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and faults in our esteem. It teaches The subject of the second Lecture us, in a word, to admire and to blame is Taste, a subject on which men with judgement, and not to follow the talk very loosely and indiftinétly, and crowd blindly.
which it is extremely difficult to ex“ In an age when works of genius plain with precision. What our author and literature are co' frequently the advances on it is in the following orsubjects of viscourse, when erery one der: He first explains the nature of erects himself into a judge, and when tafte as a power or faculty in the huwe can hardly mingle in polite fociety, man mind; in the next place, he confiwithout bearing fome thare in such der how far it is an improveable fadiscusions, ftudies of this kind, it is culty; he then proceeds to shew the nos, to be doubted, will appear to derive fources of its improvement, and the part of their importance from the use characters of taste in its most perfect to which they may be applied in fur- state ; after this, he examines the vanithing materials for those fashionable rious Auctuations to which it is liable, topics of discourse, and thereby ena and enquires whether there be
stan. hling us to support a proper rank in dard to which we can bring the difsocial life.
ferent taites of men, in order to distin“ But I should be sorry if we could guish the corrupted from the true. not rest the merit of such studies on In his third Lecture, our author fomewhat of folid and intrinsical use, treats of criticisin, genius, the pleaindependent of appearance and thow. fures of taste, and fublimity in objects : *The exercise of taste and of sound cri- - True Criticism, we are told, is the ticism is in truth one of the most im- application of tatte and of good sense proving employments of the under- to the feveral fine arts. The object Itanding. To apply the principles of which it propofes is, to distinguish good fenfe to composition and dif- what is beautiful and what is faulty in course; to examine what is beautiful, every performance; from particular inand why it is fo; to employ ourselves ftances to ascend to general principles; in distinguishing accuratel; between the and fo to form rules or conclufions conspecious and the folid,' between af- cerning the several kinds of beauty in fected and natural ornament, muft cer works of gerius, tainly improve us not a little in the Taste and Genius, the Doctor obmost valuable part of all philosophy, serves, are two words frequently joined the philofophy of human nature. For together; and, therefore, by inaccurate such disquisitions are very intimately thinkers confounded. They signify, connected with the knowledge of our however, two quite different things. selves. They necessarly lead us to re
The difference between them can be ficct on the operations of the imagina- clearly pointed out; and it is of importion, and the movements of the heart; tance to remember it.
* Taite (conand increase our acquaintance with tinues he) consists in the power of fume of the inot rencu feelings which judging: Genius, in the power of exobelerg to our franie.”
cuting. One may have a conliderable The Doctor goes on to cbserve that degree of tafe in poetry, elequence, or the Atudy of Criticism and Belles lettres any of the fine arts, who has little or has this peculiar advantage, that it ex- hardly any genius for compofition or ercises our reason, without fatiguing it; execution in any of these arts : but gethat it leads to enquiries acute, but not nius cannot be found without including painful; profound, but not dry or ab taste also. Genius, therefore, deserves it ruse; strews flowers in the path of to be considered as a higher power of fcience; and while it keeps the mind the mird than taite. Genius always bent, in fome degree, and active, re- imports something inventive or crealieves it at the fame time fro:n that tive; which does not rest in mere fenmore toilfome labour to which it must fibility to beauty where it is perceived, fubmit in the acquisition of necesary but which can, moreover, produce new erudition, or the investigation of ab- beauties, and exhibit them in such a Itract truth.
manner as strongly to impress the tafte; and it is clear, that the improveminds of others. Refined taste forms ment of taste will serve both to fora good critic; but genius is further ne ward and to correct the operations of cessary to form the poet, or the ora- genius. In proportion as the taste of tor.
a poet, or orator, becomes more re“It is proper also to observe, thatfined with respect to the beauties of Genius is a word, which, in common composition, it will certainly affist him acceptation, extends much farther than to produce the more finished beauties to the objects of taste. It is used to in his work. Genius, however, in a fignify that talent or aptitude which we poet or orator, may sometimes exift receive from nature, for excelling in in a higher degree than taste; that is, any one thing whatever. Thus, we genius may be bold and strong, when fpeak of a Genius for mathematics, as tafte is neither very delicate, nor very well as a Genius for poetry; of a Ge- correct. This is often the case in the nius for war, for politics, or for any infancy of arts; a period, when genius mechanical employment.
frequently exerts itself with great vi“ This talent or aptitude for ex gour, and executes with much warmth; celling in some one particular, is, I while taste, which requires experience, have said, what we receive from na and improves by flower degrees, hath ture. By art and study, no doubt, it not yet attained its full growth. may be greatly improved; but by them Homer and Shakespear are proofs of alone it cannot be acquired. As Ge- what I now assert; in whose adnius is a higher faculty than Taste, it mirable writings are found instances is ever, according to the usual frugality of rudeness and indelicacy, which she of nature, more limited in the sphere more refined taste of later writers, who of its operations. It is not uncommon had far inferior genius to them, would to meet with persons who have an ex have taught them to avoid. As all cellent taste in several of the polite arts, human perfection is limited, this may, such as music, poetry, painting, and very probably, be the law of our nature, eloquence, altogether: but, to find one that it is not given to one man to exwho is an excellent performer in all ecute with vigour and fire, and, at the these arts, is much more rare; or ra same time, to attend to all the lesser ther, indeed, such an one is not to be and more refined graces that belong to looked for. A sort of Universal Ge- the exact perfection of his work: nius, or one who is equally and indif- while, on the other hand, a thorough ferently turned towards several differ- tafte for those inferior graces, is, for ent professions and arts, is not likely the most part, accompanied with a to excel in any. Although there may diminution of fublimity and force. be some few exceptions, yet in gene “ Having thus explained the nature ral it holds, that when the bent of the of taste, the nature and importance of mind is wholly directed towards some criticism, and the distinction between one object, exclusive, in a manner, of taste and genius; I am now to enter on others, there is the faireft prospect of confidering the sources of the pleasures eminence in that, whatever it be. of taste. Here opens a very extensive The rays must converge to a point, field; no less than all the pleasures of in order to glow intensely. This the imagination, as they are commonly remark I here chuse to make, on called, whether afforded us by natural account of its great importance to objects, or by the imitations and deyoung people, in leading them to scriptions of them. But it is not neexamine with care, and to pursue with cessary to the purpose of my Lectures, ardour, the current and pointing of that all these should be examined fully; nature towards those exertions of the pleasure which we receive from genius in which they are most likely discourse, or writing, being the main to excel.
object of them. All that I purpose is, “ A genius for any of the fine arts, to give some openings into the pleaas I before observed, always supposes sures of taste in general; and to infift
Lond. Mag, Nov, 1783.
more particularly upon sublimity and cerning this subject. The true sense of beauty."
sublime writing, undoubtedly, is such In the remaining part of this Lec- a description of objects, or exhibition ture, our readers will meet with many of sentiments, which are in themselves ingenious remarks, and pertinent il- of a sublime nature, as shall give us lustrations, but we muit refer them to strong impressions of them. But there the work itself. Various hypotheses is another very indefinite, and therehave been formed concerning the fun- fore very improper, sense, which has damental quality of whatever is sublime, been too often put upon it; when it but the Doctor ks they are all un is applied to signify any remarkable fatisfactory. Mighty force or power, and distinguishing excellency of comwhether accompanied with terror or position; whether it raise 'in us the not, whether employed in protecting ideas of grandeur, or those of gentleor in alarming us, appears to him to ness, elegance, or any other fort of have a better title, tlian any thing 'beauty. In this sense, Cæfar's Comthat has yet been mentioned to be the mentaries may, indeed, be termed subfundamental quality of the sublime. lime, and so may many sonnets, pafto“ There does not occur to me any rals, and love elegies, as well as fublime object (fays he) into the idea Homer's Iliad. But this evidently of which, power, strength, and force, confounds the use of words; and marks. either enter not direcily, or are not, no one species, or character, of comat least, intimately affociated with the position whatever. idea, by leading our thcughts to fome “ I am sorry to be obliged to ob-. astonishing power, as concerned in the serve, that the sublime is too often production of the object. However, used in this last and improper sense, by I do not inhit upon this, as sufficient the celebrated critic Longinus, in his to found a general theory.”.
treatise on this subject. He fets out, Having treated, in his third Lecture, indeed, with describing it in its just of grandeur or fublimity in external and proper meaning; as something that objets, our author proceeds, in his elevates the mind above itself, and fills fourth, to treat of the defcription of it with high conceptions, and a noble such objects, or, of what is called the pride. But from this view of it he sublime in writing.
frequently departs; and substitutes in " Many critical terms (says he) have the place of it, whatever, in any strain unfortunately been emploved in a sense of compofition, pleases highly. Thus, too loose and vague; none more so, many of the pafiages which he produces than that of the Subline. Every one as instances of the sublime, are merely is acquainted with the character of Cæ- elegant, without having the most dirfar's Commentaries, and of the style in tant relation to proper fublimity; wit. which they are written; a style re ness Sappho's famous Ode, on which markably pure, fimple, and elegant; he descants at considerable length. He but the most remote from the sublime points out five fources of the sublime. of any of the claflical authors. Yet The firit is, boldness or grandeur in this author bas a German critic, Jo- the thoughts; the second is, the pahannes Gulielmus bergerus, who wrote thetie; the third, the proper applicano longer ago than the year 1720, tion of figures; the fourth, the use of pitched upon as the perfect model of tropes and beautiful expressions; the the Sublime, and has composed a quarto fitth, musical structure and arrangevolume, entitled, De naturali pulchri- ment of words. This is the plan of tudire Orarisiis; the expreis intention one who was writing a treatife of rheof which, is to shew, that Calar's toric, or of the beauties of writing in Commentaries contain the most com- general; not of the sublime in parti.. pletc exemplification of all Longinus's cular. For of these five heads, only rules relating to sublime writing; This the two tirst have any peculiar relation I mention as a trong proof of the con to the sublime; boldness and grandeur tufed ideas which have prevailed, con-, in the thoughts, and, in some intances,
the pathetic, or strong exertions of but it must be set before us in such a pafsion: the other three, tropes, figures, light as is most proper to give us a clear and musical arrangement, have no more and full impression of it; it must be relation to the sublime, than to other described with strength, with concisekinds of good writing; perhaps less to nefs and fimplicity. This depends, the sublime than to any other species principolly, upon the lively impression whatever, because it requires less the which the poet or orator has of the -allistance of ornament. From this it object which he exhibits; and upon his appears, that clear and precise ideas on being deeply affected, and warmed, by this head are not to be expected from the fublime idea which he would conthat writer. I would not, however, vey. If his own feeling be languid, be understood, as if I meant, hy this he can never inspire us with any strong censure, to represent his treatise as of emotion. Instances, which are small value. I know no critic, antient tremely necessary on this subject, will or modern, that discovers a more clearly show the importance of all thore lively relish of the beauties of fine requisites which I have just now menwriting, than Longinus; and he has tioned. also the merit of being himself an “ It is, generally speaking, among excellent, and, in several passages, a the most ancient authors, that we are truly fublime writer. But, as his work to look for the most striking intances has been generally considered as a of the Tablime. I am inclined to think, standard on this subject, it was incum- that the early ages of the world, and bent on me to give my opinion con- the rude unimproved fiate of society, cerning the benefit to be derived from are peculiarly favourable to the strong it. It deserves to be consulted, not emotions of fublimity. . The genius of so much for diftinct instruction con men is then much turned to admiration cerning the sublime, as for excellent and astonishment. Meeting with mageneral ideas concerning beauty in ny objects, to them new and strange, writing.
their imagination is kept glowing, and “ I return now to the proper and their pasions are often raised to the utnatural idea of the Sublime in com mott. They think and express thempofition. The foundation of it always felves boldly, and without retraint. must be laid in the nature of the object in the progress of society, the genius described. Unless it be such an object and manners of men undergo a change as, if presented to our eyes, if exhi- more favourable to accuracy, than to bited to us in reality, would raise ideas ftrength or sublimity.” of that elevating, that awful, and Our author goes on to produce inmagnificent kind, which we call fub- fiances of the sublime from Scripture, lime; the description, however finely the writings of Homer, Offian, Virdrawn, is not entitled to come under gil, Milton, &c. and gives some examthis class. This excludes all objects ples of the faults opposite to the subthat are merely beautiful, gay, or lime, which are chiefly two, the frigid elegant. In the next place, the object and the bombaft. mult not only in itself be sublime,
(1o be continued.) ART. XXVIII. Transactions of the Society, instituted at London, for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, with the Premiums offered in the Year 1783. Vol. I. 8vo. Lockyer Davis, &c.
THIS Society was instituted in the period to commence these alterations. year 1754, and has continued annual. The general attention, during the last ly to publish a book of premiums, until spring, was directed to the paintings the present time. They hare now with which the ingenious and indefajudged it expedient to vary in some tigable Mr. Barry ornamented the great respects the mode of conveying to the room of this society. As this was the public their future proceedings. firit year in which that signal exertion They have fixed upon a very suitable in the line of the polite arts was dis
3 K 2
played to the public, the Society have most kinds of corn and grass-feeds have very juftly deemed it a proper time to been diligently searched for, and in begin the execution of their new de-' many articles happily found. signs.
Very considerable improvements Their annual volume will, in future, in several of the common utensils of wear a much more entertaining appear- husbandry, and others entirely of a ance than formerly, as a few select pa new construction, have not only been pers will be added to the lists of pre- obtained, but their utility experimenmiums which used to compose the tally proved by the Society; and many whole of their former publications. of these, in large, and the models of
In this first volume is inserted an others, have been placed in their repoAbstract of the Transactions and Pro- fitory, for the inspection and use of gress of the Society from its Inftitution, the public." to the year 1782.
FOOD FOR CATTLE. 1. This account begins with AGRI “ The discovery of a food for cat. CULTURE. The following are the tle and sheep during the spring months observations on the effects of the re has ever been considered as a subject of wards which this society has bestowed, the first importance in agriculture; the in the class of agriculture :
Society, therefore, began at an early TIMBE R.
period to turn their attention towards “ The national benefits to be de- it, and in hopes of obtaining fo derived from improvements in agricul- fireable an object, many rewards were ture made it an early object of the bestowed for the culture of such plants attention of the Society: it engaged as make an early appearance, as Burthem to extend their premiums and net, Lucerne, &c. At length the withbounties largely to candidates in this es of the Society were in a great declass; and the several articles for which gree gratified, by some accounts re
they have been given point out, in a ceived of the use of the Turnep-rooted great measure, their utility. The Cabbage, or, as it is sometimes called, raising, planting, and preserving trees Reynolds's Turnep, from its having proper for timber, particularly, oak, been first cultivated for these purposes in à com.nercial and maritime king- by the late Mr. John Reynolds, of 'Adidom, where it is so much in demand, ham, in Kent, who was rewarded by have been greatly promoted by the the Society for the discovery, and premiums they have offered; and the whose papers on this head have been effects may in fome degree be observed already printed. Yet, the culture of from the quantities for which the fuc- this valuable vegetable was long con. cessful candidates have obtained them, fined to Kent, and a few adjoining though no account has been taken of counties; but it will be found by the the quantities raised or planted by the letters of Mr. Tugwell, and Mr. Robunsuccessful ones.”
bins, published in this volume, that the H E M P.
cultivation of the Turnep-rooted Cab“ Hemp being an article essential to bage has now spread itself into Glouour shipping, and of the higheit im- cestershire: of what great utility it portance ta us as a maritime and com- will prove to the farmers in that counmercial people, the culture of that ty, is easy to determine; and as the plant has been carefully attended to, knowledge of the uses of fo valuable and the practicability of growing it to a plant will now be spread over the advantage in Great-Britain clearly de- whole kingdom, there is every reason monstraied; a matter, which, if ever to believe its culture will extend, and we mould be engaged in war against the benefits resulting from it be uni those nations by whom that article has versally felt." been hitherto supplied, will hereafter
MADDE R. prove of fingular benefit to thiscountry." "Madder, an essential article in dy. GRA I N.
ing and callico-printing, which had Improvemengs in the culture of been raised to an extravagant price by