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dealing with disagreements between em- sonably and effectively with labor disployers and employed, industrial warfare putes, a court or conciliation council or takes the place of industrial democracy, other fair-minded place of appeal which and instead of clear, strong statements not only may but must precede an appeal of claims advanced and arguments ad- to the war tactics of the strike—a sort duced, we have minute accounts of what of Hague Tribunal for industry. When the reporters suppose to be picturesque the questions involve employees of the or sensational incidents. John Mitchell government of city, State, or Nation, or almost alone among labor leaders has those of public utility corporations, such begun his contests with employers by as railways, telegraphs, or mines, the law clear and intelligible declarations of his might well absolutely forbid strikes of side of the case, free from perfervid the employees as a body and without rhetoric and rhodomontade. One great notice as unendurable and a crime step toward making the public judges against the people at large. Other counand not partisans in labor troubles will tries have already moved in this direcbe taken when the representatives of tion. We may not be ready for such both sides learn the wisdom of less heat radical labor legislation as New Zeaand more light. In short, trial by news- land's compulsory arbitration law, under paper discussion may lead, through pop- which in labor disputes the employer has ular indignation, to a cessation of intol- to obey the decision of a governmental erable conditions such as have lately board of arbitration under penalty of a prevailed in New York, but it cannot be heavy fine, the employee under penalty regarded as a judicial and well-balanced of losing his license to engage in his method of deciding controverted ques- trade. But we might at least seriously tions.

consider the bill passed not long ago in Such a method there should be, and Canada, and largely due to the Deputy ultimately there will be. The only way Minister of Labor, Mr. W. L. Mackenzie, to get rid of the strike is to put some- and reported at the time in The Outlook. thing better in its place. Those who This plan we find succinctly described think the labor question can be settled as follows in the current issue of The by crying out for the destruction of the World To-Day: labor unions are no wiser than those who

The act provides that no strike or lockout say they would like to see the race prob

can be declared in any mining industry or lem solved by sending the negroes back public service utility prior to or pending to Africa. The privilege of collective investigation by a Board of Conciliation, on bargaining will never be relinquished by penalty oi a fine of from $10 to $50 a day for workingien wherever they have gained At the request of either party to a dispute

employees and $50 to $1,000 for employers. it, and collective bargaining is the soul the Minister of Labor appoints a Board comof unionism. It appeals to most minds posed of one member chosen by each side as essentially fair because, when individ- and a third coöpted or named by the Minual employer and individual employee powers, and issue a report. Their finding,

ister. They will investigate, with full court bargain about wages or hours or treat- however—and here the measure differs from ment, there is no equality of coercive or New Zealand's law-is not binding on either persuasive power; the individual laborer party; they are at liberty to reject it, and, if may be discharged without the slightest enforce their demands. It is felt, however,

they desire, to declare a strike or lockout to inconvenience to the employer, although that in ninety-nine out of one hundred cases that laborer may be absolutely in the the cooling of passion by the compulsory right; only when the employees act as

delay and the force of intelligently directed a unit can they meet their employer on

public opinion will lead to the acceptance of

the award. even ground. The union is to stay, then, but not necessarily as it is now, It is too soon to say that this experiunincorporated, irresponsible to judicialment, or that of New Zealand, is a soluproceeding, impossible to constrain ortion of a great problem ; but it is not direct by State or Nation. The real unreasonable to believe that in some such problem is to provide a recognized plan will be found the opening of a path and authoritative system of dealing rea- leading away from senseless labr r-fights

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The prayer,

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toward the practical application of the stood that an eminent Christian teacher idea that industrialism is business and has said of it that it came to light just in not war.

time to save many of the best men and women from despair.

The adherents of Christian Science can Faith and Fear make no more effective appeal than the

declaration that their belief casts out It is very difficult to reconcile with fear and delivers those who accept it honest faith the timidity with which men from the bondage to this ancient foe of hold the most fundamental truths. If they the human race. Fear has no place in held these truths as a matter of conviction the life of any man or woman who beand experience rather than as intellectual lieves either in God or in immortality. It opinions, they would not be afraid ; be- is a survival of a semi-barbarous age, a

, cause truth is in its nature impregnable. specter that lingers, like the superstitions No man can really believe in a truth which children still cherish, from the without being sure of its ultimate tri- times when men divided the world be. umph. It is not strange that men are tween God and the devil, with much the timid when they do not hold truth in its larger part to the devil. The Church integrity ; fur believing in a truth is a has absolutely nothing to fear concernmuch more difficult matter than many ing the truth in its keeping; it has everypeople comprehend. It is easy to have thing to gain by holding its doors wide an opinion. It is not easy to male that open and inviting the whole world to opinion so much a part of one's character come in and study and scrutinize and and life that it passes over into a deep turn on the searchlight. Its timidity has and unshakable belief.

cost it many a victory; its cowardice has Lord, I believe ; help Thou mine un- lost it many a friend. It ought to welbelief !” expresses a well nigh universal come every honest inquiry and keep its experience and state of mind. A man doors open to every form of sincere from Mars, accepting the body of truth investigation ; but it ought also to show in the Old and New Testaments, would a certain kind of indifference to the posimagine that a Church which used such sible results of inquiry and investigation; a Bible as its text-book would be abso- the indifference with which a man, funlutely without fear; that it would welcome damentally sure of the foundations on the most penetrating play of the search- which he has built, would allow the most light on its foundations; that it would skeptical, critical, and cynical to examwelcome all human inquiry, and even ine those foundations at leisure, The human curiosity, being sure that the body of truth which the Church holds more carefully its claims were examined, is not a treasure which can be stolen. the more painstakingly its truth studied, On the contrary, the more widely it is the nearer and the more certain would diffused, and the farther it is carried, be its triumph.

the better, not only for those who take it, But men in middle life still recall but for the Church itself. Like the vividly the days when to announce one's miracle of the loaves, the treasure of faith in evolution was very like an- truth multiplies as it is dispersed. The nouncing one's self an infidel; and the Church has as little to fear from the name of Darwin, instead of being hon- enemy who comes upon it unawares with ored as a synonym for intellectual integ- the hope of carrying off its treasures as rity, scientific enthusiasm, and an influ- from the man who would steal a Bible for ence on modern thought more deep and the sake of discovering whether it had penetrating, probably, than that which any value for him. The Church is not a was exercised by any other man of the fortress in which a few of the elect find nineteenth century, was term of oppro- refuge in the midst of a hostile world, brium. Within the brief lifetime of a and to whom are committed certain generation, Darwin's view of the process treasures of such value that they must be of nature, as a whole, has come to be so securely guarded from the gaze of the generally accepted and so widely under- covetous, and protected from all possible

The Spectator

assaults. The Church is rather a store- color to these fairy-like haunts of the house of the bread of life, ready to share mermaid; and, indeed, it was an easy with every man who asks and to feed thing for the Spectator to believe that every starving child of the multitude. he was looking down into grottoes and Its doors ought always to be wide open ; caves peopled by another race of beings. its treasures ought always to be in full But most wonderful of all was the jellyview; for its central purpose is not to fish-an ethereal-looking substance of keep things to itself, but to scatter them salmon-pink, with head that expanded broadcast through the whole world. and closed like an umbrella as the creaFaith and fear involve a contradiction in ture breathed, and with s‘reamers of the terms. No man can really be dominated same jelly-like substance Hoating behind by both; for real faith, as contrasted as it passed under the boat. What with intellectual opinion, like love, “cast- mattered it if the abalone shells had eth out fear."

been previously dropped there to add beauty to the submarine setting? The boy who dived for them could bring up the very one desired by the occupant of

the boat, thus increasing the wish to The Spectator finds, as he journeys possess it. The Spectator knew that through the country, that he, in common the real home of the abalone was on the with other tourists, is seeking always rocks close by, and as all things else for the novel and uncommon things- were native to the watery soil, he was sights with which he is unfamiliar, occu- willing to be duped to that slight degree pations previously unknown, and prod- and pay his “two bits " for a shell. ucts of the soil heretofore untasted. The Spectator, therefore, being no exception to the common run of men, has been With this novel experience still fresh eager during a residence on the Pacific in the Spectator's mind, he learned that Coast to taste his first California fruit

an artist in a neighboring city was giving picked from the tree, to visit places exhibitions of sketches actually made of which he has read glowing descrip- under the water. The Spectator was tions, and, in fact, to pursue the novelty incredulous, hardly believing such a thing of every kind and nature when, per- possible, but if those moment vry pictures chance, it is brought to his attention. revealed through the glass-1 ottom boat Of this zest for new things the Spectator could be perpetuated on

invas, he has never been ashamed, believing that surely would make the effort to see them. so long as life can offer him objects of Following the impulse to seek out all interest he will ever be young in the pur- things that are novel, the Spectator suit of them.

found himself in the bungalow studio of

the artist, looking at sketches of wonderSome things, however, cease to be ful interest and beauty and listening to novelties after the first glance, and at the artist's methods of working under once sink to the level of the commonplace; the water. He told the Spectator that others, like a door opening wider and as a boy he was fond of swimming and wider, disclose sights growing more won- diving, remaining below for a longer derful and varied the longer they are time than his companions, his artistic looked upon. The Spectator would call temperament all the time taking note of the glass-bottom boats at Catalina Island effects produced under water, until 'he a novelty of the latter class, feeling sure found himself wishing that he might that the mysteries of the sea as revealed reproduce some of the pictures seen by to him in the Bay of Avalon would never him. It was at the island of Tahiti, become commonplace. There is seen when a young man, that the thought first plant life of every description, from the came to him—and he claims the idea as heavy kelp with its numberless air-pods an original one—that he could prepare to delicate ferns of infinite variety ; fishes a canvas in such a manner as to permit of bright red and sapphire blue give of his sketching with oil crayons under

a

the water. He made no secret of the its place. A coral reef was represented, process, saying that a piece of canvas in whose recesses gauzy sea-nymphs was thoroughly soaked in cocoanut oil, were almost hidden, while suspended and then fastened to a square of glass above, as if floating in the water, was an with strips of surgeons' plaster. With immense white fish, whose undulating watch in hand, the artist said to the motions from head to tail, with the capaSpectator, “Now imagine that the can- cious mouth opening at intervals, gave vas is ready and I am going down for an impression of reality, while its brillthree-quarters of a minute, for that was iant illumination gave evidence that the as long as I could at first remain below. Jonah it had swallowed was in the form Let us see how much can be done in of electric bulbs. Every fin and scale that short space of time. Now I am showed with marvelous distinctness. down thirty feet on the bottom of the sea ; I look about and select my subject from among the many scenes of beauty The Spectator by this time began to presented; I fasten my canvas to a rock, feel the dampening effects of so many and—time is up and I must go to the water novelties, and changed the current surface for air; but the next time I do of his thoughts by visiting a pigeon the work that tells, and by taking several ranch—a novelty to him, inasmuch as he such trips my sketch is made.” From could hardly imagine one hundred thouthis primitive method he advanced to sand pigeons being held in one place the diver's suit, and then could work for without cage, bar, or bolt. On the edge an hour or more at a time. In looking of the Los Angeles River--that stream at these sketches the Spectator was of sand rather than of water-he found amazed to see rocks and cliffs seemingly this pigeon city, and gained a new inas high as those in the Yosemite Valley, sight, not only in “ the flocking together but the artist explained that this apparent of birds of one feather," but also in the height in a depth of only thirty feet is culture of squabs, for the ultimate object due to the magnifying power of the water. of the proprietor is not to raise fancy Coral reefs like mountains, wooded glens breeds, but to cater to the pampered of tropical growth, arroyos and foot- appetite of man. He stated a fact to hills—all were presented in a fashion to the Spectator, which the latter had no charm the eye of the Spectator. The desire to dispute, that “common sense is work begun at Tahiti has been continued a mighty good thing to have," and, poson the Pacific Coast, the San Francisco sessing that, he had learned more by disaster checking the artist's career for observation than any book could tell a time, as valuable sketches and pictures him. He had found that if pigeons had were then destroyed. There was a sug- all they wanted to eat, conditions of gestion of Robert Louis Stevenson about environment such as they desired, and the man, the Spectator thought-his were not frightened by stray dogs or stories of life on a tropical island; his cats, they would never leave their home. interesting recital of tales weird and He chuckled as he said, “ See that little ghost-like, in addition to his descrip- house across the river? That was built tions of picturesque scenes beneath the by a man to tempt my birds over there, water.

but not one has gone." Three tons of

wheat spread upon the ground each day In connection with these submarine offers an open-air, "all hours" restausubjects, the Spectator would mention rant, and the birds appreciate their another novelty in this line, though seen boarding-place. No halters or bridles,

on dry land. In the wonderful electrical no fencing in, no cages or coops except parade of Fiesta Week at Los Angeles, the nests they make for themselves, no each float in the procession represented limitations of any kind or description, in some suggestive way a jewel or semi- yet not a bird leaves the place except for precious stone. There was a wide range, a temporary flight. Freedom is theirs from the diamond to the moonstone ; in every sense, yet the home instinct but somewhere in between the coral had prevails and keeps their number intact.

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Lover and Observer

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BY JOHN BURROUGHS UR many-sided President has a horseback through the country the Presiside to his nature of which the dent had tramped over, he paused at a

public has heard but little, and certain point amid some scattered pine which, in view of his recent criticism of and low bushes above a gorge of the what he calls the nature fakers, is of Yellowstone, and said, “It was right especial interest and importance. I refer here that I heard the strange bird—and to his keenness and enthusiasm as a there it is now.” And I caught the song student of animal life, and his extraordi- as he spoke. We followed it up, and nary powers of observation. The charge soon saw and identified the solitaire, a recently made against him that he is bird in size and color suggesting the only a sportsman and has only a sports- catbird, but a much finer songster. man's interest in nature is very wide of During a recent half-day spent with the the mark. Why, I cannot now recall President at Sagamore Hill I got a still that I have ever met a man with a keener more vivid impression of his keenness and

a and more comprehensive interest in the quickness in all natural history matters. wild life about us-an interest that is at The one passion of his life seemed once scientific and thoroughly human natural history, and the new warbler And by human I do not mean anything that had appeared in his woods-new in akin to the sentimentalism that sicklies the breeding season on Long Islando'er so much of our more recent natural seemed an event that threw the affairs history writing, and that inspires the of state and of the Presidential succesfounding of hospitals for sick cats; but I sion quite into the background. Indeed, mean his robust, manly love for all open- he fairly bubbled over with delight at air life, and his sympathetic insight into the thought of his new birds and at the it. When I first read his “Wilderness prospect of showing them to his visitors. Hunter,” many years ago, I was im- He said to my friend who accompanied pressed by his rare combination of the me, John Lewis Childs, of Floral Park, a sportsman and the naturalist. When I former State Senator, that he could not accompanied him on his trip to the talk politics then, he wanted to talk and Yellowstone Park in April, 1903, I got a to hunt birds. And it was not long fresh impression of the extent of his nat- before he was as hot on the trail of that ural history knowledge and of his trained new warbler as he had recently been on powers of observation. Nothing escaped the trail of some of the great trusts. him, from bears to mice, from wild geese Fancy a President of the United States to chickadees, from elk to red squirrels; stalking rapidly across bushy fields to the he took it all in, and he took it in as woods eager as a boy and filled with the only an alert, vigorous mind can take it one idea of showing to his visitors the in. On that occasion I was able to help black-throated green warbler! We were him identify only one new bird. All the presently in the edge of the woods and other birds he recognized as quickly as standing under a locust-tree, where the I did. One day, on his return from a President had several times seen and long tramp alone into the wilderness, he heard his rare visitant. " That's his told me of a bird he had seen and heard note now,” he said, and we all three recthat was new to him. From his descrip- ognized it at the same instant. It came tion I concluded it was Townsend's Soli- from across a little valley fifty yards taire—a bird I was myself curious to farther in the woods. We were soon hear. The next day, as

we rode on standing under the tree in which the

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