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antecedent to the 5th of April next, to Sir Guy Carleton, and he believed as by the faid act is henceforth strictly it had been promised him before he and absolutely prescribed." The ho- went out. This in reality was not nourable mover spoke very disrespect. more than 300l. and was therefore fully of Lord Shelburne, but launched within the letter, as well as the spirit, out into a warm panygeric on the of the act; as was another of 2001. asplendid abilities and superior virtues year to a clerk who had been taken of Mr. Pitt. Then he entered on the from the Tax-Office to the Treasury, immediate object of his motion, he and who in a change of minifters might observed that there was one pension lose his latter situation, without being relately granted to which he had no ob- stored to the former. The pension of jection; it was that of the Lord Chan- 2000l. a-year to Lord Grantham, who cellor; and it was his opinion that a had for eight years been our ambassador clause in favour of the person who to Spain, was in consequence of the should fill that high office ought to royal promise; but this pension is to have been inserted in the act passed last cease when that noble lord should be year. There was a clause in that act, provided for by a place of equal value leaving a power in the crown to give under the crown. pensions beyond the extent specified to Mr. Fox supported the motion. He fach persons as had been employed in said the Chancellor's penfion ought unembassies to foreign courts." He was doubtedly to be totally out of the querafraid that some abuses would arise tion, for it stood on grounds very different from this clause; to prevent them as from those of ambassadors to foreign much as possible, and at the same time courts. A Chancellor ought to be lito take the sense of the House on that berally recompensed by the state, for question, whether the spirit of the act quitting a lucrative profession for an was binding now, though according to office only tenable at the royal pleasure. the letter it was not to commence till When he moved for the clause relative. the 5th of April next, was the principal to persons employed in embassies abroad, end he had in view in moving for an ad- he had not in view such men as Lord dress to his Majesty. He was seconded Grantham-men in easy or affluent by Mr. Martyn.
circumstances; but merely those persons Mr. Pitt thought that the spirit and of talents who having been taken from letter of the act was the fame. The their friends and profession, and having period in which it was to take effect long served in other countries, would was expressly limited; and the crown find themselves deftitute when recalled; ought not to be deprived of its power and the crown restrained from making of granting penfions till that period a decent provision for them. After should arrive. He juftified the penfions fome flight alterations, and some uninthat had been granted, and as he wished teresting conversation, chiefly personal, that every part of his conduct as a the address was agreed to. minister should be fully understood by When the House met March 7th, the House, he proceeded to lay before Lord Ludlow informed the members them a history of every pension that that the address had been presented to had been granted fince he had been in his Majesty, and was moft graciously office. The first, he said, was a pen- received; and that his Majesty had orfion of 2000l. a-year to Sir Joseph dered him to assure the House 'that their Yorke, who had spent thirty years request should be complied with. of his life in foreign embaffy: 'Two The main subject of debate this day other pensions, one of 700l. and the was the bill for establishing provisional other of gool. a-year, had been granted regulations for an intercourse with to two clerks in the Treasury, who America. long and faithfully served the public, Mr. Eden objected to it, as it would but were fuperannuated. Another introduce a total revolution in our compenfion of 3501. a-year was granted to mercial system that threatened to overMr. Morgan, who went out secretary turn it. He said it would effect the
Navigation act which had been lately Sir Grey Cooper and Mr. Pitt thought adopted, and made a part of the law the bill ought to be referred to the com of Ireland. This bill virtually repealed mittee, where objectionable clauses it. The two legislators ought therefore might be amended.' The latter wished to have prevented its having this effect, that we might meet with a reciprocity by going hand in hand in all regulations of advantage from the Americans: but of trade and intercourse with America. he would not fatter himself or others But this was not his only objection. with too fanguine expectations of it. The American States lay so contiguous Mr. Burke arraigned the ministers to our Weft India Ilands, and this bill for neglect in settling the terms of giving the Americans leave to trade commerce at the time that the negociawith them, there was no shadow of tion was carrying on at Paris; he went doubt but they would supply them with over the terms of the peace, and repro provisions from the Continent of Ame- bated them afresh. However, confirica, to the utter ruin of the provision dering the necessity of the times, he Irade of Ireland, which supplies the would support the principle of the British West Indies. The next evil tobill, though he disiked some of the be feared from the bill, would be our clauses: nor did he apprehend that loss of the carrying trade. He appre- such evils would result from it as Mr. hended also a detriment to the sugar Eden was fearful of. Mr. Fox con refinery of this country. The Americ curred in sentiments with his friend, cans, being permitted to carry the raw and the bill was ordered to a committee, Tugars to manufacture in their own where the most exceptionable parts country, would be able to undersell us might be expunged or rectified. in every market. He thought the hat In the same House March 11th, Lord trade would also receive a very great Newhaven rose, as he said, for the third injury from the bill. The provisional time to call the attention of the memtreaty had given them the fur of a great bers to the treaty with America. He part of Canada; and as the materials wished to know if Congress had used were at their very door, they could ma- their influence, as ftipulated in that . nufacture them cheaper, and would treaty, or were likely to use it, in probably monopolize that branch of behalf of the Loyalists. In order to business in the West-India Inands. come at the desired information, he *He mentioned another objection to the moved for a copy of the lait dispatches bill, which weighed with him more received from Sir Guy Carleton: and than any of the others which he had was seconded by Mr. Rosewarne. produced: the Americans on their The Chancellor of the Exchequer return from our ports might export our said, that the dispatches contained no manufacturing tools; and our artificers information on the subject, for when emigrating at the same time, we should they were sent off the Preliminaries of run the risque of losing our manufac- Peace had not reached America. Lord tures. This would be a stroke which Newhaven was not satisfied with this the commerce of this nation could not declaration, but insisted on taking the posibly survive. On the whole, he sense of the House. On a divilion confidered the bill as of a very dange. there appeared for the motion 2; against rous tendency. It placed the United it 80. States on the footing of the most fa- When the report from the committee voured country, without fecuring a re- of Supply on the Ordnance estimates ciprocal advantage. The advantage at was brought up, Mr. Rosewarne obpresent was all of one fide; and of a jected to it, principally on account of lide too where so much generosity was the sum of between 4 and 500,000l. totally undeferved! perhaps in time we appropriated in the estimates to the should see ourerror, and be drawn to the completion of the fortifications at Portsdisagreeable and dangerous necefity of mouth. He said, if the peace can be repealing what we were now going to defended at all, it must be on the suppo enact.
sition of our finances being in a ruined Lond. Mac, July 1783.
ftate. And yet the present reduction
General Smith said that the urgency of expence is very small; and the mi: and importance of the East-India affairs litary establishments are fuch as can was such, that it would force itself on only be supported by a flourishing the attention of the House, in spite of empire.
all attempts to thrust it back. He Sir Cecil Wray observed that the waited for the arrangement of a new estimates for the Ordnance for the pre- administration; and insisted that the sent year exceed those of 1763 by up- subject now proposed to the attention wards of 112,000l. The number of of the House was of sufficient magnitroops belonging to the artillery was to tude to demand the earliest and most be double to what it was in 1763; and particular deliberation. this too at a time when we have fewer Mr. Burke considered the matter as dominions to defend! He moved for of the last importance to this country, the recommitment of the report. The interest of the company is so inter
Mr. Steele accounted for the diffe- woven with the interelt of the public, rence between the estimates of this that they will be mutually affected by year, and thofe of 1763, by observing each other's profperity or distress. But very pertinently, that Nova Scotia at the same time that the distresses of lying now at what may be called the the
deserved relief, there was door of an enemy's country, fortifica- as great a call for the reformation of tions which would have been needless abuses. The Company had flown in at the conclusion of the last war, be- the face of parliament at the very time came, through a change of times and that parliament had been engaged in circumstances, absolutely necessary at applying remedies to check the progress present. As to the lands on which of those evils which had long lessened Fresh works were to be erected at Portf- their credit, and threatened the total mouth, the estimate included every ruin of their interests. (He here althing, the purchase money as well as luded to the Company's refusing to the expence of building the fortifica- acquiesce in the recal of Mr. Hastings, tions.
and their insisting on maintaining a The question for the recommitment right of controul over their servants in of the report was negatived without a India.] Heconsidered this part of their division; and the House agreed to it conduct as audacious in the highest dewithout any further debate.
gree, and meriting the severeit correcMarch 12th. Sir Henry Fletcher tion. His having been a member of brought up the report of the committee the committee which had taken the to whom the Eaft-India Company's pe- affairs of the company into particular tition had been referred, which having consideration, added to his general obbeen read a first and a second time, Sir servations on the same subject for near Henry observed, that as the admini- twenty years, gave him confidence ftration was not adjusted and settled, he when he spoke on it; for he knew he would move that the report do lie on spoke from the best information as well the table. At the fame time he thought as the steadiet and calmeft conviction. it necessary to state that if the report The report was ordered to lie on the were not taken into consideration, and table; and Sir Henry Fletcher moved some refolution formed upon it, before that it should be printed; which was the ift of April the whole circulation agreed to without opposition. of the company, about the fum of The same day, the American trade between 3 and 400,000l. would be bill was resuined; and Mr. Orde the stopped. He hoped that as soon as a chairman, was, after a number of obnew administration was formed, they servations of little consequence from would not delay taking it into conlis different sides of the House, directed to deration; but fubmit it as soon a$ report progress, and alk leave to fit poslible to the House.
AN ESSAY ON THE ORIGIN AND PROGRESS OF NATURAL
PHILOSOPHY. JATURAL Philosophy is a sci- wards of two thousand years before the
pearances which are observed in the ciety, which, without any national mutations to which inanimate bodies partiality, may be regarded as the time are subject. Its extent and utility are of its unequivocal diłclosure. fo great that it cannot be doubted but It seems to be even a reflection on that it has existed almost as early as the the human understanding, that the exhuman race itself. The conveniences, perience of many ages have been necesor more properly speaking, the necesi- lary to convince mankind that they are ties of life demand an exertion of the incapable of walking without support arts, and all the arts are dependent ei- in the path which leads to the investither on mechanics or chemistry. It gation of nature. In proportion as we would, therefore, be a fruitless attempt truft to our powers of reasoning we find to endeavour to ascertain the inventors ourselves bewildered, and the best conof many of the arts, and the correspon- ftructed set of inferences respecting nadent practical knowledge which must tural phenomena cannot be depended accompany them. We all not, there. upon till the deduction is rendered aufore, enter into the obscure enquiry, thentic by the fanction of experiment. whether the Asyrians, Chaldeans, and A want of the proper consideration of Egyptians were ever in possession of any this has long induced mankind to reconfiderable share of philosophic fci- ceive fallacious systems whose complience, or whether those mysteries which cated structure and apparent agreement were concealed from the vulgar eye by of parts seemed too great to be the hieroglyphics, were in reality things mere produce of fancy. Discoveries whose loss is at all to be deplored. But, can only be made by reasoning from baftening over those ages which remote the effect to the cau but it is more antiquity or their rudeness has made flattering to the imagination to assume inaccesible to our researches, we shall a cause, and behold the vast variety of endeavour to trace the rational philo- effects which a fruitful brain may affix sophy, that is to say, the union of to it. theory with experiment, from its dawn The progress of science has been reto the flourishing state it now possesses tarded likewise by the indolence of the in all the nations of cultivated Europe. many who are ready to admit facts
Among the philosophers of ancient without fufficient evidence. It is but Greece and Rome, whose opinions and the other day that the history of the doctrines are to be found in the wri- tarantula, and the power of music in Angs of Diogenes Laertius, Plutarch, curing the effects of its bite, was beand others, we find many instances of lieved, and many ingenious theories great genius and penetration, accom- invented for explaining the appearance. panied with the most admirable induf. The ancients seem to have been much try. There are very few of the mo- more desirous of amafling facts than dern metaphysical doctrines respecting examining them, and it appears to have cosmology which have so much awaken. been a thing of more consequence with ed the public attention during the last them to give a plausible reason for an century, but may be found among those event, than to be assured that it really of the Greek and Italian schools; and came to pass. from the vestiges of solid science which It is not, on these accounts, so much appears, though disguised, either in to be wondered at, that the ancients the narration, or from other causes, not being arrived at the pofseflion of there is reason to presume, that if the those requisites which are essential to liberty of Greece had lafted, the true the true method of philof philing, philofophy would have appeared up- fhould place the moft valuable opinions
in the fame rank with those which are cellent man how little they contributed now known to be unworthy of notice. to the advantage of mankind when comThus Plutarch de placitis philosophorum, pared with the knowledge and practice lib. 3. cap. 13. gives an obscure ac- of those duties which become the man count of the opinions of Philolaüs, He- and the citizen. Without entirely neraclides, and 'Ecphantus, from which glecting them, he exerted his endeait is probable that those philosophers vours to make his scholars more wor. were acquainted with the true system thy of esteem than admiration. It is of the world. Copernicus, in his pre- a blot both on his character and that of face to his celebrated work De Revolu- his contemporaries, that he found it ne. tionibus orbium cæleftium, quotes the cessary to have recourse to artifice, in passage and another of the like nature order to procure that respect and attenfrom Cicero; but it seems rather strange tion which his upright life and easy that he should have overlooked another conversation deserved. It was not paffage in Plutarch's imperfect treatise enough that Socrates was the first of De facie in orbe Lune, in which the moral philosophers, but fupernatural theory of gravity is very clearly ex- communications were pretended to. He pressed. As the passage is curious, a affirmed he had a demon, or familiar translation may be acceptable : fpirit, that directed him to good, and
“ But the moon is prevented from taught him to avoid evil. falling by the violence of the motion While philosophy was chiefly conby which she revolves, upon the fame versant among natural things the minds principle that stones or other weights of men appear to have been calm, and are kept from dropping out of a ding the common study of nature seemed raby the swiftness of their motion while ther to unite than divide them. But they are whirled about. For every the study of morality foon created di. body will be carried according to its visions. We can much more readily ainatural motion if not prevented by low the superiority in learning than in fome intervening cause. The moon, morality. An acknowledged pre-emi. therefore, does not move according to nence in virtue either creates a laudable the action of her weight because her emulation, or the most rancorous envy.. tendency is overcome by the violence The example and precepts of the divine of the circular motion."
Socrates produced both these effects. Thales of Miletus is regarded as the Many of his fellow-citizens became founder of the Ionic school of philo- more virtuous, but those who beheld sophers. Moft of the opinions which him without amendment faw with anxiare recorded of this great man are such ety that his conduct was a continual as do him great credit. By travelling reproach to their own. They became into Crete, Phenicia, and lastly Egypt, his enemies, and as the offender is alwhich was then the residence of the best ways more implacable than the injured geometers, he acquired all the know. person, their hatred was not satiated ledge which those times possessed, and but with his life. He was accused of is said to have made very considerable fubverting the religion of his country, discoveries. He is affirmed to be the and condemned to drink poison. first who gave any rational account of Immediately upon the death of Son the cause of eclipses, and even proceed crates, the Grecian school became di. ed so far as to foretell them. The fuc- vided into parties. It has been a difficesors of Thales attended chiefly to culty in all ages to determine the orithe study of nature till the time of So- gin of moral obligation, and the world crates.
is not yet agreed upon the subject. InSocrates, according to Cicero, was deed the question itself has so many the first who called the attention of complicated relations, and supposes such philofophers from the heavens, and a confiderable knowledge of metaphyfixed it upon the study of morality. An fical habitudes, that it is not at all to intimate acquaintance with the sciences be wondered, that both the ancients of the age he lived in, Mewed this ex- and moderns have found it very per