, the farmer seems likely to get must be called religious pedagogy. The about as much for his wheat as last year basis for belief in the Bible has been in the greater value per bushel. If his changed; and conceptions concerning the corn is good, he will continue to smile character and the development of the and to increase his bank deposits. But religious life have been changed. As a how about the consumer, who must buy consequence, in the world to-day there is the high-priced flour, meal, and every- less confidence in the value of cultivating thing depending on cereals ? Is his sal- acquaintance with religious words and ary likely to increase in proportion with phrases, and more confidence than ever the shortness of the grain yield—or will in the power of cultivating acquaintance stories of lessened production tend to with the religious experience of individlower it? This may affect the day uals and of the race. Linguistic studies laborer, skilled or unskilled, less than in Hebrew and Greek have therefore any other class of toilers—he seems assumed less importance than they used always to have at hand the remedy of to have; on the other hand, acquaintthe strike for higher wages. But the ance with the messages of the great



men of the Bible and of the Church, of the Dreadnought class. The plans call knowledge of the processes of the human for battle ships that shall not be inferior mind in the adult as well as in the child, to England's great Dreadnought or study of the messages of other relig- Japan's equivalent for the same. The ions besides Christianity, observation two new additions to the navy of the of the effects of applying Christian United States are known at present offiprinciples to practical life, and the like, cially as Nos. 28 and 29, and the specifihave come to assume greater importance. cations call for battle-ships of approxiTo adapt the curriculum to this new mately 20,000 tons displacement, excluemphasis, the Seminary has established sive of armor and armament. Each of a new professorship of pedagogy, and these formidable engines of war, it is put it upon the same status with other estimated, will cost, when completed, departments. In the second place, the $10,000,000. The successful bidders study of the principles of relief, of were the Newport News Shipbuilding penology, of the treatment of depend- Company at $3,987,000, and the Fore ents, and the like, has borne much River Shipbuilding Company at $4,377,fruit. The work of redeeming men is 000. The biddings were complex, with no longer conceived as merely the saving various designs and combinations speciof them from some great future disaster, fied, one of the successful bidders, the but of rescuing them from present wrong Newport News Company, submitting no and evil. As a consequence of this new less than seven alternative plans. As it is conception, the Seminary will make it specified by law that no company shall possible for theological students to do receive a contract for more than one ship, what may be called clinical work. Close the second lowest bidder naturally has affiliation with the Chicago Commons rather the best of the bargain, as a comSocial Settlement and the Chicago Insti- parison of the above bids shows. In order tute of Social Service, and arrangements to have a check on contractors' bids, speby which students can observe the work cial bids were received from the naval being done in the great city and confer constructors at the New York and Mare with specialists who are doing it, will Island navy-yards, prepared under direcgive to the study of "evangelism" a tions from the Department. The officials highly practical element. In the third of the Navy Department were especially place, the churches are more and more gratified at the lowness of the successful becoming aware that they have a part to bids, which were not only lower than play, not merely in rescuing men from those prepared at the Government navyevil, but also in elevating civic and social yards, but that of the Newport News ideals, co-operating with civic and social Company was even less than the cost of organizations, and promoting honesty the 16,000-ton battle-ship Minnesota, and

, and efficiency in civic and social life. $3,000 less than the cost of the greatest The clinical work and field study of the of our present battle-ships, the Louisiana. students will therefore be devoted, not The new battle-ships are to be completed merely to relief, but also to constructive and delivered to the Government within effort. These changes in the Chicago thirty-six months. Theological Seminary, coming at the same time with similar changes in the

There is a well-defined Yale Divinity School (as outlined in the

A New College

movement on foot to

for Women issue of The Outlook for April 27),

establish a modern and, promise much for increase in the prac- so far as it can be made, a model college tical efficiency and genuine religious life for the higher education of women on of the churches in America.

the Pacific coast. The significance of

the Pacific coast States in the future The American Govern- history of America and the world can Two American Dreadnoughts

ment is considering bids hardly be overestimated. . China and

for the construction of Japan are in the throes of new birth, two of the greatest engines of war known and the relations of the entire Orient to modern nations—monster battle-ships with the Western world and Western


Philippine Progress

civilization are growing more and more and new ideas which have been develclose, and therefore more and more oped since the establishment of Vassar, complicated. California cannot escape Smith, Wellesley, and Bryn Mawr. To the place assigned her in the very fore- quote again from Dr. Edwards's admifront of action in this development of rable statement, “ The pioneers in the Oriental and Occidental intercourse. higher education of women naturally The importance of the part she is called and properly model their courses after on to play will be greatly increased by those which the experience of colleges the completion of the Panama Canal. for men had found best. Their success The best sort of education will be neces- and their embarrassing oversupply of sary to fit the people of California as students show that they meet a vital well as the people of the entire country need. But it is possible for a new college to deal with the new problems of inter- to add decided value to these approved national intercourse which are presenting curricula by incorporating into them the themselves to the citizens and statesmen modern ideal of manual training.” of this country. California has already achieved some remarkable results in her educational system. In Leland Stanford University and in the University of California that State possesses two institutions On the thirtieth day of this month, in of high rank. But there is not in the accordance with the provisions of the State, nor indeed is there in the entire proclamation issued by the President of country west of the Atlantic seaboard, a the United States on the thirtieth day of college for women of the first rank. Dr. last March, there will be held in the W.A. Edwards, Principal of Throop Poly- Philippine Islands an election for the technic Institute at Pasadena, California, first popular assembly, or legislative points out that Western girls, in order body, of the Filipino people. The isseto obtain a non-co-educational college ing of this proclamation, followed as it education, have now to travel to the will be by the election ordered and the Atlantic States. “Of the four thousand convening of the Philippine Assembly, students now in attendance at Vassar, in which for the first time in their history Smith, Wellesley, and Bryn Mawr, fully the voice of the Filipino people, through one thousand, or twenty-five per cent., popular representation, will be heard in come from west of Pennsylvania ; and the central government, marks a step of of this thousand about four hundred momentous import no less to America come from homes west of the Mississippi than to the people of the Philippines. River. How many others,” he

Some disappointment has been extinues, “have been refused admission pressed at the light registration of voters because of overcrowded halls and dor- —less than half of what might reasonably mitories, and how many others still have been expected. This evidence of would seek admission if there were a lack of interest on the part of the Filiwoman's college nearer home, no one pinos should not obscure the more imcan say.” The movement for establish- portant fact that the American Governing a woman's college in California has ment, by the President's proclamation, already taken definite form. A charier has shown its desire to give the Filipinos has been obtained, a board of trustees an opportunity to practice self-governorganized, and a desirable site procured ment. For the Filipino people this procin the delightful town of Pasadena, adja- lamation is the charter of their libertiescent to Los Angeles. In climate, in the their magna chartaand though it may character of its citizens, in its public and not satisfy all the natural aspirations of private achievements, Southern Califor- the people for independence, it nevernia is peculiarly fitted for the location of theless grants a measure of self-governa woman's college, which shall not only ‘ment which, in the benefits and rights it maintain the highest standards carries with it, falls but little short of maintained anywhere in woman's educa- absolute independence. tion, but shall add some new features It cannot fail to bring to every think



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ing Filipino the assurance of the good new difficulties and dangers, so will it be will of America, and of her generous It has been well said that “legisintentions for the future ; for whereas, latures do not create republics. They up to this period, the islands have been are the last word of the old régime; they governed, since the date of the es- are only the first word of the new.' It tablishment of civil government, by a is one thing to say to an individual or a Commission made up of the American people, “ Thou shalt “ Thou shalt Governor-General, four American Com- not,” and quite another thing to say, missioners and three Filipino Commis- Come, now, and let us reason together.” sioners, appointed by the President of the That there is in the people of the United States and working under and Philippine Islands the making of a succarrying out a policy laid down by the cessful republic in the generations to Administration and the Congress of the come, if America brings to the work United States, from the date of the con- patriotism, and a singleness of purpose vening and organizing of the Assembly that puts honor before gain, and an altruall the legislative power conferred on the ism of spirit that counts not the cost but Philippine Commission will be vested in looks rather at the opportunity for ada legislature to consist of two houses vancing the cause of civilization and of the Philippine Commission and the Phil- Christianity, no one who has witnessed ippine Assembly.

the enormous strides of the Filipino peoThe under house, or Philippine As- ple in the nine years of American occusembly, will under the law consist of not pation can doubt; but that we should less than fifty nor more than a hundred hasten slowly in engrafting democratic members, chosen by the people them- ideas on a monarchically born and reared selves. They have, of course, the author people is a thing about which there is ity to elect their own Speaker and to also not the slightest doubt in the minds perfect their own organization, and will of all who are acquainted with the probbe in all essential points a thoroughly lem, Filipinos and Americans alike. representative body, with all the rights Like all great causes, this one demands and privileges pertaining thereto. our best for its working out. What we

So much for what we have done polit- do and the way we do it is of just as ically for the Filipino people at the end much moment to us in its effects on our of nine years of American occupation. integrity, our prestige, and our honor as It is not the purpose of this article to upon the Filipino people-indeed, more, discuss the question as to whether these since from a people of our enlightenment people passing from the tribal stage of more is rightly expected ! primitive civilization just three hundred It is much better that we stay at home and seventy-five years ago into Spanish and give the people of the islands the domination and influence, and reared chance to work out their own destiny to until just nine years past in the principles their glory or their downfall, if we are not of Spanish imperialism, are, from a histor- ready as a people to do this thing in a ical point of view, ready for the measure

We ourselves know better of self-government we have bestowed. how to do it to-day than ever before. America heretofore, in the great crises of " In the fullness of time" our experiences her history, has never stopped to ask come-.just when we are ready for them about precedents, nor has she done it and America knows to-day, as in no

With that courage and hardihood former period in her own life, the value of and self-confidence which have always practical training in citizenship; she is been her characteristics, she has gone revolutionizing whole agricultural comforward with strides unparalleled in the munities; she is learning new methods history of colonization, and has dared to of reclaiming the waste places of the do what no other nation under like cir- earth ; she is studying the secrets of cumstances has ever done before.

the forests; she is searching out the But, as in all history any great change causes of poverty and distress; and in the established order of things has while she trains the laborer and the brought with it new responsibilities and artisan as never before, she also trains


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the child to a sense of the responsibility Industrial Mediaevalof the citizen to the state. All this knowledge, which, properly

ism applied, will supply their greatest need, we can carry to these people whom the The time must surely come when the fortunes of war have brought us, and strike as a way of settling industrial diswhom we hold in our keeping, whether agreements will be looked at as little they will or no, if we are fine enough to better than a relic of barbarism. It is do it—if we live up to our ideals as a unscientific, economically wasteful, and people and realize our responsibility as usually ineffective. Illustrations of this individuals. But if we shrink from the have multiplied lately. The newspapers

· responsibility and cavil at the cost; if, have teemed with reports of strikes ; worse still, we show a national selfish- street-cleaners, garbage collectors, lampness in using these people and their in- lighters, ice-deliverers, telegraphers, and terests in political traffic; if, either as a others, all properly servants of the pubnation or as individuals, we barter for an lic at large rather than of individuals, allegiance we should win, or bargain for have left the public needs unheeded, and favor we should earn—if, in a word, we have made it impossible for the ordinary fail to command the respect while we citizen to be clean, comfortable, and strive to gain the confidence of the peo- secure, while wordy altercations between ple with whom we deal, by just so much workers and officers on obscure quesdo we lose in national character our- tions in dispute have waged interminably. selves, and by just so much retard their In a measure the quarrels have been political and social regeneration.

tried by newspaper and settled by pubIn any thought of the Filipino people, lic opinion ; yet out of the hundreds of whom politically we have advanced so columns printed in the New-York papers rapidly, it is helpful to remember that, about the street-cleaners' strike, for although they are far down in the scale instance, how many were devoted to of peoples in industrial and economic exposition of the points at issue ? How development, the Church for four cen- many of us really have an opinion as to turies has done its work towards bringing whether the strikers were right in assertthem religious liberty, and that this fact ing that their work was so arranged that alone makes them a people among all they had to be on duty hours in excess the peoples of the Orient peculiarly of the time set by law, or whether the ready for progress in civil liberty. officials were right in saying that the pay

They are the only people in the East was far higher than the men could eam who, as a people, worship the God of the elsewhere? How many of us, as regards Christian; and, bearing this in mind, we the telegraphers' strike, understand why, should do well to remember that before after the public was informed that a we ever reached their shores they had satisfactory agreement had been reached already raised up among themselves an through the intervention of Mr. Neill, apostle of regeneration in their Rizal- the United States Labor Commissioner, hero and martyr, who, in the last weeks the next day's despatches should anof his life, on the very eve of the coming nounce that the operators had “gone of America into the islands, said words out” at San Francisco, and that other like these to the people of his country: points were

threatened? If any one “Fellow-countrymen! No man has given thing was made clear by the great anthragreater proof than I of desiring liberties cite coal strike and the settlement, it was for our country, and I still desire them. that, when the people at large are injured But I make the training of the people by a labor dispute, the public must be a premise, so that they, by education and regarded as a third party, and its interlabor, might attain a personality of their ests safeguarded. But there is no defiown and become worthy of those liberties. nite or systematic way for the public In my writings I have recommended thus to protect itself, nor even any fair study and civic virtues to the people; and impartial way of learning the real without these redemption is impossible.” facts. In the present clumsy fashion of

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