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cording to its situation Under the Line, Some places fink (P); others are coat which part the motion is swiftest

; all vered with water (9); one part is bodies are carried on above 11 miles in raised (r), while fome are destroyed by a minute, though at the same time, earthquakes (s); hills are washed they do not change their place upon away (1); vales filled up; mora ses are the earth's surface. But, belides this, converted into firm land (r); what was the earth, with every thing that is upon formerly covered by the sea becomes it, is, in its yearly course, carried round dry ground, &c. the fun with such swiftness, that at Light and darkness, heat and frost, its mean distance from that luminary drought and rain continually succeed it travels at the rate of 146 (Swedish) each other (11). And, setting these miles * in a minute. We are not, how. aside, the incessant variations in the ever, sensible of either of these violent temperature of the air, with respect to motions, since every thing about us is warmth, produce hourly, though often in like manner subjected to them. It imperceptible changes in the particles is in this case, just the same as in a and pores of bodies. Thip, the motion of which is not per If to these we add the motions oc. ceived by the person that is in her, cafioned by organic bodies, and those but is merely inferred from the appa- . which they themselves undergo (u), rent motion of the shore. When bo we may in some measure comprehend dies change places with each other, in the constant changes to which all this case the change is more evident to things are subject. Man himself is the senses. Small rills uniting to- supposed to waste daily about two gether make brooks, these form ri- ounces and a half in substance, which vulets, and afterwards large rivers, quantity is abraded, or passes off by which at length fall into the sea. But perspiration. This deficiency is fupthis is not all. Plants and animals have plied by frelh particles; so that in every where need of water for aheir about ten years he is furnished with nourishment. This is dissolved into quite a new body (x). In fine, ani. vapours, which are condensed into mals and plants are nourished, grow up, clouds; and these again are precipitated propagate their species, die, and moulder in the form of rain and dew, and what into duit. is not changed and altered in its way, Thus every thing is in motion, every falls again into the sea. Moreover, thing is increasing or decreasing. In ebb and food, storms, rivers, &c. daily a word, to be born and to die, to put the water in motion.

spring up and to disappear, is the fate Neither (f) is the atmosphere more of erery thing by turns in this subluat rest. The moon must necessarily in- nary theatre. This, however, does fluence this liken ise. Between the not happen, as at first fight it may tropics there blows incessantly an eafter- seem to do, without order or limitaly wind; and though in other places tion. Every thing follows certain laws; at times no motion is observed, yet the all is ordained for certain purpose, all variations of the barometer and ther- accords in the most perfeèt inanner to mometer show, that, notwithítanding the praise of the Almighty artist. 'The this appearance, the air is by no means intire connexion of things is, it must at rest. Besides, the different kinds of be confessed, unknown to us: but from ineteors occurring in the atmosphere what is already discovered, we çan no are further convincing proofs of the longer doubt of the reality of this conmanifold changes operated in it.

The surface of the earth is, in like Now, although every effect is promanner, subject to its alterations. duced according certain law's; and Hard rocks are rent asunder (n). Stones Natural Philosophy has been at all by degrees moulder and fall to pieces(0). times bufied in inquiring into these



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* Each Swedish mile containing above five and a half English. (0) 627 3. 217. (8) 11. 118.58. 84. (b) $100. (i) 699. (k) § 102. (m){ 11. 132. (n)48. 49. (0) $ 148. 148. (9) $ 150. Yo ( 149. 10 $ 150. 1941. ( 138. 145. (*) 203.

(1) $ 134.

power of


laws, and indeed in the last century rishment between its woody fibres, has made amazing advances in the af- blossoms, and bears fruit. Some have fair, nevertheless we cannot help ac withal the

voluntary knowledging that we labour under a motion, and contract themselves, horrid degree of ignorance. Whither- when they are touched; others catch foever we turn our eyes,


and detain small infects. The feedobliged at last to stop at something capsules are in a manner particularly beyond our comprehenfion. Thus, on curious, contrived to diitribute the feed examining the contents of a mountain according to the purposes of nature: confifting of regular strata mixed with but according to what laws is all this fhells, we may in a superficial way re effected? - In the animal kingdom we prefent to ourselves, that different find ftill greater cause for wonder and kinds of substances have been deposited admiration. Here, befides the power there by the water with which the of increasing and multiplying their place was formerly covered, and that the species, the faculties of arbitrary mocrustaceous animals having been bedded tion, and of sensation, further present in along with them, in process of time all themselves to our observation. We has grown haid together. But let us

But let us know very well that the eye can discern consider this matter more accurately: the pictures painted on the bottom In the stony part of these strata we find of (b) it: that the ear takes in the viveins of various kinds of metals; how brations and oscillations of the air, &c. came these here? In this part, too, we But what is sensation? How is it permeet with different sorts of cryftal. formed? How is it that a practised car What force is it that governs these can diftinguith so many various tones pellucid bodies, by virtue of which as strike it at one and the same time in They shoot always in the fame form? a large concert (e)? What is the reason; &c. We understand the nature of that such quick undulations of the air, lightening better at present, than fifty which follow each other with the greatest years ago we had a right to suppole rapidity, or else are made at precisely we should have done in a much longer the same time, what is the reason that space of time (y). Any one who had they are not confounded together by at that time maintained, that we should this organ without distinction? Who in these days be able to bring it down. is able to explain the propagation of from the clouds, and conduct it any that forry little animal, the book-louse, where at pleasure, nay, even to counter for many succeilive generations with feit this terrible meteor, would without

out copulation. (e) Who can in a fadoubt have at least found the reward of tisfactory manner account for a crawlhis temerity in a mad-house. And ing worm, with twelve eyes and sixteen knowing as we are in this matter, we feet, being changed into a flying infect must still, however, confess our igno- with four wings and a thousand eves? rance of the internal constitution of the Who is capable of investigating to their electric fluid.-Who could have ima- first principles the fructure of animal gined fome years ago, that flesh fo far. bodies, the uses of all their parts, the gone as to become offensive to the smell, reason of their different figure, and the and fall to pieces, could be made freth like? Whence is it that fome kinds of and palatable, an effect however, which fish are able to give the electric shock every smatterer in chemistry now knows in the


fea? And in what man. how to produce. We are likewife ap ner does the magnet act, when it enprized of the reason of this; but the tirely deprives them of this faculty? internal composition of thefe fubitances &c. &c. Here is an ocean of wonders may remain a great while longer a which still remain unexplained. Many secret to us.

of them indeed may in process of time A plant grows up from a small seed, be resolved, and that, perhaps, against which it often exceeds many millions all expectation : but the springs by of times in bulk; it draws up its nou- which they are actuated, their nature,

and lu! 129. (z) $105. 167. 205. 218.

(b) § 203.

(c) 203. (2) 212. (e) $209. 202. 216. (8) $ 205


and mode of operating, are doubtless deceitful than the ignis fatuus itself. placed beyond the narrow circle of our On the other hand, experiments made horizon. No instrument, any more without view or connexion may be than any of our external senses, can compared to the actions of a man carry us beyond certain limits. It is groping in the dark. A discovery made true, that, by means of telescopes and in pursuance of a well-digested plan microscopes, we can discern moft glo- has infinitely more merit than one to rious spectacles, such as no man here. which we have been led by accident, tofore even dreamed of: it is likewise and which, without any forethought, probable that these instruments may the circumstances in which we were hereafter be brought to far greater per- placed have, as it were, forced upon fection than they can boalt of at pre our observation and notice. sent: but, from the very nature of Now, if in this our diminutive and things, this improvement cannot be contracted dwelling there exist so many carried beyond certain limits. 'The thousands of bodies endued with life, more a perspective glass magnifies, the that we are absolutely surrounded by smaller is the field it takes in at one them on all lides; if here such indeview, and so much the more imperfect fcribable differences and variations take will be our view of the whole object. place, in regard to size, forin, colour, Thus it is in many other cases; what nature, manner of living, propagation, is gained on one fide is loft on the &c.—so many wonders and fuch a mulother; and the pride of human wittitude of things which furpass our must in the end, how much foever fuch comprehenfion: what must be the case a confeflion may go against the grain, in so many thousands of worlds fupebe brought to acknowledge its extreme rior to our earth in point of magniweakneis. What then are we to think tude? What may be the shape and of that arrogant felf-conceit, which properties of their rational inhabitants undertakes to inform us in what inan and of the other animals resident there? ner every thing that exists upon the What is the structure and constitution earth had its prefent conftitution and of these worlds? Differing in situation, structure imparted to it by the laws of in the periods of their resolutions, and Nature? It is by no means my inten- in several other circumstances, each of tion to reject hypotheses entirely; for them requires a peculiar and appropriate though one incontrovertible experi- economy, bodies of different natures, ment often gives more . real light than &c. but wherein this difference in the a hundred hypotheses, yet these latter various parts of the mundane system are of great utility. I will only men- must confift, it is beyond the limits of tion here, that they ought always to our capacities to determine. We are be confidered as conjectures, and not as not acquainted even with the microscodemonfrated truths; and that particu- pic worlds, or the minute animalcula lar facts must not be wrested in order to which are in: igble to the naked eye, suit them. Weare not even able to find and which dwell all around us; what out the principles of the primitive ar- kind of cognizance, then, can we be chitecture of the Peruvians: on what supposed to have of the inhabitants of grounds, then, can we hope to compre- thole worlds, of which we cannot hend the admirable operations of Na even difcern the true figure through the ture? Observation and experiment are best telescopes. the two genuine clues to be used in re When, with due attention, we consearches into her works. Hypotheses fiderall these things, we cannot posibly are like a dim taper, by the glimmer of avoid acknowledging the omnip tance, which we can see to lay hold of the goodness, providence, and intinite wisclues alluded to; but which leaves be- dom of the Creator. hind it, when these latter will not serve

O Lord, how manifold are thy works to conduct us any farther, a weak and

In uitdem halt thou made them all: anfure light, which frequently is more The earth is full of thy riches!

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tops of the


ARTICLE XXIII. THE Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. LXXII. for the l'ear 1782, Part II. London. Davis and Elmiley.

(Continued from page 248.) IN our last Miscellany, we gave an with eight chimneys. To each of these account of the three first papers in this an iron rod was attised, pointed at the volume. We shall now proceed in our upper end, tapering about ten inches Review,

to that point, and reaching betweet IV. Proceedings relatire to the Ac- four and five feet above the cident by Lightening at Heckington. chimneys.

The rods

were nearly (Read February 14, 1782.) square, with the angles juít rounded In June, 1781, the Poor-house at off

. They measured, upon a mean, Heckington, near Norwich, was fired about half an inch one way, and four by a stroke of lightning, notwithstand- tenths of an inch the other. These ing it was armed with eight pointed con conductors were continued down the duciors. The Board of Ordnance re- building, by a succeision of similar bars ceived information of the accident, and, of iron, in general from fix to eight by a letter to the Prelident of the feet long, joined together by two hooko Royal Society, requetted all the in- and a nut. The whole number teachformation relative to the fact, which ed above the chimneys, but only one Jiad come to the knowledge of that of them was carried to the ground tinlearned body.

gle. Three of them were fuccefrelv It was, therefore, deterniined, that joined together, in a single rod, in one Dr. Blagden and Mr. Nairne should be part of the building, and so continued requered to take a journey to Heck- down. In another part, two of them ington, in order to examine into the met, and were united in the same rod, circumstances of the accident; and en as two more did in a third place. They gage a draughtsman to make the re were all failened to the walls by ring quifite drawings.

staples. The report of these gentlemen was The single conductor was carried read to the council, on February 7,. down the west tiank, till it came very 1782, and then transmitted to the near the ground, when it entered a Board of Ordnance. We shall give the small channel of brick work, through subtance of this paper, as the accident which it wils continued under tre was singular, and the narration is au paiement, into a narrou bricked drain, thentic.

leading through the will of a priry, When Dr. Blagden and Mr. Naime into which she drain discharges itfeit. arrived at ileckington, they found here it terminated in air, under the that some part of the damages had been feat of the privy; while the folid work repaired. Seven months, induer, had was in noplacenearerit than three inches. clapec, fince the house had been This drain, though it slopes very rsftricken by lightening: No material pidly, muft fometimes le moist

, as it changes, however, had been made in received the foul water from the yard, the conductors, and they obtained a and was near a water cock. diftin't account of the féieral repara The iron, in which the three con. tions, from the workmen.

ductors terminated, when it came near 'The building is in the form of the the bottom of the wall, was turned off Roman letter li, and cuarts of a cen into a fink, built of brick, into which ter range and two flanks, and fiands it projected four inches, reiting in conon a gentle afcent. It has some low tact with one of the bars of a grate, buildings or oifices" aanexed to the which is fitted into its fouth fide li flanks, with a yard both before the then terminated in air. house and Ichind: it is provided 'The third termination, which was


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formed by the union of two conductors, o'clock, a single and very loud explopassed over some lead, on the top of fion was heard, like the report of a the building, aud formed an angle by the cannon. Three of the paupers fainted, intersection of the west flank with the and all of them were terrined. At the center range. When it arrived within fame time, a great light seemed to eight inches of the ground, it entered come in at the doors and windows; a narrow channel of brick-work, and and in a minute or two, the cast flank terminated in a close drain, which did of the building was observed to be on not receive much moisture. The end fire. A hole was instantly dug near of it was hooked, and in contact with the burning corner of the building, to one of the side bricks.

receive the water in the court: so that The conductors which have been de- by the exertions of the people the fire scribed were at fome distance from the was soon extinguished. ''I he rain still part of the building which received continued, but with less violence, and the injury. Circumstantial details, the storin seemed to abate, after the therefore, are unnecessary. The fourth explofion. termination was formed from the two 'The lead on the roof was rolled up remaining conductors, which were by the lightening, about the breadth nearest the stricken corner. The point of six inches *, which is a common cirwhere they met, was at the sixth bar cumstance; and a few br cks were disof the one, and the fourth of the other. placed. Some trifling mischief was From this point of union, it pailed done among the timbers and laths: a over some lead, on the roof, and ran hole was likewise made in the augh tie, down the fide of the house, to which perhaps by a splinter being forced off. it was fastened by ring staples, as the The end of an oak wall plate was rent others were. When it was within two remarkably; and near it, there was a or three inches of the ground, it en crack in the south face of the corner, tered an enclosed channel of brick, and which went down four courses of brick, was continued down to a great drain, and then terminated abruptly. and passed through a hole in the haunch Beneath the east end of the wall of an arch of it. It was then bent off plate, a similar crack descended from from the house, and ultima termi the bottom of the cornice till it reachnated in contact with the bricks at the ed the top of the wall that supported bottom. This conductor, therefore, the stable. Here three bricks were thiin its passage downwards did not com vered into pieces as small as nuts, but municate with any thing better calcu- not dislodged; though no iron cramps lated to carry off electricity than tim or other metal had been used in the ber and masonry.

brick work. Such were the conductors and their The roof of the stable also suffered. situation on the house of industry, at From these shivered bricks three courses Heckington, when it fuffered from the of pantiles were displaced or broken, storm. They had been erected in June, in a direction downward, the whole 1777, many years after the building way, except near the eaves, at the bothad been finished, and had acquired a tom, where, for about two feet, they coat of ruft, from four years exposure remained untouched. Nearly under in the air, as might be expected. the last of the dislodged pantiles hung

On the 17th of June, 1781, after a a faddle, of which a large piece of the showery forenoon, a heavy cloud, rifing leathern seat was stripped off, and one cf from the S. W. between two and three the stirrup leathers much tornardburned, o'clock, brougiit on a severe thunder and one of the stirrup irons exhibited itori, attended with such heavy hail fome marks offufion. No other thing in and rain, that the court before the the stable appeared to hear any vestiges house was overflowed. About three of the lightening, neither the iron

nails, It must be remembered, that in many places the damages effected by the lightening had been repaired; but the workmen who had been employed placed every thing as nearly as putible into the fituation which it held after the storm.

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