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admiration which the Italians univer- has, in the words of one of his most fally testify for their favourite poet. respectable friends, left that gap in fo
• It will be sufficiently flattering to ciety which will not easily be filled up. me, fhould the English reader expe
• In the late Dr. Hawkesworth I rience but a small part of that pleasure have found reason to regret the loss of which has recompensed me for the one, whose taste and friendship I had hours of anxiety and application formerly experienced in my version of that must attend such an undertaking: Taffo, and which would have been but whatever support I may have found sensibly felt in the present publication; from that degree of enthusiasm which he saw the first part of the foregoing every translator, who has the least pre- translation, and gave me every encoutence to taste or genius, will imbibe ragement, declaring himself more from such a poet as Ariosto, I must struck with the wild beauties of the likewise declare, that no little encou. Orlando, than with the more classical ragement has been afforded me by the merits of the Jerusalem. countenance of thore friends, who, if “ I muft here make my grateful acI may be allowed to make use of the knowledgements to the friendship and beautiful figure of my author at the politeness of Mr. Barnard, of St. opening of his last book, will, I trust, James's, for being honoured with the Aand on the beach to welcome my re- indulgence of consulting the Royal turn from fo hazardous a voyage.' To Library: To this gentleman's partithis I must add, that the favour shown calar kindness, and general liberality by the public, in the reception of the of sentiment, every return is due for first volume of my Orlando, would of favours shown to the man, and to the itself, without any other confideration, translator, have effectually determined me to per “ Nor can I pass over unnoticed the fevere in making an entire version of very flattering manner in which, withthis wonderful poem; a design which out any previous recommendation, I. I had conceived and entered upon many was permitted to make use of the liyears before I engaged in the translation brary of the late Reverend Mr. Crofts; of Tasso, but which the avocations of a resource the more grateful to me, as a life devoted to business long prevented this collection has been allowed to ex. me from pursuing.
ceed any other in the number of Italian In my preface, life, and notes, I books, amongst which are many early have endeavoured to insert whatever writers of the greatest rarity and estimight gratify curiosity, or giveevery ne- mation. ceffary elucidation, on which occafion I “ I must likewife confess the affift. must return my thanks to those gen- ance which I have derived from the tlemen who have fmoothed the way in friendship, of Mr. Saltres, of whose this part of my labours, by giving me taste and knowledge in Italian litera. information and assistance; and here letture I was happy to avail myself in any me declare my sense of the kindness of difficulty. one who was ever ready to patronize
thanks to all
subany apparent work of genius.' My first fcribers; but my first thanks are due obligations are due to the late Mr. for the great honour that has been conGarrick, who gave me free access to ferred on me in the permission of inthe books in his collection: he saw troducing Ariosto to my countrymen the beginning of my translation, but with becoming dignity, by an insera did not live to see the completion of a ţion of such august names at the head work, in the success of which he once of my encouragers. feemed kindly to interest himself. It "'I muft not forget my obligations will never be thought fuperfluous that to the Governor-General of Bengal, I pay this regard to the memory of and to the rest of the gentlemen in the him, whose death I sincerely lamented, East-India Company's service at that and who, however foon forgotten by settlement, for their very generous the many is the diffipation of the day, patronage of my proposals; at the same
" I owe my
time, let me discharge a melancholy and elegant author of Leonidas, the duty to the memory of a deceased great lover and judge of the works of friend, who showed his early attention the imagination, by whom I was very to my attempt of giving an English early stimulated to so arduous an underOrlando, and whose disposition, as a taking. friend, a scholar, and a patron of ge “ Among those whose good wishes nius, led him in the most cordial man have always gone along with the tranner to continue that countenance in Nator, it is with peculiar satisfaction India, which he had given to the work that I can insert the naine of Dr. Samuel in England: with the name of Major Johnson; and I am happy in this opPearson, whose loss I have every reason portunity of giving a public testimony to regret, let me join the name of Mr. of my fincere and respectful affection Clement Francis, now of Calcutta, who for him, whose friendship I consider as with the ardour of unfeigned friendship, one of the most grateful circumstances has done every thing to promote my of my life, since the value of his chasubscription in that part of the world. rater can only be known by those who
“To Mrs. Angelica Kauffman, whose live with him in the habit of intimacy; pencil needs no praise from me, I am but, alas! such knowledge leads us con beholden for the elegant design to the tinually to lament the condition of firft volume, which she was pleased, in mankind, in which, at a certain period, the most polite manner, to contribute erery warning of mortality makes us towards the embellishment of my book. dread a diffolution of the deareft con
“ To other friends I am indebted for nections, while we are tempted to reacts of kindness. To Dr. Warton, of gret, that some of the apparently fuWinchester, for his warm encourage- perfuous years, allotted to the profligate ment in the progress of my labour; to or the useless, cannot be added to those his brother Mr. Thomas Warton; to whose lives are an honour to human my friend Dr. Burney; all zealous ad- nature." mirers of our Poet; and to the worthy 151h May, 1783.
Art. XII. Conclusion of the Experiments and Observations concerning the attractive Powers of the Mineral Acids. By Richard Kirwan, Ejq. F. K. Š. Read as the Royal Society. December 12, 1782. 4to.
MR. Kirwan pursues the study of On the present occasion, he relateş chemistry for his amusement, and how much of these acids was taken up, yields tó few, if any, in the accuracy, at the point of saturation, by each of of his accounts, and the neatness of the metallic substances. his experiments. This pamphlet, which Thefe folutions, however, conftants consists of seventy pages, contains a ly retained an excess of acid, so that relation of his folutions of metal, in they did not immediately answer Mia various acids.
Kirwan's purpose. They served, in. These observations are to be confi- deed, for the foundation of his obser. dered as a supplement to the paper vations, and as several of the experia which was formerly laid before the ments may be of utility, he relates their Royal Society, and, if we are not mif- result, as concisely as possible; and taken, gained the medal which is an- confines himself to those circumstances nually presented, according to the will which have a relation to his future ina of Sir George Copley, by the President, veitigations, or that have not hitherto to the author of the most ingenious been satisfactorily explained. and useful discoveries.
The acids, which our ingenious chy. In the former paper, Mr. Kirwan mift employed, were so far dephlogifAtated the quantity of each mineral acid ticated,' as to be colourless, and his taken up at the point of saturation by metals were either very fine filings, or alkalies and earth, and also that taken reduced to powder, in a mortar. He up by phlogiston, when these acids are added them, by little and little, to their converted by it into an aerial form. respective menftruumas, as a much great.
er quantity was thus dissolved than if Again, this accuracy may be of inhe had at once injected the whole. finite service in the examination of miThese folutions he performed in glass neral waters, and in assaying ores. It phials, with bene tubes.
may likewife furnish a new criterion In the vitriolic, nitrous, and marine for diftinguithing metals from each acids, he diffolved iron, copper, tin, other, and the purer from their' alloys. Icad, silver, mercury, zinc, bismuth, It may even sometimes inform us of nickel, cobalt, regulus of antimony, the quality and quantity of the alloys. and regulus of arfenic. In aqua regia
Mr. Kirwan, however, informs us, also, in which the marine and nitrous that the principal end which he had in acids were mixed in different propor view, was to ascertain and measure the tion, he made several experiments on degrees of affinity or attraction that
fublilt betwixt the mineral acids and The advantages resulting from these the various bases with which they may inquiries are very considerable, not be combined a subject of the greatelt only in promoting chemical science, importance, as it is upon this foundawhich as it is a physical analysis of bo- tion that chemistry, confidered as a dies essentially requires an exact de- science, must finally rest. termination, as well of the quantity
Much has been done, and many geand proportion, as of the quality of the neral observations laid down on this conftituent parts of bodies, but also in head, Objections, however, hare 2the practical way.
risen to those which have seemed to be Several important processes have been firmly eitablished; and so many tables very inaccurately described by ancient of affinity have been formed, that fechemical writers, and by some of a veral chemists of eminence have doubt. modem date. For they frequently de- ed whether any general law could be fcribe the acid which they have em traced. ployed, by a reference to the quantity Thefe exceptions Mr. Kirwan has of fixed alkali, earth, or metal, which examined, and found them to arife could be naturalized or dissolved by a from the introduction of new powers. given quantity of such acid.
He has also laid down rules, qualified Mr. Kirwan, however, informs us of with such restrictions as are obferved in the quantity of real acid capable of pre- the
action of these antagonist powers. ducing that effect; the remainder, The following is Mr. Kirwan's as therefore, must have been water; and count of chemical attraction : '“ Chethe quantity of real acid and water be- mical affinity or attraction is that power ing known, the specific gravity is easily by which the invisible particles of diffound by the help of annexed tables, ferent bodies intermix and unite with and an acid of the same strength may each other fo intimately, as to be invery easily be found.
separable by mere mechanical means. The importance of this knowledge, In this respect, it differs from magnetic likewise, in the art of pharmacy is very and electrical attraction. It also differs obvious, especially with regard to me- from attraction of cohefion in this, that dicines formed of metallic fubstances, the latter takes place betwixt particles the powers of which depend on the of almost all sorts of bodies, whose proportion of their ingredients, and surfaces are brought into immediate their action on each other.
contact with each other, for chemical The degree of precision, moreover, attraction does not act with that degree which Mr. K. exhibits, will tend con of indifference, but causes a body al. fiderably to the improvement of the read; united to another to quit that arts of dying and enamelling. Many other and unite with a third, and' of their ingredients at present are ob- hence it is called ele&tive attraction. tained by vague processes; and that Hence attraction of cohesion often used for preparing the precipitate of takes place betwixt bodies that have CASSIus frequently fails, because the no chemical attraction to each other; ftrength of the acid is not fufticieatly thus regulus of cobalt and bismuth known.
have no chemical attraction to each tals, by each other, from the mineral other; for they will not unite in fu- acids. Under this head, he treats of fion, yet they cohere with each other the absolute quantity of phlogiston in To strongly that they can be separated metals; of the affinity of metallic calces only by a ftroke of a hammer. to phlogiston; of the affinity of the
“ Hence bodies, which refuse to vitriolic acid to phlogiston in sulphur; unite to each other chemically, when of solutions in the vitriolic acid; of they are most minutely divided, as solutions in the nitrous acid; of soluwhen both are in a vaporous or aeria in the marine acid; of precipitaftate, or when both are in a liquid tions of and by iron; of precipitations state, may be judged in the first case of and by copper, tin, lead, mercury, to have none; or in the second case to bismuth, nickell, cobalt, regulus of have at best but a very small affinity to antimony, and regulus of arsenic. each other. But those that unite, In his experiments he displays great when one of them only is in a liquid patience and accuracy, and in his reftate, may be said to have a strong af marks great acumen and intelligence; finity to each other, and it is thus that so that we are happy to inform our acids unite to alkalies, earths, and me- chemical readers, that he seems, in a tals for the most part.”
note, to promise a continuation of Mr. Kirwan then relates the rules these experiments. laid down for determining the degrees There are some flight inaccuracies in of affinity, and points out their defi- the language, which do not surprise ciencies. From this account he de- us, though we wish them corrected. duces,
Mr. Kirwan fays assaying of ore, now First, That the quantity of real acid it should have been, the assaying of necessary to saturate a given weight of ore, or else assaying ore. If alsaying each basis is inversely as the affinity of be a substantive, it requires an article each basis to such acid.
before, and the preposition of after it. Secondly, That the quantity of each If it be a participle, the article and bafis requisite to saturate a given quan- preposition thould both be omitted. tity of each acid, is directly as the af. We find also a nominative absolute very finity of such acid to each basis. frequently, in the remarks, which
For the tables of the quiescent and though, perhaps, it may in foine cases divellent affinities, and the reasonings be admitted into our poetical language, from them, we must refer our readers yet it should not be employed in profe, to the work itself.
or, at least, as seldom as possible. There Mr. Kirwan then treats of the affi are a few other trifling inaccuracies, nity of the mineral acids to metallic which Mr. Kirwan will easily discover. substances, and gives a further proof We only mention them, in order to of his acuteness, knowledge, and in- recommend these neceílary, though genuity, in the course of his experi- minute ornaments of a good ftyle, to ments.
authors of every class and denominaThe last subject, on which he dif- tion. courses, is of the precipitation of me
Art. XIII. Travels to the Coast of Arabia Felix: And from thence by the RedSea and Egypt, to Europe. Containing a jhort Account of an Expedition undertaken against the Cape of Good-Hope. In a Series of Letters. By Henry Rooke, Esq. late Major of the rooth Regiment of Foot. 8vo. Blamire.
THESE travels are related in a se. session of the public. The fourth prea ries of thirteen letters. In the three fents us with a very entertaining acs first is comprised, among other matters, count of Joanna, one of the little Coa narrative of the experlition under mora islands, which are five in num, taken against the Cape of Good Hope, ber, and are situated in the Indian in 1781; from which we learn no facts, that are not already in the pos The fifth confifts of remarks on the LOND. Mag. Aug. 1783.
mortality that raged in the fleet after tedious and unkilful beyond belief; leaving Joanna, which is very juftly and the construction and management ascribed to the malignity of the night of the vessels employed in it. dews that descend very copiously in all In the ninth we are made acquainthot countries, where there is much ed with the manner of travelling in wood. These are always pernicious to caravans, particularly in those annual men, who by duty or imprudence are pilgrimages, which, from motives of exposed to their baleful effect. In the vanity, religion, fuperftition, and compresent instance, the fickness affected merce, are undertaken from Aleppo those principally who slept on shore. and Cairo to Mecca. He also relates The advice of physicians, who recom the toils and sufferings of his own jourmend sleeping on board ship to people ney across the isthmus, from Suez to who touch at places for refreshment, Cairo. The cruelty and weakness of in low latitudes, ought therefore to be the Turkish government, and the barfollowed as ftritly as possible. Some barous manner in which it executes its animadversions are added on the expe- laws and inflicts punishment, are here diency of providing better and more exemplified in a melancholy account of roomy transports for the conveyance some English people, who had for some of troops that are sent on diftant ex- years carried on an illicit trade from peditions. Large ships are pointed India to Cairo, by the connivance of out as the fittest for this purpose, and the Pacha and chief Bey. chiefly because in them the men can When a new Pacha, however, was be best instructed in military discipline, fent from Conftantinople, with strict which, by amusing the mind and exer orders to enforce the Grand Signor's cifing the body, preserves both in prohibition of these proceedings, the health and vigour.
interlopers not aware of this change Round Morebat bay, into which the of men and measures, were surrounded . fleet put for water, the country pre- between Suez and Cairo, by a large fents nothing to the view, but naked troop, by whom they were plundered, hills and fandy plains. Fruits or ve- wounded, stripped, and then left naked getables it yields none; of cattle only in the desert, exposed to the rays of a few half starved goats and diminutive an African fun, without water or probullocks, and of water, only a few of visions. From this defperate extremi.. its falt particles, which oozes through ty only three escaped. the fand. Yet, to defend these mile Such was the mode adopted by the rable supports of existence, the natives new Pacha and Bey, to put in force are kept in perpetual warfare: for the the dormant Firinan. The caravan was Budoos or wild Arabs, who inhabit the plundered by their order, and the spoil interior parts, the jackalls and wild appropriated to their use. By an artidogs, all descend to prey on the sandy fice of the same dark nature, they got plains of Morebat.
possession of the English fhips, and innIn the fixth we have a description of prisoned the crews; and fearful it might Mocha, its inhabitants, and their man. draw on them the resentment of the ners, and the author's voyage thither British government, who with a single from Morebat, as he relinquished frigate could annihilate their whole his Indian expedition, in order to seek trade on the Red Sea, they compelled cooler climes for the recovery of his all the English who were then at Caihealth. The seventh contains a tra so, to bind themselves under the pegical incident, characteristic of the Ma- nalty of a large fum, that no steps hometans of that coast, which occurred should be taken to revenge what had in the passage to Judeah, where the happened, obliging them to find pronatural advantages are faid to be few, per persons to be furety for them. and the moral defects great.
A visit to those stupendous monuThe eighth exhibits a journal of the ments of human vanity and ancient voyage to Suez; the Turkish mode of grandeur, the pyramids, with fome navigation on the Red Sea, which is itrictures on the oppreilions of nume