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rous jarring despots, and the ravages thould immediately discharge the debt of the plague, which more than coun incurred by my countryman. I heard terbalance the lavish bounties of na with astonishment this extraordinary ture to Egypt, composes the tenth. charge and verdiet, and in reply endeaThe eleventh relates an instance of the voured to explain the hardship and rapine and extortion practised by the injustice of such a proceeding, telling lords of this unhappy country, both him, that, in the first place, I doubted on natives and strangers, which, as a much whether the debt claimed by the specimen of the work, we shall lay be- Armenian was juft, and in the second, fore our readers:

supposing that it was, did not consider “ In one of my rides about this myself by any means bound to discity, I was met by a party of Turkish charge it; but all endeavours to exsoldiers, who accorting me, and some culpate myself on the principles of reaEuropean friends who were of my par- fon or justice were totally ufeless, since ty, said, that by order of their master, he soon removed all my arguments by Mustapha Bey, they were come in a Mort decision, which was, that withsearch of us, and that they must imme- out further ceremony, I must either diately conduct us to him. We did consent to pay the money or remain not at all relish this salutation, and prisoner in his castle. I began then to would gladly have been excused the enquire what the sum was, which the honour of paying a visit to a Bey, Armenian pretended to be due to him, but, having no alternative, we proceed- and found it to be near five hundred ed quietly under their escort. We pounds, at which price, high as it was, were not, you may be sure, extremely I believe I should have been induced comfortable in this situation; and in to have purchased my liberty, had not our way endeavoured to divine the my friend advised me to the contrary, cause of it, but in vain: we found we and given me hopes that it might be had nothing else to do but submit pa- obtained without it, recommending to tiently, and wait the event. Being me rather to suffer a temporary conarrived at the Bey's palace, any compa finement than submit to so flagrant an nions were set at liberty, and I only extortion. Accordingly I protested was detained; one of my friends hown against paying the money, and was ever stayed with me to act as interpre- conducted under a guard into a room, ter, and plead my cause. We were where I remained in arrest, now ushered into the presence-cham “ It was about noon, the usual time ber, and found this potentate fitting of dining in this country, and a very cross-legged on a carpet, smoking a good pilau with mutton was served up pipe seven or eight feet long; he was to me; in short, I was very civilly a middle-aged man, rather corpuļent, treated in my confinement, but still it had a black and bushy beard that reach was a confinement, and, as such, could ed below his breast, and his counte- not fail of being extremely unpleasant : nance was handsome, although stern my only hopes were founded in the and severe; his myrmidons, who were good offices of Mr. R, an Itabearded like himself, stood in a circlc lian merchant, whose services to me round him, into the midst of which and many of my countrymen, who we were introduced.

have been embroiled in affairs of the “The Bey, being informed that I was like nature here, deserve our warmest the person whom he had summoned, gratitude. furveyed me attentively, and with an My apartment was pleasantly fiimperious tone of voice, pronounced tuated, with a fine view of the Nile my crime and my sentence in the same and a rich country; but I should have breath, telling me, an Armenian mer- enjoyed the prospect much more upon chant having represented to him, that another occasion. On a kind of lawn, an Englishman, who had pafled through faded with trees, in front of the castle, Cairo two years before, owed him a two or three hundred horses stood at fum of money, his orders were that I picquet, richly caparisoned, belonging

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to the Bey and his guards. His prin " The English seem particularly to cipal officers and faves came to visit have been victims to this species of rame, and in talking over my case, they pine, owing, I believe, to the facility, agreed that it was very hard, but to with which they always submit to it: comfort me, said, that their maiter and many of our wealthy countrymen was a very good prince, and would having returned by this road laden with not keep me long confined. I found the spoils of India, these Beys have several of them pleasant liberal-minded frequently fleeced them, allured by the men, and we conversed together very temptation of that wealth, which there sociably through my Arabian servant, nabobs are fo fond of displaying: vawho remained with me.

rious are the instances of extortions “ The people in this country always practised on them. You may form an sleep after dinner till near four o'clock, idea of all, when I mention one of a they then rise, wash, and pray; that gentleman, who passing by Suez in his time of prayer is called by them Afer, way to England, that he might not be and is the common hour of visiting; detained there by the searching of his the Beys then give audience, and tran- baggage, prevailed on the Custom-house fact business: Muftapha Bey now fent officers to dispense therewith, and only for me again, and seeming to be in put their seals on his trunks to exempt good humour, endeavoured to coax me them from being visited till his arrival into payment of the demand he made; at Cairo, where being come, fatigued but I continued firm in my refusal, on with his journey, and impatient to which he changed the subject, and shift himself, he would not wait for smiling, asked me if I Mould not like the infpection of the officers, but broke to be a Mussulman, telling me it was the feals to get his clothes, and paid a much better than being a Christian, thousand pounds for the luxury of a and hinted that I should be very well clean thirt an hour before he otherwise off if I would become one of them, would have had it.” and stay at Cairo, ufing likewise other Remarks on the annual inundations arguments to effect my conversion, and of the Nile, and their effects on the all this in a jocular laughing manner: ancient and modern cities of Alexanwhile he was proceeding in his endea- dria, the dimensions of Pompey's pilvours to bring me over to his faith, lar, and the well-known story of some two officers came from Ibrahim Bey to English Mip-masters mounting to the procure my release. I have before top of it in a drunken frolic, discover, told you that he is the chief Bey, and ing the remains of a pedestrian ftatue, luckily Mr. R, having very good and triumphantly drinking a bowl of interest with him, had made applica- punch there, make up the twelfth.tion in my behalf, and in consequence The thirteenth conducts the author thereof these two ambassadors were from Alexandria, through the islands fent to request that Mustapha Bey would of the Archipelago to Tunis, and thence deliver me up to them; but he seemed to Leghorn, where the work concludes. by no means inclinable so to do, and, A translation of a firman of the Grand resuming his forner ftermness of look, Signor's, prohibiting all foreign ships remained for some time inexorable; and Christians from approaching the till at length, wrought on by their en. port of Suez, is subjoined. treaties, he confentcd to let me go, Though the dangers of traversing observing at the same time that when regions where no regular or effective ever he had an opportunity of making government affords protection, render a little money, Ibrahim Pey always in the interior parts of Arabia but little terfered and prevented him—a pretty known, and indeed a country uniformobservation! From which you may ly defert, or occupied by tribes of waninfer, that they look upon us as fair dering berbarians, is not much the obplunder, and do not give themselves ject of cultivated enquiry, yet the facra inuch trouble to find out a pretence on fames auri, that pursues its object per which to found their claims.

mare, per faxa, per ignes, has made us 4

pretty

more.

pretty well acquainted with the sea creates scarcely a wish that he had done coaft.

The travels before us are related in On the whole, however, they may an easy, agreeable manner, and in lan- be read with pleasure by all who seek guage fufficiently correct for the epifto- from books amusement rather than inlary style. At the same time they dif- struction. After what we have said, fer so little from former accounts that it may seem impertinent to descend to it is difficult to say how far the author verbal criticism, but our zeal for the has written from his own observation, purity of the English language obliges or selected from the information of us to remind the author that lown is others. He confines himself chiefly to not the participle paflive of fow for narrative and defcription, and seldom Jew, and that the active verb lay is in ferts reflections moral or political, improperly used for the neuter lie and the little he has done in that way throughout.

ART. XIV. The Hiftory of ihe Progress and Termination of the Roman Republic. By Adam Ferguson, LL. D. Professor of Moral Philojophy in the Univerfity of Edinbirgh. 4to.* 3 Vols. Illustrated with Maps. Cadell, and Creech in Edinburgh.

(Continued from page 68.) IN our lait number we gave our purpose, in order to anticipate and to readers the plan of this very valuable preclude the more violent law of Cor-, history in the author's own words, nelius. But the Tribune prevailed, together with fume extracts from it, and obtained an act impofing the seand a general character of the work. verer penalty. He likewise, by ano.

Our opinion, we apprehend, will be ther decree of the people, attacked the fully justified by the following account discretionary jurisdiction of the Preof the growing corruption of the Ro tors*, obliged them to be more expliman officers of fate, which is at once cit in the edicts they published, and to interesting and instructive:

observe them more exactly. “ About the time that Pompey ob • The crime of extortion in the protained his commission to command with vinces, however, was the great difso extensive a power in the suppression grace of the Romans. To have found of the pirates, the tide began to run an effectual remedy for this evil, would high against the aristocratical party. have done more honour to the comThe populace, led by some of the Tri- monwealth than they had derived from bunes, were ever ready to insult the all their conquests. Severe laws were authority of the fenate; and the vices accordingly enacted, complaints were of particular men gave frequent advan- willingly received, and prosecutions tages againft the whole order of nobi- encouraged. Candidates for popularity lity. Corruption and dangerous fac. and public favour generally began with tion prevailed at elections, and the endeavouring to bring some offender preferments of state were generally co under this title to public justice; but veted, as steps to the government of the example of this fate, after all, has provinces, where fortunes were amaf- left only this piece of instruction to sed by every species of abuse, oppref- mankind: That just government over fion, and violence. Envy and indig- conquered provinces is scarcely to be nation concurred in rousing the people hoped for, and leaft of all where reagainft_these abuses. Cornelius, one publics are the conquerors. of the Tribunes, proposed a severe law “ Manilius, one of the Tribunes of against bribery, by which perfons con- the people, in order to-ftrengthen the victed of this crime should be disqua- inferior class of his constituents, had lified for any office of ftate. The fe- obtained by surprise an act+, by which nate wished to foften the rigour of this the citizens of Davish extraction were law, by limiting the penalty to a pe- to be promiscuously inrolled in all the cuniary fine; and the Conful, Calpur-tribes. This act, having drawn upon nius Piso, moved for an ediêt to this him the resentment of the sepate, com

pelled Dio. Caff, lib. xxxvi. c. 23. + Ibid. lib. xxxvi.

pelled him to seek for security under Crassus was to have been named Dictathe protection of Gabinius and Pom- tor, and Cæsar his general of the horsey. pey. With this view he moved his Cæsar was to have given the fignal for famous act, in which Cicero concurred, the execution of the massacre, by unto veft Pompey with the command in Afia. covering his shoulders of his

gown; but This motion procured him a powerful Crassus having relented, absented himsupport, and, on some occasions, the self from the Senate on the day apgeneral voice of the people in his fa- pointed, and Cæsar, though present, vour. Soon after this transaction, be- omitted to give the signal, by which ing prosecuted for some offence at the means the whole was disconcerted, tribunal of Cicero, who was then Prætor, Sylla was tried some years after as an and being refused the usual delays, the accessory, and was defended by Cicero. Prætor was obliged to explain this step Many of those who, by their birth in a speech to the people; in which he and distinction, were destined to run told them, that he meant to favour the career of political honours, found Manilius, and that, his own term in their fortunes, by the extravagant exoffice being about to expire, he could not pence of public shows, and of gratuifavour him more effectually, than by ties to the pecple, by bribes to private haftening his trial, and by not leaving persons, as well as by their own dehim in the power of a successor, who bauchery and prodigality, ruined bemight not be equally disposed in his fore they attained their end. They favour. Such were the loose and po- sought to repair their ruin by any unpular notions of justice then prevailing warrantable means|l, and were ready to at Rome*

engage in any dangerous design. The At the election of Confuls for the state appears to have apprehended an following year, there occurred an op- increase of this danger from the numportunity to apply the law against ber of foreigners, who, from every bribery. Of four candidates, Publius quarter, crowded to Rome, as to the Autronius Pætus, Publius Cornelius general resort of persons who wished Sylla, L. Aurelius Cotta, and L. Man to gratify their own extravagance, or lius Torquatus, the majority had de- to prey upon that of others. Under clared for the former two; but these this apprehension, an edict was obtainbeing convicted of bribery were set ed, upon the motion of C. Papius, Triaside, and their competitors declared bune of the people, to oblige all ftranduly elected.

gers to leave the city: but it is likely, About the same time L. Sergius Ca- that the state was in greater danger tilina, who has been already mentioned from natives than foreigners. Cataas one of the most violent executioners line, having prevailed upon Clodius, of Sylla's profcriptions, having returned by the confideration of a sum of mofrom Africa, where he served in the ney, to drop the prosecution which capacity of Prætor, and intending to had been intended against him, was Atand for the Consulate, was accused left to offer himself a candidate for the of extortion in his province, and topped consulate of the following year 1. in his canvas by a prosecution raised on " The office of Cenfor had been rethis account. In his rage for this dif- vived in the persons of Catulus and appointment, he was ripe for any dis. Crassus; but these officers found that order; and, being readily joined by its authority, so powerful in former Autronius and Pilo, formed a confpi- times, was now of little effect. They racy to assassinate their rivalst, to mal- scarcely ventured to give it a trial with. sacre the Senate, to seize the enfigns of in the city; and, having differed about power, and, with the aid of their faction, the enrolment of citizens residing beto lay hold of the government 1. Julius yond the Po, and about some other Cæfar and Craffus are mentioned by particulars, they resigned their power**. Suetonius as accomplices in this plot. Cenfors were again named in the fol

lowing * Plutarch. in Vit. Cicer. + Cic. in Catal.i. c. 6. - Dion. lib. xxxvi. &c. Sueton. in Cælar. s Plutarch. in Vit. Ciceronis. I Cicero de Auruspicum Responsis, ** Dion. lib. xxxvi. Plutarch. in Craflo.

elowing year, but with no greater ef- Cataline to undertake his defence on a

fect; fome of the Tribunes, fearing to trial for malversation in Sicily, he did be degraded from the senate, forbade not at once reject the request, nor althem to proceed in making up the ways deny his aid to the factious roll*.

Tribunes, in support of their measures. • In the next consulate, Caius Ju- He was undoubtedly, like other ambilius Cæsar, at this time thirty-five tious men at Rome, disposed to court years of age, entered on his career of every party, and willing to gain indi. popularity and ambition. Being Edile, viduals $; and had of late, in particutogether with Marcus Bibulus, he notlar, considerably strengthened his inonly concurred with his colleague in terest, by having supported the preten all the expensive fhews that were given fions of Pompey, and by having joined to the people, but gave feparate enter the popular Tribunes, in what they tainments on his own account. The proposed in behalf of that officer. He multitudes of gladiators he had affem- was, notwithstanding, probably by his bled on this occasion gave an alarm to averfion to appear for so bad a client the magistračy, and he was ordered not as Cataline, faved from the reproach of to exceed a certain number. In the having espoused his cause; and by his administration of his office as Prætor, he known inclination in general to suptook some steps that were likely to re port the authority of the senate he vive the animosity of the late parties of disposed the aristocratical party to forMarius and Sylla; and, notwithstand give the occasional part which he took ing the act of indemnity which had with the Tribunes in particular querpassed, raised prosecutions on a charge tions, not immediately supposed to of affaffination, against all those who affect their government. had put any citizen to death in execu “ In the course of this competition tion of Sylla's proscriptiont. From for the consulship, Antonius and Catathis time Suetonius obferves, that Cicero line joined interests together, and spared dated the beginning of Cæsar's project no kind or degree of corruption. Cito subvert the republic, and to make cero complained of their practices in himself master of the state I.

the senate, and moved to revive the What has most distinguished this law of Calpurnius against bribery, with consulate, however, is the competition an additional penalty of ten years baof candidates for the fuccellion to that nishment||

. Cataline considered this office on the following year, and the measure as levelled against himself; consequences of the election which fol- and, incited by this provocation, as lowed. The

candidates were M. Tul. well as by the animosity of a rival, was lius Cicero, C. Antonius, son of the then supposed to have formed a design late celebrated orator, L. Sergius Ca- against Cicero's life, and to have extalina, P. Sulpitius Galba, and L. Car- pressed himself to this purpose in fius Longinus, Quintus Cornificius, and terms that gave a general alarm to the Licinius Sacerdos.

electors, and determined great num. “ Cicero was the first of his family bers against himself. He had drawn who hadever resided, or enjoyed any ho to his interests many persons of infanours, at Rome, he was a native of Ar mous character and desperate fortune, pinum, a country-town of Italy, and many youths of good family, whom was considered as an obscure perfon by he debauched, or encouraged in their those who were descended of ancient profligacy. His language, at their families, but had great confideration meetings, was full of indignation at on account of his eloquence, and the the unequal and supposed unjuft diftri. confequences of it to all such as had bution of fortune and power. All any interests at stake before the tri- the wealth of the state, all authority, bunals of justice. Being solicited by said he, is engrossed by a few, while

others Dier, lib. xxxvi. Plutarch. in Crasso. † Sueton. in Vit. C. J. Cæsaris. # Ibid. c. ix. Sue. tonius supposes, that Cicero alluded to the conspiracy of Autronius and Sylla, in which Craffus, as weil as Cæfas, was said to be engaged. Ep. ad Atticum, lib. i. ep. 2. ' Dion. lib. xxxvii. c. 39.

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