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Theep against the fides of little banks, would also give distance to the more or hillocks, will often occasion very removed parts; which, in a scene like beautiful breaks.
this, would have peculiar advantage : “ The colour too of the broken foil is for as we have here fo little distance, a great source of variety; the yellow, we wish to make the moft of what we or the red oker; the ashy grey; the have.—But 'trees immediately on the black earth; or the marley blue. And foreground cannot be suffered in these the intermixtures of these with patches scenes as they would obstruct the naof verdure, blooming heath, and other vigation of the river. vegetable tints, fill increase that va The rocks, which are continually riety.
starting through the woods, produce si Nor let the fastidious reader think, another omament on the banks of the these remarks descend too much into Wye. The rock, as all other objects, detail. Were an extensive distance de- though more than all, receives its chief scribed, a forest-scene, a sea-coast view, beauty from contrast. Some objects a vast semi-circular range of broken are beautiful in themselves. The eye mountains, or some other grand display is pleased with the tuftings of a tree: of nature, it would be trilling to mark it is amused with pursuing the eddying these minute circumstances. But here itream; or it reits with delight on the the hill around exhibits little, except fhattered arches of a Gothic ruin. Such fore-grounds; and it is necessary, where objects, independent of compofition, we have no distances, to be more exact are beautiful in themselves. But the in finishing objects at hand.
rock, bleak, naked, and unadorned, “ The next great ornament on the seems scarcely to deserve a place among banks of the Wye, are its woods. In them. Tint it with mosles, and lythis country there are many works car- chens of various hues, and you give it ried on by fire; and the woods being a degree of beauty. Adorn it with maintained for their use, are periodi- shrubs, and hanging herbage, and you cally cut down.
As the larger trees still make it more picturesque. Conare generally left, a kind of alternacy nect it with wood, and water, and takes place: what is this year a thicket, broken ground, and you make it in may the next be an open grove. The the highest degree interesting. Its cowoods themselves possess little beauty, lour and its form are ļo accommoand lefs grandeur; yet, as we consider dating, that it generally blends into them as the ornamental, not as the ef one of the most beautiful appendages sential parts, of a scene, the eye muft of landscape. not examine them with exactness; but “ Different kinds of rocks have difcompound for a general effect. ferent degrees of beauty. Those on
One circumstance attending this the Wye, which are of a greyish colour, alternacy is pleafing. Many of the are, in general, simple and grand; rarefurnaces on the banks of the river ly formal or fantastic. Sometimes consume charcoal, which is manufac- they project in those beautiful square tured on the spot; and the smoke masses, yet broken and shattered in which is frequently seen issuing from every line, which is the characteristic the sides of the hills and spreading its of the most majestic species of rock. thin veil over a part of them, beauti. Sometimes they slant obliquely from fully breaks their lines, and unites the eye in shelving diagonal strata : and them with the sky.
sometimes they appear in large masses “ The chief deficiency, in point of of smooth ftone, detached from each wood, is of large trees on the edge of other, and half buried in the soil. the water; which, clumped here and Rocks of this latter kind are the most there, would diversify the hills, as the lumpish, and the least picturesque. eye passes them; and remove that hed “ The various buildings, which arise viness, which always, in some degree every where on the banks of the Wye, (though here as little as possible) arises form the last of its ornaments ; abbeys, from the continuity of ground.' They castles, villages, spires, forges, mills,
and bridges. One or other of these scene on canvas
when the eye is to venerable vestiges of the past, or chear- be confined within the frame of a pica ful habitations of the present times, ture, and can no longer range among characterise almost every scene. the varieties of nature; the aids of art
“ These works of art are, however, become more necessary; and we want of much greater use in artificial, than the castle, or the abbey, to give conin natural landscape. In pursuing the sequence to the fcene. And indeed the beauties of nature, we range at large landscape painter seldom thinks his among forests, lakes, rocks, and moun- view perfect, without characterizing it tains. The various scenes we meet by fome object of this kind.” with furnith an inexhausted source of We shall
not, at present, give any furpleasure. And though the works of ther quotation from this work, but shall art may often give animation and con occasionally lay before our readers, some traft to these scenes; yet still they are of its molt ftriking passages, in that not necessary. We can be amused with department of our Magazine which is out thein. But when we introduce a allotted to miscellaneous productions.
Art. II. A new Translation of the Gospel of St. Matthew; with Notes, cria tical, bijtorical, and explanatory. By Gilbert Wakefield, B. A. 4to.
THE author was once a member of gurative, and denotes nothing more the Church of England: he doth not than an attribute of the Divinity, or now appear to be a member of any at the utmost it is only a personificachurch. His opinions are of a fingular tion of the divine power particularly caft, and we know of no society of manifested in the establishment of the Chriftians that have adopted them pro- Christian dispensation. By the same feffedly, though fome individuals a mode of interpretation this author armong the Socinians may perhaps have ferts very positively (for he is fuperior entertained principles equally free with to difidence, and speaks without reMr. Wakefield. He doth not believe ferve or qualification on moft occafions) in the inspiration of the scriptures: and that the words Satan and the Devil are very frequently finds fault with the rea- merely figurative, and imply nothing sonings employed in them to establish more than evil in the abftract. There particular doctrines, or illustrate parti- is no devil in reality; nor any wicked cular events. He thinks the Evange- fpirits that tempt mankind: hence, he lifts, though in general faithful narra- says, that our Saviour's temptation in tors of facts that came under their cog- the Wilderness is nothing but an allenizance, yet were sometimes mistaken gorical representation of the temptain their accounts of some particular tions and difficulties he was exposed to circumftances that were of little mo- in the course of his ministry: and Sament to the. hiftory; and he boldly tan's departing from him means nothing avers that none of the passages which more than his conquering the oppofithey have quoted from the Old Testa- tions that the passions and prejudices of ment and applied to the conception, mankind, and the wants and weaknesses life, futterings, and death of Jesus of human nature threw in his way to Christ, have originally any reference to divert or terrify him from his great him, or can properly be regarded in work. the light of prophecies. He considers Mr. Wakefield hath other fingulariChriít as a mere man who had no ex ties (particularly with respect to bapistence before the Virgin Mary was tism) which will afford little entertainwith child (as he translates it) of a holy ment to our readers to recount. He Spirit, or in other words, was made seems to possess a strong inclination to pregnant by a divine impulse: for Mr. quarrel with generally received opinions; Wakefield doth not believe in the per- and if a practice is established by cu fonality of the Holy Ghoft: bur main- tom and authority he seems predisposed tains that the expression is merely fi- to find fault with it. In his reflections
on orthodoxy, he is most indecently scarcely see any thing but the furious outrageous. He keeps no terms with declaimer, and the conceited pedagogue. the doctrines of the trinity, the atone He cannot write without a motto, as ment, &c. &c. &c. but lavishes on them Hudibras could not speak without a and on their abertors all the opprobri- trope. His book is stuffed with quoum that mingled zeal and hatred can tations from the classics, and all the fupply.
idle parade of impertinent erudition. As a commentary this work is very In short, he is a mere cock-chafer of deficient and very cenfurable: and in- criticism, who spins-and spins, and stead of seeing the true critic, and the will spin himself to death. folid expositor of God's word, we
Art. III. Memoirs of the Manstein Family. 2 vols. THE adventures here recorded are teresting and entertaining. The lanfaid to have been founded on fact. We guage is free and familiar, yet delicate see no reason to discredit the assertion. and elegant. The sentiments are someThey are in themselves extremely pro- times lively and acute; at other times bable, and they are described in a man- pathetic and affecting; and at all times ner that gives them very much the ap- pertinent and sensible. The morality pearance of truth.
But whether real is pure; and the whole tendency of it or fi&titious this little work is both in- virtuous and benevolent.
Art. IV. Letters from a celebrated Nobleman to his Heir, never before published. Small 8vo. Nichols.
THE collection of letters now be better have been suppressed. They did fore us is presented to the public as the not, at any rate, merit the warm euloproduction of the late Lord Chelter- gium with which the editor has hofield. We believe them to be genuine, noured them, though they carry fome and grant with the editor, that they few marks of the ease, elegance, and may be considered very properly as a wit which shone in the epistolary ftyle fupplement to the “ Art of Pleasing," of that nobleman. a relic by the fame pen, lately published. The editor in his advertisement like
The letters addressed to Mr. Stanhope wise complains, that some parts of the were very juftly characterised by the Art of Pleasing, were “ thrown out, great Dr. Johnson, whose virtues de- in a mutilated itate, and degraded by lerve even a higher panegyric than his the monthly, hackneyed vehicle of a literary talents. He styled them the sixpenny magazine!” On this account, scoundrel's vade mecum, and asserted from a dread left these letters Thould that they inculcated the morals of a Mare the same hard fate, he has kindwhoremonger, and the manners of a' ly laid them before the public. Now, dancing-master. Such was the strong for any mutilations which they might language of knowledge and integrity. suffer from the cruel flashing, and This new collection does not, indeed, harsh and uncivil strokes of a magazine deserve so severe a censure. Nothing, editor's pen, we cannot answer. We perhaps, can be found in it offensive to will, however, assert, and we do it with the cause of virtue, but then we can the confidence of conscious dignity, point out as little to promote science, that there are very few pages in the or teach wisdom. When a work is whole of this supplement to that unforoffered to the public, we require more tunate work, which seem to merit a than that it should be harmless. Let- place in such a miscellany: ters to a boy under twelve can afford Our monthly compilations are not little interesting matter, from the head intended for the perusal of children, cven of a Chefferfield, and these letters and to those alone can we recommend and extracts addressed to the heir of that these letters, though we do not think nobleman at such an age, had, perhaps, that they will be of half so much real
erility to them, as they may derive pardoned, in the rapidity of conversafrom the little books written by the tion, they will not be excused in wriingenious Mrs. Barbauld, for the in- ting, where every man has time to Atraction of early youth.
think, if he can think. There is also in our fentence against this collec- a ftyle appropriated to the several forts tion, there are two letters which we of letters. Letters of business require wift to except. The former, which only great clearness and precision; so me thall present to our readers, is on that the reader may not be obliged to the fubject of letter-writing, and though read any one paragraph twice, in order the purport of it was in grafted into to understand it. Familiar letters give various parts of the epifties formerly a greater latitude; for though they must published by Mrs. Stanhope, yet it be equally clear and intelligible; they merits a perufal
. The latter, which admit of some levity; and the writer closes this book, is supposed to have may throw into them all the wit that been written by the Earl of Chesterfield, he is master of. I need not mention to his heir, to be delivered after to you yet, the proper style of billetsbis decease. As this is of some length, doux, which mould be only tender, and as quotations are anathematized by and seem to come merely from the the editor, we must content ourselves heart, whether they do or not.
We with merely mentioning it, and close have but two confiderable collections of our remarks with the former.
the ancients, and those “ I shall write to you pretty often, are the Letters of Cicero, and of the and only require of you in return one younger Pliny. The former are the letter every fortnight. This will use models of good letters, the latter of you to the EPISTOLARY STYLĖ, pretty ones. Among the moderns there which every gentleman should know, are three fuper-eminent ones. Voiture to a certain degree at leait. Use will excels in the agreeable badinage* make it infenfibly easy to you; and Comte de Buffy in the polite genteel good letters should be in an easy, but style of a man of quality, who has a at the same time in a pure and elegant great deal of wit and knowledge of the ftyle. They should not smell of the world; and Maclame de Sevigné excels lanp, nor, on the other hand, be in a them both, by a talent peculiarly her negligent and flatternly style. You The Graces seem to have dicwill hear many people say, that when tated her letters. We have millions of you write to any body, you should sup- letters in our own language, but fer pose yourself in company with that good ones. In general,
they want that perfon; and only write what you would genteel, easy air, that distinguishes the fay to him, were you with him. But French ones which I have mentioned. this is not so. For though the style of The next time I see you, I will give letters should by no means be ftiff and you a volume of Comic de Busly's Letformal, yet it should as little be inac- ters, among which there are several of curate and incorrect. For though lit- Madame de Sevigné's inserted. They de errors are pardonable, and will be were near relations and friends,"
ART. V. Dissertations moral and critical. By James Beatlie, LL. D. Professor of Moral Philosophy and Logick in the Marischel College and Univerity of Acrilica; and Member of the Zealand Society of Arts and Sciences. 4to. Cadell, in London; and Creech, at Edinburgh.
IN the preface to these Differtations, style; for the frequent introduction of Dr. Beattie acquaints his readers, that practical and serious observations; for they are part of a course of prelections, a more general use of the pronouns I read to those young gentlemen,' whom. and You, than is, perhaps, quite proit is his business to initiate in the ele- per in discourses addressed to the public; ments of moral science. This, he hopes, and for a greater variety of illustration, will account for the plainness of his than would have been requisite, if his Lond. Mac. July 1783.
hearers * Light, airy Ityle.
hearers had been of riper years, or more with marking the difference between accustomed to abstract enquiry. these two faculties; points out some of
“ The reader will be disappointed the more conspicuous laws and ap(continues he) if he expect to find in pearances of memory; proposes rules this book any nice metaphysical theo- for its improvement; makes some obries, or other matters of doubtful dif- fervations on the memory of brotes, putation. Such things the author is and concludes with a few inferences. not unacquainted with: but they suit He then proceeds to give a general acnot his ideas of moral teaching; and count of imagination, and confiders, at he has laid them aside long ago. His full length, that operation of the huaim is, to inure young minds to habits man mind, which, by modern philoof attentive observation; to guard them sophers has been called the association against the influence of bad principles; of ideas. The associating principles he and to set before them such views of reduces to five, viz. refeinblance, connature, and such plain and practical trariety, nearnefs of situation, the retruths, as may at once improve the lation of cause and effect, and custom heart and the underftanding, and amuse or habit. and elevate the fancy.
The doctor goes on to make some “ In the Dissertation on Language practical remarks on genius and tastethere are indeed some abstruse enquiries, lays down some excellent rules for the that may seem to have little of a prac- improvement of taste, and concludes tical tendency. But the subtleties in- with some directions for regulating the separable from that part of science are imagination. not, even in the early part of life, hard Dreaming is the subject of the next to be understood, when explained in a differtation; some extracts from which fimple style, and with a due regard to were published in a periodical paper the gradual expansion of the human in- called The Mirror, and the whole is tellečt. To which I may add, that a now given, as it was at firft composed. philofophical examination of the prin- As it is impossible to give any philofociples of grammar is a most profitable phical or fatisfactory account of so exexercise to the mental powers of young traordinary a phenomenon as that of people; and promotes, more perhaps, dreaming, this part of the doctor's work than any other study within their sphere, will probably be considered by the geclearness of apprehension, and correct- nerality of readers as the most uninness of language."
teresting. He does not attempt, howThe reputation which Dr. Beattie ever, to explore the eflicient cause of has so defervedly acquired as a writer, this phenomenon, but contents himself will not be leffened by these differta- with making a few unconnected retions, if their merit is to be estimated, marks upon it, chiefly with a view to as it certainly ought, by what he pro- point out its final cause, and to obviate fesses to be his design in publishing those superstitions in regard to it, which them. They are well calculated for have sometimes troubled weak minds. the entertainment and instruction of Heis far from being positive in what he youth; shew a correct and elegant tafte; suggests, for, on a subject like this, in are written in a plain and perfpicuous which our experience can never be acstyle; and are replete with a variety of curate, our knowledge, as he juftly obpertinent illustrations. Few writers, ferves, can hardly be supposed to rife indeed, appear to be more desirous of higher than conjecture. promoting the interests of virtue and The subject of the next dissertation literature than Ds. Beattie, and there is the theory of language, and it is diare very few who possess, in so confi- vided into two parts; the first of which derable a degree, the happy talent of treats of the origin and general nature blending critical knowledge with useful · of speech, and the second of universal and practical truths.
grammar. This dissertation takes up In the first dissertation he treats of more than a third of the work; but, memory and imagination. He fets out though perhaps too diffuse, it will am