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pofal that could produce a supply be- for the sea-coaft in general, one hundred came an object worthy attention. The and fifty lances, three hundred archers, measure, therefore, fuggested by the and double thipping. Commons was considered by the King When the internal defence of the as equally convenient and practicable. kingdom was thus arranged, King

The clergy were all alarmed. Fre- Henry V. embarked for France; but quent consultations were held, and at made his will before his departure, in laft, to save the whole, they deter- which Chichele was affectionately remined to make voluntary cellion of membered, in the bequer of a role of part of their pofleffions.

crimson embroidered velvet. He was Chichele was fixed upon to lay this also appointed by the king to give the offer before the King and Parliament, ambassadors a pere:nptory antiver, which His {peech was replete with eloquence. was quickly followed by the appearThe old chronicles falsely attribute the ance of the English army, before Har. King's determination of carrying his fleur. arms to the influence of this harangue. To describe che battle of Agincourt The resolution was taken before the is unnecessary. We cannot, however, Archbishop's oration was spoken. forbear relating that a duke received

The chronicles inform us, though mark a day; an earl half a mark; a bathey indeed are of doubtful authority, ron four thillings: an efipuire two; a that the Earl of Warwick asserted that physician only one, which was the the war ought to begin in Scotland:


of a man at arms. No favour. an opinion which the Duke of Exeter able argument of science and philosophy opposed; who was one of the few no- in the reign of this great monarch. blemen, at that time, who had ac- On the king's return to London, in quired a taste for letters in the acade- November, the archbishop performed mies of Italy.

mass at the great altar of St. Paul's, and The alien priories faved the revenues the houles of convocation decrced two of the English clergy. They were in- tenths to be paid, within two years, to, vefted in the King hy parliament; and wards the support of the war; and comChichele confirmned, in convocation, manded the religious obfervance of the an order of the council, which prohi- anniversaries of St. David, St. Winibited the promotion of foreigners to fred, St. Chad, and St. George, and spirtual dignities or benefices, before in the summer of 1416 he published a they had given security that they would conítitution for the repreilion of herefies. neither divulge the secrets of govern- About this period the Emperor Sigis: ment, nor abet the designs of the ene- mund visited England, with the French my. At the same time he abolithed Ambassadors, to endeavour to affect a all papal iminunities and exemptions. peace; but the siege of Harfieur inter

In the spring of 1415, the deter- rupted the negociation. The Duke of minations of the French were inequi. Bedford was dispatched to succour the vocal; and, during the sovereign's ab- belieged. 'The King accompanied the fence, Chichelè, who held the highest Emperor to Calais, wlither Chichele rank in the council, was appointed to followed, and was soon after employed the administration of the realm, with on the old unpromising bufiness of peace, powers to mufter all the clergy through when he accomplished the secondary out his diocese, for the defence of the object of a four inonths truce by land, kingdom, as the country, by levies for in Picardy and Flanders, and by sea a continental war, was greatly depopu- from Morocco to Norwav. lated,

late in November, Chichele arrived Two hundred lances and four hun- in the King's train at London, and, in dred archers were assigned for the guard an assembly of the clergy, obtained a of the east and welt marches towards grant of two tenths for the prosecution Scotland; one hundred lances and two of the war, and settled the annual sealts hundred archers for that of Wales, and of St. Crispin, and St. John of Beverly,

At This faint was believed to have taken an uncommon interest in the toils of the coinbatants, at Agincourt, as his tomb was oblerved by lume pious pilgrims, to diltil large drops of oil durizag that bloody conflict.

city of Bayonne and one Peter de Con- On the 13th of May, 1414, he ejes.

put in full poslefion of his tempo Ilis frequent public charges may be ties by the King, at Leicester, comfidered as a certain proof of his foon after he had received the ahility in the management of political from the Bishop of Winchester, olvjects. He was foun engaged again fessed obedience to the Pope, in in the service of his country, and with customary forms, and been inve Lord Zoach, the Earl of Warwick, and with the spiritualities. others, he was sent to France, to re- Chichele now began to move ir new a treaty which had fubtittel, higher and more enlarged sphere. with several interruptions, from the was peculiarly bound to protect a reign of Richard the Second, and to merous body of clergy', and to supj conclude an alliance of perpetual peace, the established religion.. He ente with the Duke of Burgundy. upon his charge at a most critical ju

The former of these was only ef- ture. During the last two reix feeted, and a trace was ratified for Wickliff had made great ftrides towa eight months, at Leplingham, a fron- weakening the authority of the chui tier town, and the usual place of con- The facerdotal function began to ference. We may infer, from the fre- viewed with less respect, and their quent renewals of this truce, that the venues to be reckoned the produce infraction of treaties was very common exorbitant exactions. The Comm in these ages. The poffefions of the afleinbled in parliament had even English on the ancient territories of sented a bill for converting the te France were submitted to with im- poral posseffions of the church to prience, and maintained with captious relief of national necessities *. I exaćtness, which administered perpe- factious pride and deep resentments that causes of contention.

the two powerful houses of Orleans a Not long after this negociation, Chi- Burgundy were privately fomented thelè was transated to the fee of Can- Henry of England, whose friends! Perhary, which was vacant by the death they alternately follicited. The ti of Arundel. The prior and monks dukes, indeed, in 1412, according of that church were inanimous in their the simple manners of the age, ro election, and on his declining to ac- through Auxerre, mounted on rept of these honours till the Pope horse, which gave hopes of a reco had cancelled the bonds by which he ciliation. But these kopes were del: was united to the church of St. Da- five. Paroxisms of insanity render rid's, an application was made by the Charles V1. unable to govern h brotlentiood to the Pope, which the realms, or appeale these turnults; 1 crown trongly seconded.

that France was torn by contendin Tlie court of Rome is always fruit- factions, while Henry politically abe: ful in expedients. To preserve the ho- ted these diffenfions, as he foon for

nour of the apostolic fee, and to con- faw that it must eventually tend i - fult its interests, required no fmall share the advantage of his dominions. of address. The old papal claim of Such was the situation of affairs, an providing 10 vacancies in the church such was the temper of the peopl could not well be wared, and it was when Chichele was tranilated to th not life to offend the English monarch, metropolitan fee. The parliamen by :n obstinate opposition to his wishes. convened at Leicester, revived the ol A middle plan was adopted. The attack upon the temporalities of th pontift insisted on his right of provision, church. ‘Ambaffado !! the Frenc hur took care, at the fame time, that court had arrived his choice should not be different from amounted to little that of the petitioners.

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At the latter end of the summer, 1417, the nicest investigation, and sentenced the King embarked for Normandy, and Lord Strange to walk through the pubpublic prayers were offered for his fafe- lic streets, from St. Paul's Cathedral to ty, and the success of his army, by St. Dunstan's church, with a wax taper order of the Archbishop.

of a pound weight in his hand; after A further sum of two tenths was which, he condemed him to offer a pyx granted by a convocation held at Lon- of silver gilt, in the sacred edifice, don, in December, when Gilbert, the which he had profaned. warden of Merton College, in an ele- Lady Strange was obliged to accomgant and masterly speech, expatiated on pany her lord in the same penetential the deplorable condition to which that manner, and, at the pusification of the seat of learning was reduced. “ Those church, she was compelled to fill with candidates for preferment, who by la- her own hands the water vessel used borious application, and unremitted di- on the occasion, and to present at the ligence, have qualified themselves for altar, an ornament of ten pounds value. the highest dignities, are too frequently Such, in this age, was the power of suffered to languish in obscurity, the the ecclesiastics! The highest rank was neglected prey of melancholy, confined subject to their controul, and, as in the to the narrow limits of the walls of a present instance, very frequently under college. Yet, how often do we see the necessity of making the most morthose adventurers, whose experience is tifying atonements for offences. little, whose application is fluctuating, In the same year three priests were and whose knowledge is nugatory, ob- murdered in the Sanctuary of St. Paul's tain those rewards, which should be af- cathedral. Upon which' Chichelè, in figned only to the persevering virtue of the most public manner, denounced a veterans, toiling in the fields of science." folemn anathema against the unknown

This discourse gained particular at- criminals. tention, and Chichele decreed, by a To give this curse its due weight, conftitution, that ecclefiaftical benefices the bells were tolled, the burning tapers in future should be conferred according used in the ceremony were cast on the to the rank of the candidate, and that ground, and trampled under foot, at the value of the living should be pro- the delivery of the sentence. portioned to the proficiency of the


Ronwaldo of Salerno mentions a fon to whom it was presented. similar form of excommunication, at

The jealous obltinacy of the lower which he was present, when the Emgraduates prevented the falutary effects peror Frederic the First, and Pope Alexof this decree, by rejectingit, when it was ander the third were reconciled in the formally agitated before the university: church of St. Mark, at Venice.' The

Martin V.* now ascended the papal Pope ordered lighted tapers to be given chair, and terminated the schism of the to the Emperor, the clergy, and the Catholic church. This pope was of a laity present, and then pronounced this temper not formed to neglect any ad- anathema: “ In the name of God, the vantages, which the plepary dominion blessed Virgin, the apostles Peter and revived in his person offered to his am- Paul, and all the saints, we cut off bition. In the spring of this year, from the bosom of the church all who Lord Strange, at the instigation of his fall dare to infringe this peace, and, wife, entered into a dispute with Sir as these tapers are extinguished so may John Trusiel, and openly attacked him their souls be deprived of the light of in St. Dunttan's church, during divine eternal vifion." "Then the tapers being service. A citizen, named Petwardin, cast on the floor, and trampled under during the affray, fell a sacrifice to his foot, the Emperor cried out," Amen." friendly interpofition.

In 1418, Chichele joined the English The Archbishop. iminediately took camp, and found that the King made cognizance of this daring insult on the rapid advances towards the reduction church. He examined the affair, with of Normandy. A treaty was in agi

tation, * This was the title affumed by Cardinal Colonna.

tation, and the Archbishop's presence of the protector Humphry Duke of was necessary. The proposals of the Gloucester, and the Bishop of Winyoung and victorious monarch were re- chester, would not suffer Chichele to jected. Yet, though his heart acknow- remain an indifferent spectator to an ledged the beauty of the Princess Ca- occurrence pregnant with such disastrous tharine, he would not abate a single ar- consequences. It was at length detertícle of his pretenfions, but continued 'mined that they should make reciprocal to prosecute his successes with unabated concesions, and exchange forgiveness vigour.

in the presence of the King and the Chichelè, after affifting in the treaty of Parliament. Rouen, returned to England, at the Another synod was convoked. They latter end of the next fummer. At a ftill continued obftinately parfimonious, convocation, fresh fupplies were granted and paid with reluctance, what they to the King; a prieť, who had been had granted fparingly. accufed of witchcraft, and some dif- Chichelè, about this time, incurred ciples of Wickliff, were cenfured. He the resentment of Pope Martin V. beagain went to France, in May 1420, cause he was supposed to have occasionon the marriage of Henry and Catha- ed, by his influence, the failure of a Tine. He was present at the fieges of design, which he had formed, of reMontereau and Melun, and, by his con- pealing fome acts, which restrained the dact, he contributed to temper the fe- power of the papal chair. - The prorocity of military manners, and the li- tektor at the same time ordered him to centiousness of a camp, by the mild fend all bulls, or public letters from the fuggestions of humanity, and the in- Pope, unopened, to the council. fluence of religious example.

Papal cenfures were ftill formidable. On his return, the fees of institution The belief of the Catholic doctrines, and induction were moderated, and it and the perfuafion of the Pope's infallibiwas decreed that ordination fhould be lity wereelofely interwoven. Chichele, conferred without a reward.

therefore, determined to try the effect The death of Henry V. happened of soothing entreaties and humble refoon after, and threw the kingdom presentation, and requefted the interinto universal confusion. Chichele cellion of several cardinals, retired to his diocese, in order to avoid Martin demanded an immediate comevery political occupation. He passed pliance. The ecclefiaftics, the Unithrough the diocefes of Chicester, Sa- verfity of Oxford, and several temporal lifbury, and Lincoln.

dords interelted themselves in the de A diligent enquiry into the morals fence of their archbishop. But in vain. and religion of the inhabitants, and a The Pope wrote to the King in a very reform of the abuses, which, through dictatorial style, and threatened Chichele indolence, or inattention, had eluded with excommunication, if he did not the notice of his predecessors

, marked use his influence to procure the abrogathe course of the Archbishop's joumies. tion of the acts. In consequence of • Supplies were now wanted for the this letter, he pointed out the misforprofecution of the war. Chichele was tunes that would result from the kingagain called forth, but his eloquence dom being laid under an interdiet, it could not effect what the Bishops of the refectory of Westminster Abbey: Vinchefter and Bath had in vain at the Commons were not influenced by tempted. The upper house of convo- his speech, but, however, petitioned cation would engage in no measures the King to intercede with Martin, as which the delegates of the lower order they faw the difficulties of his situadid not approve.

tion, and here ended this troublesome Another fynod was afsembled, but dispute. they would only confult for the main- In 1431, the Pope died, and reftored tenance of religion, and the cenfure of to Chichelè a prospect of repose and herefy. The young King was now tranquillity, which his advanced age and bronght to London, and the animosities growing infirmities very much required. Loxb, MAG. Aug. 1783.



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