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e alla semplicità degli Antichi, e il pleasure, as it treats of a machine which cui valore per la Meccanica non à po- does honour to the genius of the an, tuto degenerare, se non colla perdita cients, and to the simplicity of their di tutte le altre loro fagaci invenzioni, inventions, and which could not have dopo la luttuosa invasione de' Barbari. fallen from its rank as a valuable piece

of mechanism, but with the loss of all their other ingenious discoveries, after the lamentable invasion of the barbas

rians. Consiste questa macchina in due This machine is composed of twa sfere, una cava e l'altra intiera, e spheres, one hollow, the other folid; questa inscritta in quella, colla diffe- the convexity of the one being fitted renza che dell'una non ve n'è se non to the concavity of the other; with la metà scavata in forma di gran mor- this difference, that of the one, only tajo in un ceppo di pietra, dell' altra half is employed, cut in a block of due soli segmenti della stessa materia. ftone, in form of a large mortar, of Per maggiore intelligenza la prima può the other, only two segments of the paragonarfi all'orizzonte nella sfera fame materials. To have a clearer idea, armillare, i secondi alle due porzioni the former may be compared to the di essa sfera tagliate verticalmente da' horizon in an armillary sphere, the tra circoli polari. Il diametro esterno del- latter to t'e two portions of the same l'emisfero cavo o fia mortajo è di sphere cut off vertically by the polar circa mezza canna napolitana; le lab- circles. The external diameter of the bra, sono grofie di fei dita, per confe- concave hemisphere, or mortar, is about guenza il diametro interno e di dodici half a Neapolitan ell, the brim is fix dita minore del primo, fi crede però inches thick, confequently the internal che le proporzioni di eifo possono adat- diameter is twelve inches less than the tarsi alla maggiore o minore durezza external. We conceive, however, that della pietra: i due accennati sono di thefe proportions may be varied, ac

, lava del Vesuvio, la quale oltre di essere cording to the hardness of the stone. friabile non è della menu porosa. The two of which we speak, are of

the lava of Vesuvius, which is both friable and porous in no inconfiderable

degree. Tal fondo dell'emisfero cavo l'arte From the bottom of the concare ledello scarpellino à lasciato forgere un misphere rises a cylinder, or finall cocilindro o sia colonnetta di un palmo lumn, a palm and fix inches in circuine sei dita in circa di diametro, e meno ference, and nearly two inches higher di due più alto della periferia o fian than the periphery or brim of the morlabbra del mortajo. Sopra del cilindro tar.

tar. On the top of the cylinder an fta impiombato un perno di ferro de- iron pivot is fixed with lead, on which stinato a far girare un afle di legno turns a wooden axle, ftrengthened by coll anima pure di ferro: all'estrem: to an iron red running through it from di questo dovevano stare incaftrati i end to end. To the extremities of this due accennati segmenti, presso a poco axle the two fegruents ought to be come le due picciole ruote delle mo- fixed, nearly in the iame manner in derne carrozze. Queito appare ba- which we fix the tivo small wheels of ftantemente chiaro da una estremità, our chariots. This is sufficiently eviche si pu) tuttavia osservare non con- dent from one extremity, which may fuinata dal fuoco dell'eruzione nel ftill be seen unconsured by the fire of molino di Pompeja; e la quale lungi di the eruption in the mill of Pompeja. eller prolungata

, è mozza dove puteva lt exhibits no appearance of having eller l'afficolo. E quello di anche been lengthened, but is cut flort out luogo da congetturare che per dar mo- where tic finall part of the axle ought to ai segmenti doveasi aver immaginato

to be. Hence, a!io, we may conjetun manubrio o timone tirato com ani- ture, that a handle or pole, drawn by

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male, o spinto da uomo, e che l'arte an animal, or worked by a man, mut construiva bifido per mezzo di due have been contrived to give motion to spranghe per abbraciare o dar più co- the segments. And this seems to have moda la fpinta alle due parti oppofte been divided in two, like a fork, and dell' aile.

made fast with two braces to the two

opposite ends of the axle. I vantaggi di questo molino antico The advantages of this ancient mill fopra il moderno sono moltiplici. Il over the modern are many. perfetto combaciamento della superficie fect coincidence of the concare and concava e convefla delle due sfere pre- convex surfaces of the two spheres lenta all' artrito delle olive un numero presents an infinitely greater number di punti infinitamente maggiore di of points for the trituration of the quello della tangente della nola o fia olives, than the periphery of the millrota verticale applicata al cippo del ftone, or vertical wheel, touching 2 moderno. ll duplice moto poi di ro- plane, as in the modern. The double tazione attorno all' affe, e di circonvo- motion too of rotation round the axis, hızione attorno al cilindro, simile a and circumvolution round the cylinder, quello de' pianeti moltiplica ogni istante like that of the planets, multiplies evei punti di attrito ne' due segmenti e ry inftant the points of attrition, and abbrevia a proporzione i tempi della proportionally thortens the time of nacina. Infatti dal saggio che sotto the grinding. In fact, it appears from gli occhi di S. M. dal Marchese Gri- the trial made before his Majesty, by Baldi se n'è fatto a Caserta, risulta che the Marquis Grimaldi, that a quantity un tumulo di olive che richiede mez- of olives, which the modern mill zora nel molino moderno, nell'antico empoys half an hour, is ground in the fi macina in un minuto e mezzo. ancient in a minute and an half.

Dippiù nella prima metla questo The ancient, moreover, in the fire sfrantuma soltanto la polpa, e produce grinding, crushes only the pulp, and, per conseguenza l'olio vergine perfet- consequently, produces the moit pertiffimo per l'uso di cucina, il quale perfect virgin oil for the use of the table, la cottura del sole in questo clima non which, from the perfection to which à niente che cedere ai più delicati bu- the fun brings the fruit in this climate, tiri del Nord, e dopo alcuni anni fi does not yield in the least to the mot converte in balsamo, come la vecchia delicate butter of the north, and aftur perienza lo dimostra in Calabria ed in some years, becomes balfam, as exrealtre parti meridionali del Regno di rience has long shewn in Calabria, and Napoli. Dopo che l' olive così sfran- other southern parts of Naples. Aitumate fono ilate spremute nello stret- ter the olives, thus mathed, hare been tojo overo trappeto, come coll'antico squeezed in the press, or trappero, for nome greco chiamasi in queite pro- so it is called by the ancient Greek Fincie, versanî di nuovo fulla macina; name, in these provinces, they are e allora abbailato, col togliere una ca- again poured into the mill, and the viabil, l'aire, vengono a settare ftri- axle being lowered by removing : telute anche le ossa o fiano i nocchi; finall pin, the stones are also trituratet me come il fucco eterogeneo di questi But as the heterogeneous juice of them 12 a mischiarsi col rimanente olio, incorporates with the remaining oil, questo rifultando di qualità inferiore it produces a mixture of inferior qua farebbe foltanto buono per le fabbriche lity, which would be fit only for de faponi, e de' panni; ciò nondimeno making soap or manufacturing cloth. la poca deltatezza degli operai non The coarte palates, however, of laischiva di usarlo per condimento. bourers do not disdain to use it in drei.

sing their victuals. The lyle of the original is so violently inflated and pedantic, that it frequently obscures the meaning. We have endeavoured to fuften it in our translation.

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IRISH REPRESENTATION. A MORE EQUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE IN THE PARLIAMENT

OF IRELAND.

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Muniter, held in the County Court-house country into an inditöluble mass; and promoted of Cork, on the nt of March, 1783, the tol- the most exalted reverence for the laws--are facts lowi:ng, among many other rciulves, were entered that will exhibit a splendid and interesting figure inito :

in the annals of the age. Refolved unanimously, That the majority of From a military institution fo fingular in its the representatives in parliament are returned by nature as to comprehend the several gradations venal boroughs; that luch meinbers do not re- of nobles, commoners, merchants, yeomen, and present the lense of the people; that the par. mechanics, every substantial good will be ex. liament cannot be virtuous until a more equal pected by wife and virtuous men. representation of the people thall be obtainert. They will, with honest pride, behold in the We, therefore, itrongly recommend to parliament, ftate an unparalleled combination of the mito use the molt itrenuous exertion to carry the litary with the civil character, exiiting only for above reform into ettect.

the general interests of the community, and preAT a meeting of Delegates from forty-five pared, on the purest principles of the conititution,

corps of the province of Uliter, assembled at to give etficacy to the wishes of three millions of Litburn the nit of July, 1783, in pursuance of people. a public requilition of the Uliter regiment, The idea of a well-digested parliamentary,

Lieut. Col. SHARMAN in the chair, reform has ever experienced a favourable reResolved unanimoutly, That a general meet. ception in the uncorrupted breasts of Irishmen ing of the Voluntier Delegates of the province of and of Britons.-Ic has been uniformly looked Ulter, on the subject of a more equal repre- up to as the true source of public virtuc, and of sentation of the people in parliainent, is hereby political salvation, by the tint characters these earneitly entreated;' to be held at Dungannon, kingdoms have produced. In this age, we have on Monday, the eighth day of September next. seen it warmly supported by that consummate

Resolved unanimoully,' That the following statesman, the late Earl of Chatham; and gentlemen (leven to be a quorum) be appointed revived by the heir to his abilities and name, the a committee of correlpondence for communis pretent WILLIAM Pitt. It has received the caring with the other corps of the province, for lanction of the most eminent and honett men taking preparatory iteps to forwari the inten- in both Houses of the British Parliament; of a tions of this inceting, and for collecting the best great number of the moi refpectable thires in authorities and information on the subject of a England; of the Voluntier Delegates of the proa parliamentary reform, viz.

vince of Munster-and, within these few days, Licut. Col. SHARMAN,

of the unanimous vote of thirty-eight corps, re. Capt. BLACK,

viewed at Bellast. Dri ALEX. CRAWFORD,

Among the many glorious cffects of which a Major BURDEN,

more equal representation of the people in par-, Capt. WAD. CUNNINGHAM,

liament would be productive, the following are Rev. Mr. CRAIG,

obvious: The deitruction of that party fpirit, Dr. SAMUEL MOORE,

whole banetul intluence has at all times beert Col. RowLKY,

injurious to the public weal--a revival of the Major John CRAWFORD,

native dignity of the crown, by imparting to each Lieut. Col. BANAS,

branch of the legislature its distinct and propora Mr. ROBERT THOMPSON,

tional weight--and the abolition of that train of Capt. THOMAS P*ENTICŁ,

courty mercenaries who must ever continue to Lieut. TOMB.

prey on the vital, of public virtue, till, the ba. Resolved unanimoully, That the following lance of the conftitution being restored, the ne-, address be published in the public papers : Cellity for governing by regular fyltems of icTO THE VOLUNTIER ARMY OF duction thall no longer exiit. PROVINCE OF ULSTER,

Then would the conitituent body regain its, FELLOW CITIZINS,

constitutional control over its truitces--and venal IN common with every class of Truthmen, you majorities would not be found to fupport the most are lentible that this kingdom for many cen

dishonourable and pernicious measures, in oppoturies might have continued to bear its chalis in fition to the tense of the unpolluted part of the ignoble and indigent obfcurity, had not an aliny legislature, as well as contrary to the univerlak of its citizens, by a gre.t cffuit, dared to Cult withes of the public--and to the true intent of them off.

the institution of parliaments. That the dignified condu&t of that army With due deference for the auguft body which lately restored to the imperial crown of lieland we have prelumed to address -- we, therefore, beg its original splendor, to nubility its ancient pri- leave to express our withes that the Voluntier vileges, and to the nation at large its inherent Delegates oi Ulter would all mble with the same rights, as a fovereign independentitate that by spirit of loyalty, patriotilin, and firmness, which inculcating the glorious spirit of toleration, 15 actuated them on the memorable 15th o: Fe. Lund. MAG, Dec. 1783.

bruary,

THE

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bruary, 1782:to deliberate on the most con- voluntier corps in Ulster may be represented as stitutional means of procuring a more equal Dungannon, on the 8th of September neri, i representation of the people in the parliament of that their delegates may be turniihed Ireland--as the only measure which can give written instructions to declare approbatio. I permanency to the late renoyation of our con- dilapprobation of the measure of a parliamenta ititution, or restore that virtue to the representa- reform; leaving it to the united wildom at e tive body, without which, though the mere forms allembled delegates, to pursue such further of a free government may be preserved, its spirie sures to promote this great objcet, as tha) 2, must inevitably perish.

to thein most proper. Signed, by order of the Meeting,

'WM. SHARMAX, Chaises W. SHARMAN, Chairman. Lieut. Col Shannan having lett the chair, LETTER from the Duke of Richmond to and Lieut. Cl. Sir Walter Sinnot taken it,

Committee of Correspondence at Liftart. Rcfolved, That the chanks of this meeting be

SIR, given to our worthy chairman, for his very I Have becn honoured with a letter fra proper conduct in the chair.

Beifalt, dated the 19th of July last, srirse a BELFAST, July 19, 1783. the name of the Committee of Correspondent At a meeting of the committee of correl- appointed by the Delegates of torty-tive idi List pondence, appointed by the representatives of

corps atlembled at Lisburn on the ift of the fase forty-five voluntier corps, that affembled at

month, “ for taking preparatory iteps to forrad Lisburn on the ist init. Present, Lieut. Col. their intentions on the Tubject of a more equi Sharman, Major Burden, Captain Cunningham, representation of the people in parliament,' .. Captain Prentice, Captain Moore, Captain signed by their secretary, Henry Joy, jun. Ek Crawford, Lieut. Tomo, Mr. Robert Thomp- In this letter, after showing the corrupt fon: Lieut. Col. Sharnan in the chair, Ordered,

of the boroughs in Ireland, the general opinion of that the following address be published in the the people, that the conititution can be restored public prints, and a copy of it sent to each

to its ancient purity and vigour by no oa corps in the province, of which our Secretary can mcans than a parliamentary reform, get information.

forming me of the steps which have been izketa TO THE VOLUNTIERS OF ULSTER.

and are taking by the voluntiers, in determin GENTLEMEN,

to procure this defireable object, the comma IN compliance with the order of forty-five

is pleased to request my sentiments and advic .corps, which appointed us a committee of cor

as to the best, moit eligible, and inost practicale respondence for the purpose of promoting a Dun- mode of destroving, rtstraining, or counterattig gannon Meeting, to be held the 8th of September

this hydra 01 corruption, borough influenct, : next: we thinkıl necessary to present a view of order to lay my opinion betore the Provincia the several voluntier bodies who have already Allembly of Delegates, which is to be held r declared their determination to support a par- Dungannon, on the 8th of September neri." liamentary reform, viz.

This great mark of conndence, from grote. The province of Munfter, by an unanimous men in whom 1o much cruit is placed, decs : declaration of their representatives--on the ist of great honour; for as I have not the pleasure March laft

being perionally known to any of them, I can The representatives of thirty-eight corps re- owe it but to the favourable opinion they are viewed at Beltait, on the gth of June laft, by an

pleated to entertain of my constant and acalo unanimous declaration.

endeavours in the public iervice. The united corps of True Blue and Society I am fentible that the only proper return ! Voluntiers or the city of Londonderry-on parade can make for this horourable distinction, is to 3 oth of June, by an unanimous declaration.

obey their commands in the bett manner 1 an The Londonderry Artillery Company, the able; for although my insufficiency for 10 arduous Londonderry Independent Voluntiers, and Li- a talk would afford me but too good an excite berty Voluntiers--on parade the iit of July, by for declining it, yet I feel it would be inconuttene en unanimous declaration.

with my ideas of the obligation every man The representatives of torty-five corps con- under to ferve the public as well as he cari, i: 1 sened at Lithuin tre 11t of July instane--by an was to retule giving my opinions, such as they onanimous declaration.

are, when thus called upon by a refpecezbe The representatives of thirty-four corps re. body of gentlemen, viewed at Broughthane, on the ioth init. --by an Besides my inability, I have to regret the wan' unanimous declaration.

of time to collect and arrange my thoughts ir It appears to us, that the idea of a par- such a manner as to be tired appear before you, diamentary retorm has already received the and the neceflary limits of a letter, which ival! fanction of tiiteen thoufundi voluntiers; with a pot admit of the exteolive investigacion whicha varm promile of fus port from the pat patron fubject of this vast importance defervis; or of Irish liberiyathe Earl of Chariemonie-and although I fear I must be long I am fentibki has received, in a very short time, the general cannot do it justice approbation of all ranks and denominations of

The subject of a parlianentary idiorın is that, independent frucholders.

which of all others, in my opmuon, trott deHaving given this information, it cnly remains ferves the attention oi the public, I conceive it at preient 10 allure you, that we are diligently would include <very other advantage which a applying ourselves to the discharge of the truit nation can wiib; and I have no haitacon in spolca in us; and earnestly to request, Will Everye laying that mon every corihuera93011 when I

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have been ahle to give to this great question that more extensive plan, at the same time that its for many years has occupied my mind, and from operation is more complete, depends on a more every day's experience to the present hour, I am effectral fuppert--that of the people. more and more convirced that the refforing ibe I am allo persuaded that if ihe scheme fot righ: of voting universally to every man, at additional county members had proceeded any inc.pacitated by nature for want of reason, or by farther, intnite diff.culties would have arilen in law for the commillion of crimes, roge: hr zb adjusting it. Neither the Yorkthire Commitice annual ele&tions, is the only reform that can be nor Mr. Pirt have given the detail of their pian. cticctual and permanent. I am further cool- A juit representation would have been a moit invinced that it is the only reform that is practicable. tricate tark, for where diferent interests are le

All other plars that are of a palliative nature parately sepreientes, the proportion is not very have been found infuthicient to interest and ani- eaty to ascertain. The doubt youitate concerning mit: the great body of the people, from whofe this mode of retorn appears tu me well tounded; ernestnets a' ne any reform can be expected. a few great fanilies might divide a county beA long exclution liom any share in the legiilacre mwen them, and chuse the meribers by a House of their country has rendered the great inais of Litt, like Eat-Indi Directors. Another di:ile people inuitterent whether the monopoly that ficulty from the mercare of he number of

ti liits continues in the hands of a more or lefs members, which might render the Hor'fe more extended company; or whether it is divided by tumultuous than deliberative, has its weight. them into thares of fomewhat more or lets juit But the greatest objection, in my opinion, to proportions. The public teels itself unconcerned this and to every other narrow and contracted in thefc contests, except as to the opprestions it plan of retorin, is, that it proceeds upon the endures, and the exactions it futters, which it lame bad principle as the abule it pretends to knows must continue to long as the people re- rectify; it is itill partial and unequal; a vaft main deprived of all control over their repre- majority of the community is itill left unreTentatives. This indifference of their's, when freienicd; and its most esential concerns, life, the latt attempt was made for additional county liberty, and prunerty, continued in the absolute members, was used by our opponents as an ar- dirporal of those whom they do r.ot chute, and gument against all retorm; it was asked with a over whom they have no control.

In the artriumphant air, where are the petitions from the mingements of plans of this kind, there is na inhabitants of Birmingham, Mancheiter, Hal- leading principle to determnine that the addition Jitax, and other great unreprelented towns? And ought to be ose hundred, fifty, or two hundred; their nence was deemed a proof their acquie

that the allotment thould be according to the 1cence and latisfaction in the present form of population, property, or taxes faii in each elections! The truth is, that ihe people have county; that any luppofed proportion between been lo otten deceived, that they will now scarcely the landed and trading interest is the just one, truit any let of men; and nothing but felf-evi- and that the divition of county and city members dent conviction, that a measure tends effectually will correspond with this proportion when found, to the recovery of their rights, can, or indeed All is at tea without any compals, to enable us ought to intereit chein in its tavour.

to distinguish the late from the dangerous The letter seiorm has been attempted with couric. every pollible advantage in its favour; not only But in the more liberal and great plan of unifrom the zealous fupport of the advocates for a virjal representation a clear and distinct prininore erfectual one, but from the affiltance of ciple at once appesus, that cannot lead us wrong: men of great weight both in and out of power. not conveniency but right: it it is not a maxin But with all there temperaments and helps it h.is of our conititucior, that a Britith lubject is to failed. Not one prolelyte has been gained from be governed only by laws to which hc bas concorruption, nor has the least ray of hope been sented by him?elfor his reprefentativë, we should held out trom any quarter that the House of iaitantly abandon the crror; but it it is the eiLommons was inclined to adopt any other mode fent:a! of ireedom, tounded on the eternal prinof retorm. The weight of corruption has cruth- cirles of justice and wildom, and our unuliened this more gentle, as it would hare dcfente able birthrighi, ive thould not hesitate in alertany more ethcacious plan in the same circum- ing it. Let us ther. bus datcriaine to act on this Itances. From that quarter, therefore, I have broni principle, oi gizing to czery man his own, nothing to hope. It is from the people at large

aný withall inmediacly get rid of all the perthat I expect any good. And I am convinced plexities & which the narrow lotions of para that the ouly way to make them feel that they cality and exclusion muift ever be subject. are really concerned in the business, is to con- in the digesting a plan upon this nuble fourtend tor their futt, cler, and indisputable rig bes dation we tha'l not need any difficuts, that the of universaalnpiefintation. I call them lush, molt comme undertianding and pairs will not riut only trom my own conviction, but from the ealis furmount. It does not require half the adinition of the friends to the more moderate ingonuity of a commu.. tax-bill; and as a proof plan, who, in the lucond address of th: York- of this tertion, I myteli dzer the forn of a inire Committee to the people, contets that our bill for this purpose, which I mieientid to the claims are founded on the true principles of the

House of Lori in 1.80; not as a partect work, conftitution, and only object to them on account but merely to thew huw easily the objections to oi impracticability. But their plan has now the practicability of the pian, and the inconvc. had a lair trial, and (it it is from the inclination nienies that are fuggente, might be gol over. of parliament that practic ability is to be expected)

I believe the lending you a copy of my bill has been found as impracticable as our's. The will be the beat way of capilvisning its operatians.

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