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and fascinating volume' in a book which is at Africa and Asia. The author of " L'Islamonce scientific without the burden of sci- isme” knows well how to put to the fore his entific nomenclature, and romantic without countrymen's beneficial influence, especially being at all a romance. How comprehensive among the blacks, but he by no means fora view of the various aspects of his subject gets to praise Livingston's monumental Mr. Bullen presents may be seen by a glance achievement as does M. Anatole Leroyat these chapter-headings: “The Ocean as Beaulieu, in his preface to the volume. If the World's Reservoir of Health,” “The one figure, however, stands out more clearly Winds of the Ocean," " The Clouds," than another it is that heroic one of the late “ Ocean Currents,” “The Tides,” “The Cardinal Lavigerie, Primate of Algeria, a Ocean a Source of Food Supply,” missionary of apostolic temper and fire, a “ Ocean the Universal Highway,” “The man worthy to stand alongside the church Ocean Unexplored and Unexplorable,” fathers themselves. In his “Quatre Por“ The Ocean as a Battle-field,” etc. Inci- traits " the late Jules Simon had already indentally it may be remarked that, in spite of structed the world as to Lavigerie's true place his splendid and timely advocacy of peace in history. The present volume impressively in the last-mentioned chapter and elsewhere, emphasizes the lesson. Mr. Bullen himself seems not averse to dealing out bloodless thrusts, as in one place The Old Engravers

The old print which he alludes to critics of the British navy as

hangs on the wall is “foreign liars” and “home-bred traitors,"

apt to picture the life of long ago better than and in another contrasts Protestants with

the pen portraits of the printed page. This bigoted Roman Catholics, referring to

is particularly true of English prints and of the power of their organization as

" the vast

English life. Copper plate engraving first

appeared in England about the middle of tyranny of the Romish Church.” He also

the sixteenth century. Two hundred years rather persistently scolds a perverse generation for their interest in the daily newspaper,

later the art had developed its various

branches so as to interpret life with both football, bridge, and other joys of existence

comprehensiveness and intimacy. Engrainstead of in the serious subjects that em

vers now had a wide choice of medium in ploy his own attention. But this, if a bit

line, mezzotint, stipple, etching, aquatint. questionable in point of taste and consist

In these various forms we find visualized ency, is only a minor blemish in a work the major portion of which is most stimulating Evelyn, Horace Walpole, Fanny Burney and

the impressions we receive from Pepys, and instructive.

the rest. If the old prints are worth any Aggressive French

American and English one's attention first of all because of their

Christians are not as well- intrinsic merit as works of art, they are Christianity

informed as they might worth quite as much because they link us be about the ideas, ideals and actual ag- intimately with the past. They represent, as gressive work accomplished by French does nothing else quite so well, the human Christians. As the vast majority of French atmosphere of other days. A book has men and women are Roman Catholics. a vol- always been needed which should unite these ume such as M. Bonet-Maury ? is always two view points of art and life. At last it useful to impress upon the minds, not only has come in Mr. Malcolm Salaman's descripof Frenchmen themselves, but of Christians tion of the old engravers of England and all over the world, and especially of Protest- their relation to contemporary art and life." ants, what has been and is being accom- Mr. Salaman writes in charming style. His plished by France in the development of text is both entertaining and instructive and morals and religion. The world Congress is illustrated by many excellently reproduced of Religions at Chicago in 1893 furnished the pictures. occasion for a fuller appreciation of this,

This volume? commemorates and the accounts of the Congress by M. Robert Clark

the life and work of a pioneer Bonet-Maury and Dr. Barrows called atten

missionary amidst a fierce and fanatical tion of a yet wider circle to the too littleappreciated endeavors of various bodies of people, in Northwestern India. An honor

man of Trinity College, Cambridge, Mr. Christians in other parts of the world than

Clark went in his youth to the field where In M. Bonet-Maury's present volume

his half-century of work resulted in instituwe see the broad ideals underlying the work

a

tions and influences fruitful of growing and of France in particular in her missions in

1 The Old Engravers in Their Relation to Contemporary 1 Our Heritage the Sea. By Frank T. Bullen, F.R.G.S. Life and Art. By Malcolm C. Salaman. J. B. Lippincott E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $1.50, net.

mpany, Philadelphia. $2, net. 2 France : Christianisme et Civilization. Par G. Bonet- 2 Robert Clark of the Punjab. By Henry, Martyn Clark. Maury. Hachette et Cie, Paris, France.

M.D. Fleming H. Revell Company, New York. $1.75 net.

ours.

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enduring good. The courage and gentleness, form the first instalment of the history cover the energy and patience, the self-devotion the period of the military and commercial · and tactfulness of the ideal missionary were expansion of Rome in the Mediterranean all illustrated in him, and he did not lack basin down to the date of Cæsar's death. A “the saving grace" of a sense of humor. few passages will indicate the central interThe narrative is blended with sketches of est of the historian. Near the end of the the land and the people, their ways, and the second century B. C. Marius and Scaurus lights and shadows thence resulting. Espe- stand forth as early specimens of the sellcially noticeable are the indications of an made man, and of “the new Italian bouractive interest of both officers and privates geoisie ... the nucleus of the first real Italof the British army in Christian missions, ian nation in history," the result of "much outrunning a timid policy of the civil gov- the same causes as have contributed, beernment.

tween 1848 and the present day, to that Italian

bourgeoisie which is the nucleus of twentiethThis thick volume is divided England and into three books, " The Soul

century Italy.” The period of the first Trithe English

umvirate witnessed an industrial revolution of London," “ The Heart of the Country,"

,” “The Spirit of the People.". analogous to that of the nineteenth century; As an “interpretation "—it is so styled by of rejuvenation as Europe and the United

'“ Italy was passing through the same period the author-it does not appear to us particulary illluminating, though a very great

States at the present day," and encountering

our own problems, among them “the contranumber of words have been used in the

diction between the sentiment of democracy attempt to make it so. To the divisions

and the unequal distribution of wealth.” Of already mentioned a voluminous "author's note” is prefixed, supplemented by one of lus, the historian remarks that his work is

Rome's "first and greatest lyric poet,” Catulsimilar length, in which egotism and over

sufficiently accounted for by Cæsar's politisophistication of view-point and utterance contend, as, indeed, they do throughout. sionate could only be poured forth in an age

cal revolution. Poetry so personal and pasMost right-minded people being at least

when the wealthy and cultured classes had reverent if not devout, the tone of tolerant

embarked in the pursuit of enjoyment, condescension toward revealed religion,”

“abandoning the affairs of government to a especially manifest in this “L'envoi ” and in the chapter on “ Faiths” in Book III., Cæsar, Mommsen's estimate of him is set

class of professional politicians." As to seems peculiarly offensive, and to the ortho

aside as biased by “fanatical admiration for dox believer must appear blasphemous. The volume has several good illustrations by parable opportunist,” but not a great states

his hero." He is described as an “incomHenry Hyde.

man, a remarkable genius, who " under twenIn this remarkable tieth-century conditions might have become The Greatness and

work we have at length a captain of industry in the United States, Decline of Rome

what might have been an empire-builder in South Africa, or a scienexpected. Italy, reunited and once more a tist or man of letters in Europe, with a worldworld-power enthroned at Rome, now takes wide influence.” His mission was that of a from foreign hands the congenial task of writ- Titanic destroyer. In him were “personiing the history of the ancient world-power of fied all the revolutionary forces, magnificent, which she was the home. Hereafter Momm- but devastating, of a mercantile age in consen, Merivale, and others, however meri- Alict with the traditions of an old-world torious their work, will not suffice the mod- society. . . . His greatest work for posterity ern reader apart from this Italian interpreter was the conquest of Gaul, to which he himof the mistress of the ancient world. In his self attributed little importance.” Why he view the Roman world-conquest exhibits a undertook it is still problematical. The colossal case of experiences recurring when- present account differs widely from the comever a national industrial democracy grows mon, and is defended at length in a critical up on the ruins of an agricultural aristoc- appendix. However familiar with Roman racy. The oft-related events of Roman his history one inay be, he will find an attractive tory serve him as the thread which connects freshness throughout these volumes. his story of changing economic conditions

A book of rare and manysided and social life, and the motives and policy A Gallery interest is this works of an old of political leaders. The two volumes which of Tories

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hand in the Conservative, or 1 England and the English : An Interpretation. By Ford

Tory party, of which Lord Beaconsfield, forMadox Hueffer. McClure, Phillips & Co., New York. $2. merly Mr. Disraeli, was in his later years the Guglielmo Ferrero. Translated by Alfred E. Zimmern, M.A. 1 Lord Beaconsfield and Other Tory Memories. By T. E. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. $5.25, net.

Kebbel. Mitchell Kennerley, New York City. $4, nei.

2 The Greatness and Decline of Rome

In 2 vols. By

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great leader. Between him and the author the farm, is forcing attention to the defects existed that intimate friendship which gives and mistakes of current educational practice, value to the reminiscences here preserved. to which this enlightening volume brings The larger part of the volume is devoted sound scientific and practical correctives. to reminiscences of a multitude of other Tables of physical measurements and a Tory characters of all classes from lords to bibliography covering the lines of study peasants, a long train of

ecdotes concern- opened in the text enhance its value. ing whom, jocose, sarcastic, or grotesque, gives pith and point to its commemoration

The Cambridge with which this fresh vol

It is a tumultuous period of them. Town life and country life, Tory

Modern History

ume' of an invaluable clubs and Tory inns, the university and the

work is concerned—the period of reaction village, Tory sportsmen, agriculturalists and

and ebullition which followed the close of journalists, Tory democracy and literature, the Napoleonic wars. ,

The visions of unistatesmen and ladies, come into view as the

versal union and peace which had hovered kaleidoscope turns, and always in a genial,

over the conferences of the allied powers of often in a humorous aspect. As Mr. Kebbel

Europe soon vanished, to reappear only in was persona grata in the best Tory society,

our own day at The Hague. The first half of course he knew it well; and as he was for

of the nineteenth century, marked by the thirty-four years a writer for such a journal ferment of new ideas, by great economic as the (London) Standard, he wields a prac- changes and literary movements, by new ticed pen. That he is also a classicist, who

national aspirations, and the birth of new remembers his Greek and Latin well enough States, was a period of unstable equilibrium, to make pat quotations, adds the flavor to his pages which scholars prize. Altogether characteristic features of it appear in the

both evolutionary and revolutionary. These it is a capital book for leisure hours.

course of the twenty-four chapters contribGrowth and

Among many important treat- uted to this volume by British and Continen

ises on education now comEducation

tal scholars, each a specialist in his theme. peting for attention none of That part of the field which lies closest to higher importance than this' has come to our American interest is the continent which notice. Its fundamental proposition, that stretches from our southern border to the the physical basis of education is the thing Strait of Magellan. The story of the achieveto be first secured, should by this time be ment of its independence is introduced by familiar enough, but what this involves and an illuminating history of the Spanish dodemands most parents and teachers have yet minion for the three centuries preceding, to learn. The human being who is getting with an estimate of it not unmingled with his growth needs the sort of education that admiration—" from the middle of the sixwill help him get it. The young child is to teenth century the dominant note of the develop out of the animal stage, in which the Spanish dominion is peace,” a peace unsense-organs and muscles dominate, into the known there before or since the Spanish human stage, with the brain controlling the Due credit is given for the helping vital system, and it is through the exercise hand extended to the young republics by of the former that the brain has to gain de- the United States, offset by a charge of velopment. Significant it is, that careful responsibility for prolonging the Spanish manual training in the use of tools proved power in Cuba and Porto Rico. Other an effective cure for the dullness in simple specially attractive chapters treat of Cathoarithmetic shown by inmates of a reform- lic emancipation in Great Britain; Canada atory. To know the stages of growth and as the birthplace of Britain's modern colodevelopment of the several physical organs nial policy; the revolution in English poetry in the successive periods of early lise pro- and fiction ; economic change; the British motes intelligent supply of the kinds and economists. The historian remarks that amounts of exercise required in each period. after the political earthquake which had Large information on this point is presented convulsed Europe the search for a stable here. It is certain that study of one sort or basis of authority was divided by conflicting another is forced upon many children before theories, the one basing it on the old religthey are ripe for it; certain, also, that the cous sanctions of the established order, the power of doing sails of proper training at the other on utilitarian science grounded in time when the creative, constructive instinct observed facts. Between these a conflict is budding. The strain of life, especially in went on throughout the changeful period the cities, where children miss the physical

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1 The Cambridge Modern History. Planned by the Late development gotten in the old time life on Lord Acton, LL.D. Edited by A. W. Ward, Litt.D.

G. W. Prothero, Litt.D., and Stanley Leathes, M.A. Vol. 1 Growth and Education. By John Mason Tyl Hough

The Macmillan Company, New ton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. $1.50, net.

era.

X. The Restoration.
York. 4, net.

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here reviewed, with issues of greater change Schiller and Professor Dewey, has been, says in the period ensuing.

Professor James, “abominably misunderThis massive volume'

stood.” He characterizes some attacks on English by a great and statesman

it as “impudent slander," and devotes himCongregationalism like leader of English self to its vindication. To Pilate's ques

“ What's truth?" Congregationalism has interest for many of tion,

he would reply, other names, Episcopalians and Presby- Truth comprises all principles, ideas, and terians especially, as well as all Americans

beliefs that lead in the long run to the best to whom the development of religious free- practical results. Pragmatism is the same dom and the delimitation of the spheres of method in philosophy that utilitarianism is Church and State form an attractive subject. in ethics, which pronounces monogamy right Names stand for variable things in the

and gambling wrong, not by previous intuithree hundred years of history here reviewed. tion, but by the test of experience. What A Congregational church now denotes sim

wears best is good; and, because proved ply an independent church associated with good, is true. Pragmatism, also called Huothers equally independent. Originally, says

manism from its insistence on practical Dr. Dale, it denoted a society not constituted

human needs, commends itself to those who simply by free contract of its members, but re

find the rarefied empyrean of rationalism too garding itself as an organ of Christ's will, and thin to breathe in, and prefer the lower levels subsisting in vital union with him as its head.

of the habitable world. Whether a philosoTo this conception Dr. Dale holds it stil. pher be a pragmatist or a rationalist, ProBetween the Presbyterianism of Cromwell's

fessor James regards as dependent on his time and ours important differences appear.

intellectual temperament. His well-known Puritanism and Anglicanism in Cromwell's

vivacious and breezy style of address, gartime had both changed for the worse since

nished here and there with racy colloquialthe time of Elizabeth. The effect of her isms, working, as it does, to enliven attention policy Dr. Dale sees as both for better and to his argument, is itself felicitously pragfor worse. It strengthened her power, and

matic. That the pragmatic method of philso prevented the suppression of Protestant- osophy trends toward materialism is cerism in Europe. But it promoted a revival of tainly untrue.“ If,” says Professor James, Catholic tendencies in English Protestant

the hypothesis of God works satisfactorily ism, which under the Stuart kings were bane

in the widest sense of the word, it is true. ful to church and throne, and to-day are

Whatever its residual difficulties may be, working for schism. Cromwell was a Con- experience shows that it certainly does work, gregationalist—an “Independent,” in the

and that the problem is to build it out and phrase of that time. His army was mainly determine it so that it will combine satisfaccomposed of Independents. In Parliament, torily with all the other working truths.”

the till“ purged” by the army, the majority were

Humorously dividing thinkers into Presbyterians, who viewed with horror the

tough-minded," more intent upon expeexecution of the king by the Independents.

rienced facts, and the “tender-minded," After the restoration of the monarchy, the

more intent on ideas and principles, these history traces the development of the Con

lectures set forth the pragmatic method as gregational churches from feebleness to

serviceable for unstiffening the theories strength, along with that of other dissenters

which keep them apart, and helping them to from Episcopacy, and records their achieve get together. ments for religious liberty and national edu

With this fifth volume 'the series

Luther's cation in opposition to the proscriptive policy

of Luther's sermons on Gos

Postils of the State Church, now attenuated and ere

pel texts for the Sundays and long to disappear. For a historical under- festival days of the Christian year is constanding of the peculiarities of religious life plete. The present issue includes twenty-six in England this history is eminently in

of his "postils”—expository homilies—covstructive.

ering the period from the second Sunday In this volume ? the lectures

after Easter to Trinity Sunday, inclusive. Pragmatism to which the students of

Their predominating theme is the work of Columbia University flocked last winter are the Spirit, and they may be classed as misgiven to the larger number who have been sionary sermons. This is not only their first on the watch for their publication. Prag

translation into English, but their first unmatism, as expounded by Mr. F. C. S. abridged translation into any language. It

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is in this series of discourses that Luther is History of English Congpegationalism., By R. W. Dale,

Completed and Edited by A. W. Dale. considered to have been at his best. 2 Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of 1 The Precious and Sacred Writings of Martin Luther. Thinking. By William James. Longmans, Green & Co., Vol. XII. Edited by John Nicholas Lenker, D.D. New York. $1.25, net. Postage, 13 cents,

erans in All Lands Company, Minneapolis Minn.

D.D., LL.D..
A. C. Armstrong & Son, New York. $4, net.

Luth

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