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who swallow down all the favourite them who think at all, arc by no means articles of the predestinarian creed in convinced that “the CONFESSION 05 the most rigid sense, and treat all who Faith contains nothing but the truths of differ from them as heretics, apostates, God.” However, they are content to and knaves. They professedly oppose enjoy their own opinions privately, and the right of patronage and all presen. hold themselves bound to teach and tations, and strenuouy contend for po- profess what the church enjoins. Acpular calls
. Such were the persons who cordingly in public, in the pulpit, they feveral years since persecuted Mr. Fer- are thorough Calvinists. Their fera guson for advancing some opinions mons are frequently as orthodox as our (unwarrantable I own) concerning fub- articles themselves; and they explain fcription to the confession of faith. the catechism to their parishioners ac. After being baffled in almost every, ge- cording to its obvious meaning. Our neral assembly of late years, they have preachers, indeed, do not promise much now muftered up all their forces, sum- either to the honour or the advancemoned a strong reinforcement of ruling ment of religion, as you will readily elders, and threaten to carry every own when I have told you the usual thing before them.
progrefs of their EDUCATION. It is Those of the moderate party, as they commonly as follows:-A farmer's fon, are called, are chiefly to be found in after two years attendance at college, the great towns of Edinburgh and A. obtains the charge of a country school. berdeen, and through the whole north The profits of this enable him to finish country. Their real principles are far his course in philosophy, and aftesfrom being strictly orthodox. They wards to pats a fortnight or three see the absurdity of many of the te- weeks every winter at the Divinitynets imposed upon them, and acknow. Hall. This he calls studying Divi. ledge the iniquity of such an impofi- NITY! He makes a party in the preftion: but they consider it as a grie- bytery to favour him. From the hope vance-an abuse which time mult re- of his affiftance afterwards, he is lidress. In the mean while they submit censed; palles his trials without seruto subscriptions as a matter of form, or ple; continues to hold his school and satisfy themselves with some of those his ministerial office together, until by various arguments with which you are the interest of his friends he be
prodoubtless perfectly acquainted. In their vided with a fettlement. Such are public teachings they confine them- near one half of our ministers at present, selves very much to the inculcating the and such the far greater part of the private duties of life: or if any pecu- probationers both in the country and liar doctrine of Christianity unavoida- elsewhere; of low conversation, una bly falls in their way they reconcile it acquainted with life and manners, too in the best manner they can with the much occupied with their business of established system, and declare that on teaching or their secular concerns to these points we must avoid entering enlarge their minds by reading. From into subtlety and refinement.
this fate of dependence they are natuThis general account I give you only rally led to court the farour of the vul. as my own opinion, and as what is gar. Their ferions, therefore, are commonly reported among us. But I very popular; that is, very orthodox, rather choose to represent to you how And yet, what divinity our preachers matters stand in the narrower circle of have, is of a liberal kind enough; bethis presbytery, where I have better cause they read mostly the books re. opportunities of information. Therecommended to them by the profesors are really not above one or two in it of divinity, and make use, as often as whom you would call men of letters. they dare, of the belt English serions What time the oiliers can spare from To trace our corruptions full nearer the necebarr duties of their function is to the fountain, I have great reason to employed in improving their glebes, believe, that the students in divinity, regulating of thuir family affairs, and the rising hopes of the church, are vet diipoiing of their stipends. Tbote of more ignorant or depraved. At Edin
burgh (we all agree) a rake and a young As the general taste for agriculture divine of any spirit are synonimous hath introduced a greater familiarity terms. In Aberdeen they are rather between them and the FARMERS, the mean and illiterate than profligate:- latter begin too visibly to imbibe fomeschoolmasters almost all of them, who what of their loose principles, or to come to town just to deliver a discourse imitate their irreligious behaviour. in the Hall, and to have another pre- Now, while I recollect, I am astonished scribed them against the next winter; at the progress several of them have are present at not above three or four made towards infidelity! The pesti. of the professor's prelections, and have lent writings of Tindal, Collins, and no other poflible benefit from their at- Voltaire are frequently to be seen in tendance than the privilege of borrow. their hands. With regard to Sunday, ing a book now and then from the li. they behave as cavalierly as the gentry: brary. Do you wonder that no young and if you challenge them on the point, men of fortune and education choose they will either find fault with the abto fit themselves for the church? The furdity of the minister's doctrine; or reasons are many and evident. The infift that they are under no religious temporal emoluments they can expect obligation to attend divine worship; will not repay the expence of a liberal or that they can pafs their time as proeducation: they have no better chance fitably at their own houses. for a good benefice than the filliest and The COMMONALTY have still a face moft ignorant. They are even alhamed of religion; regularly attend the church, of being numbered in such a society and exprefs great concern about their as we generally are! And very maný, higher interests. But many of them who itill retain the generous fentiments are most unhappy bigots: much more of youth, reject with disdain the con- anxious and earnest to pry into the dition on which they must hold an ec- myfteries and speculative doctrines of clefiaftical office.
Christianity, than to regulate their After what I have said of the cha- practice by its precepts. To inculcate racter and practice of the clergy, you the moral duties of life is what they will not be surprised that the Gen- call legal preaching. No discourse is TLEMEN in this part of the country acceptable to them unless it treats of are very lukewarm and indifferent with some mystical point, and frequently regard to religion. Some of them are repeats the name of Jesus. known to be infidels; others (if they their own minister doth not comply be men of fenfe) seem to look upon with this humour, they ramble away the external profession of Chriftianity to fome seceding meeting, where they as unnecessary, provided they keep to are certain of meeting with entertainthe essential part of natural religion: ment exactly to their taste - sant, railand others are so little improved with ing, and nonsense! what they hear at church, or perhaps When I review the representation fo much disgusted with it, that they which I have drawn up, it really octhink themselves abundantly justified curs to me that even you will look on in staying at home: a mean opinion it as a mere caricature. I confess it is of the teachers of religion hath pro- a dark picture! and many people, per, duced a coldness and disregard to the haps, would observe upon it, that I thing itself
. If the perfons I am had dipped my pencil in gall, and that speaking of preserve a decent respect “all looks yellow to the jaundiced for it, they often declare that it is eye:" and that I have shown only the only from political considerations. difagreeable fide of things. It may be That part of their time which ought so; but then I myself am deceived: to be devoted to God is universally for I assure you I have affirmed noappropriated to visiting and amusement: thing but what hath long been my setand the minister who lives in their tled persuasion: nay, it is what most neighbourhood, and secs all this, must men of sense of my acquaintance agree fuffer it to pass uncensured and unob. with me in. The facts are notorious ferred,
and matter of every day's experience. greateft part of our affociates fo little What reflections to make upon them I agreeable? What profpe&t of a reforknow not: I leave it to your superior mation when perhaps a majority of capacity; and beg in return to have the inferior clergy would oppose it, your sentiments on the part which from motives of conscience; and those every honest man ought to act in such who see the necessity of it have neither alarming circumstances. What plea- power nor courage to attempt it? sure or improvement can be expected I am, Rev. Sir, in a community where our mouths are
Your's, most respectfully, stopped, our hands tied up, and the
LIFE OF ARCHBISHOP CHICHELE,
ENRY CHICHELE* was born In all probability, he did not reside Ferrers, a place which had been the 1392, he was presented to a living in residence of his ancestors for more than the diocese of St. Afaph. In 1390 he two generations. Thomas, his father, became rector of St. Stephen, Wal. who was at leait the fecond in descent brook, on the presentation of the Abafter their fettlement is that town, bot and Convent of St. John of Colmarried Agnes, a gentleman's daugh- chefter; and was admitted an advocate ter of the Pyncheon family. The if. in the Court of Arches. His rectory sue of this alliance was three sons, Ro- he resigned the following year, and as bert, William, and Henry, whose life we the archdeaconry of Dorset was conare now going to present to our reader. ferred on him about this time, it seems · Two of these brothers, who were that he was already engaged in the sergrocers, raised themselves to offices of vice of his great patron, Richard Metthe highest truft and dignity, in Lon- ford, Bishop of Salisbury. don, by their industry. Robert was During the tumultuous reign of twice chofen mayor, and William bore Richard II. Metford had followed the the office of Meril, and obtained the fortunes of the royal party, and sufTank of alderman.
fered with them in their adverfity. On Henry, however, did not follow the recovery of their power, from a trade, but was sent to the grammar- canon of Windsor, he was firft made school at Winchester, erected as a nur- Bishop of Chichester, and then of Sasery to New-College in Oxford, by lifbury; of which cathedral be preWykeham. From this seminary, by sented a canonry to Chichele, who was a regular progression, he was removed now Doctor of Laws, and Vicar-geneto New-College, where he prosecuted ral to the bishop, in all fpiritual matters, the study of the civil and canon law, Preferments now crowded on him; at that time the most direct road to and from his admission into the church advancement.
about 1392, to 1404, he seems to have In the requestered walks of colle- enjoyed several different benefices. Of giate life, little can arise to attract the which Odiham was the latt, which he notice of the public. It is recorded, enjoyed from the bounty of his protechowever, that Chichile, by the boun- tor Metford. ty of the founder, in 1388, received As this church was in the diocese of á dividend of thirteen shillings and Winchefter, we may easily imagine, four-pence, as Bachelor of Laws, and that Chichele would have accounted that in 1390, an augmented allowance this the most acceptable of his promo. of fixteen-pence a week was granted ticns, if he could have received in. to him, under a serere fit of illness, du- ftitution at the hands of the venerable ring the greater part of his confinement. Wykeham.
The Life of Archbishop Chichele, late published, furnished us with materials for this account,
This prelate, however, who had than thirty years, by the double claims laid the foundations of Chichele's for- of pretenders. So that Gregory had tunes, was now no more; and the been raised to the pontificate, on condeath of the Bishop of Salisbury in dition of resigning, if his competitor 1407, was a feverer trial to his feel Benedict should be judged to have the ings, as he had long lived with him in clearer title to it, by the Christian the most familiar habits of friendly in- church. tercourse. As a token of his latest re- Chichelè was unanimously appointgard, the bishop bequeathed him a'ed to attend this council, with the Bio golden goblet, with a cover, and ap- ihop of Salisbury and the Prior of Canpointed him his principal executor. terbury, and every beneficed clergyman
His mind was too firm to fink under was taxed four-pence in the pound for these shocks, how largely foever he all his ecclefiaftical poffeffions, in order facrificed to the calls of friendship on to defray the expences of the journey. these melancholy occasions; and his The event was, that neither Gregory abilities had acquired too fecure a re- nor Benedi&t met with the approbation putation to render adventitious fup- of the cardinals. They elected the ports necessary. He had been repre. Archbishop of Milan, who, on his ac sented to his sovereign as a man of a cession to the papal throne, took upon versatile and comprehenfive genius, him the name of Alexander the Fifth. corrected by a sound and disceming Soon after the inauguration of the judgement. Henry, therefore, in one new pope, Chichelè returned to Engyear, employed him in embassies to land, and for several months resided at Pope Innocent VII. and to the court St. David's, and applied himself to the of France. In the course of the year, discharge of his paftoral cares, with a in which the Bishop of Salisbury died, most conscientious diligence. he was likewise honoured with the In 1410, he was again sent to France, public character of ambassador to Gre- to negociate a renewal of the truce begory XII. a pontiff of whom the Ita- tween the two kingdoms. Sir John Han writers have recorded, that the Cheyne, Cattryck, and Lord Beausingle article of sugar, in the expencés most accompanied him, and in a short of his household, amounted to more time their negociation was happily efthan the food and raiment of several of fected. The jealousies of borderers, his predeceffors.
however, rendered a commission with The Pope was fo much pleafed with fresh powers necessary in the following his conduct, in this embassy to Sienna, year. This business was likewise ada where the pontiff then held his court, justed, and then Chichelè revisited his that in a very few weeks after his arri- diocese, and was enthroned, on May val, on the death of Guy de Mona, 11, with the usual ceremonies. Bishop of St. David's, Gregory pre
Henry IV. closed his turbulent reign fented him with the vacant fee. in 1413. He had wrested the sceptre
It was some time, however, before by violence from the hand of the rightthe negociations, in which he was em- ful pofsefsor, and maintained it in a ployed, permitted him to go through hard and doubtful struggle. His eneall the ceremonies that concur to the mies were formidable, and their open completion of the episcopal character. revolt, and hostile defance, subsided He was summoned to a fynod, by Arch- only in the suspicious stillness of supbishop Arundel, before he was en- pressed resentment and covered treasons. throned.
The church, perhaps, by the death This fynod was convened, in order of this prince, loft a powerful protecto deliberate upon the choice of proper tor. His heir, Henry of Monmouth, persons to represent the English nation, did not, however, abridge the authoat the council of Pisa; a council that rity of ecclesiastics. In Chichele he was convened to settle a schism that placed particular confidence, and emhad divided the Roman church, and ployed him, with the Bishop of Exedisgraced the Apostolic chair, for more ter, to determine a cause between the
city of Bayonne and one Peter de Con- On the 13th of May, 1414, he was vies.
put in full posseflion of his temporaliIlis frequent public charges may be ties by the King, at Leicester, very comfidered as a certain proof of his foon after he had received the pall ability in the managenient of political from the Bishop of Winchester, proolujeéts. He was foun engaged again fessed obedience to the Pope, in the in the service of his country, and with customary forms, and been invested Lord Zonch, the Earl of Warwick, and with the spiritualities. others, he was sent to France, to re- Chichele now began to move in an new a treaty which had fubitel, higher and more enlarged sphere. He with several interruptions, from the was peculiarly bound to protect a nureign of Richard the Second, and to merous body of clergy, and to support conclude an alliance of perpetual peace, the eftablithed religion. He entered with the Duke of Burgundy.
upon his charge at a most critical juncThe former of these was only ef- ture. During the laft two reigns, fedted, and a trace was ratified for Wickliff had made great ftrides towards eight months, at Lenlingham, a fron- weakening the authority of the church. tier town, and the ufual place of con- The facerdotal function began to be ference. We may inter, froin the fre- viewed with less respect, and their reevent renewals of this truce, that the venues to be reckoned the produce of infraction of treaties was very common exorbitant exactions. The Commons in these ages. The poffefsions of the allembled in parliament had even preEnglish on the ancient territories of sented a bill for converting the temFranke were fubmitted to with im- poral poffeffions of the church to the pajence, and maintained with captious relief of national necessities *. The exactness, which administered perpe- factious pride and deep resentments of tuat causes of contention. .
the two powerful houses of Orleans and Not long after this negociation, Chi- Burgundy were privately fomented by chele was translated to the fee of Can- Henry of England, whose friendship terhary, which was vacant by the death they alternately follicited. The two ini Arundel. The prior and monks dukes, indeed, in 1412, according to of thae church were inanimous in their the simple manners of the age, rode election, and on his declining to ac- through Auxerre, mounted on rept of theie honours till the Pope horse, which gave hopes of a reconhad cancelled the bonds by which he ciliation. But these hopes were deluwas united to the church of St. Da- five. Paroxisms of insanity rendered •vid's, an application was made by the Charles VI. unable to govern his brotherhood to the Pope, which the realms, or appease these tuinults; fo crown ftrongly feconded.
that France was torn by contending The court of Rome is always fruit- factions, while Henry politically aberful in expedients. To preserve the ho- ted these diffentions, as he foon fore
nour of the apoftolic fee, and to con- faw that it must eventually tend to - fult its interests, rcquired no fmall share the advantage of his dominions. of address. The old papal clain of Such was the situation of affairs, and providing to vacancies in the church such was the temper of the people, could not well be waved, and it was .when Chichele was tranilated to the not safe to offend the English monarch, metropolitan fee. The parliament, by an obstinate opposition to his wishes. convened at Leicefter, revived the old Á middle plan was adopted. The attack upon the temporalities of the pontiff insisted on his right of provision, church. Ambassadors from the French bur took care, at the fame time, that court had arrived with demands, that his choice should not be different from amounted to little less than an open that of the petitioners.
declaration of hoftilities. Every pro
potal ** As the ancient provirion for a priest was computed at an annual ftipend of seven marks, the defy appeared by this eitimate to have an yearly incom" 0 322, 00 marks, Tuis fuum it was als tontid maintain is ear! ; Isrc knigh's, 6oco ibinareng 100 almihoulot, and leave 20,000
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