Obrázky na stránke
PDF
ePub

is more considerable in favour of the practice than any other since the originalinvention. For the inflammable air, though composed out of materials which are very cheap, comparatively with other chemical articles, is very expensive, on account of the large quantity required to be produced. But in this fast mentioned excurfion, a long column closed above, and open below, was substituted inltead of the balloon. Beneath the column was suspended a brazier, and a stage for the operators. Straw being burned in the brazier, the heated air ascended into the column, which at length became buoyant, and carried up the fire together with the managers. It will be readily conceived that a continuance of the fire would aslift the afcending motion, by increasing the quantity of rarefied air; and, on the contrary, that the gradual condensation by cooling of the internal air, and by the admixture of the exterior air at the mouth of the column, would cause it to descend whenever the fire was remitted or put out.

To the philosophical account of these curious experiments, by our ingenious correspondent, we may add, that the basket in which Mes. Charles and Roberts mounted, on the first of December, was in the shape of a triumphal car. It was covered with blue filk, and appended to an air-balloon. They rose to a height which the spectators supposed to be double that of St. Paul's, and then pailed along horizontally, over the Fauxbourg St. Honoré, and descended about twensty miles distance from the 'Thuilleries, whence they set out. The Duke de Chartres, and several noblemen both of England and France, followed the track of the balloon by land, came in at the death, and were present when the aërial travellers reached the earth. Mr. Roberts alighted, but Mr. Charles only removed fome of the ballaft in order to lighten the machine, and ascended perpendicularly, in about twelve minutes, to the amazing height of 15026 toises,

Mr. Charles, when he had reached this height, could not perceive the earth, and saw only the

pure,

ether round him. The barometer fell from twenty-eight to eighteen, and the thermometer from seven above the freezing point to below it. He came down above five miles from the place whence the balloon ascended. He did not feel any great inconvenience from the thinness of the air. but could breathe easily when he was at the greatest height, and did not find the cold very intense or disagreeable.

or 3052 yards.

We live in the age of wonders-besides the aëroftatical experiments in Paris and England, an artist has for some time been employed in making WINGS. What Horace said of the sea may now be applied to the air,

Impice Non langenda rates tranfiliunt vado.!" Bihop Wilkins, in an age which was not so indefatigable in philofophical pursuits as the present, said, that he should not be surprited, if, in the course of a few years, men were to call for their wings, as frequently as they then called for their boots. We may now see this prophetic speech realized.

The wings, we have been informed, are made on the model of those of the Welt-India crow, and the tail is said to resemble that of a peacock, though it is not fo long. The ingenious artist who.is einployed on this aèrial conveyance will make the first experiment himself, as soon as he has finished a second pair, which he will carty with him into the regions of the clouds, in case any accident should happen to the others.

The fun which these wings will cost has been reported to be not under live hundred pounds. The truth of this affertion we cannot pretend to vouch; but cocil, they are reduced in their value a little nearer to the price of terrestrial vehicles, the passengers through the air will be in no danger of being overturueda on account of the number of travellers,

NNNNN

75

29

120

74

12

120

45

135

[ocr errors]

593

[ocr errors]

115

121
120
120
1 22

Il 151515

595

JO

57

PRICES of STOCKS,

of STOCKS, &c. 'in DECEMBER, 1783.

Compiled by C. DOMVILLE, Stock-Broker, No. 9%, Cornbill.
Bank 3 per C. ! 3 per C. 3 per C., 4 per C. , Long

Short India India India | S. S. Oid New Navy Exch. Wind Weath,
Stock reduced consols. Scrip. consols.

An.

Ao. Stock Ann Bonds. Stick Ann, Ann. | Bills. Bills. Deal, Landon 261 57 58 į a ;| 591

174 123
123
26 Dis.
578

8 Dis. N W Fair
77 115 57 5844 57, 591

75
1231

571
132

W
28 1144
57 $ 57

595
178 121

541 35

56
131 9

SW
29

57
57. a 58
596

9

SW
go Sunday

SE
115
57 1 58 a 572

371
12g
54 45

563

131 8 SE
57

594
171

575

SW
57

593
17 $ 13
534

9

SW
115
57 57 } a 595

17) 13

50
577

SE
115 57 57 $a 58

17 13
53

SW
573 a 584 593 75. 17 g 13 125

48

573

10 S Rain Sunday

E & 115 57 578 591 75" 17 13

53 49

561 571

9

SW 1141 57 57 596 74 125

16

9 SW Fair 115 57 58

59 74

13

531
52
56%

NE
57 1584 a 5771 592 74

Shut Shut 1241

52 57 16

E

Frost
13. 57

58
74

52

16

SE
57 57 } a } 582 73 $

124
60

16

E Rain
14 Sunday

NE
11131 57 571 a 38 591

73

126 531

56
16

N W
16 1131 57

58 a 57
59
126

571 (164

S
17
57

98
73
173

126 53 So 69

17

S W
id 112
56 575 562

72

127

79 68 56 17

SW Frost IC 1121 574 a 57. 72

126 52

70 563

17

NW
20

57) a 56
72

60
57 17

NE rair
21 Sunday

NE
361 571 71

124

60 555

NE

Rain
231 1121 56

71
1251

171

N E Fair
56
57. 72

125
50

NE Snow
24 Holiday

N Eltroft 26

NE .N. B. In the 3 per Ceot Confols. the highest and lowest Price of each Day is given; in the other Stocks the highest price only.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

12

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]
[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Α Ρ Ρ Ε Ν DI X

TO THE FIRST VOLUME OF THE

LONDON MAGAZINE,
ENLARGED AND IMPROVED,

FOR 1783.

[ocr errors]

SUPPLEMENT TO THE HISTORY OF THE LAST SESSION OF

PARLIAMENT.
MAY
AY 7th. In the debate on par were the documents of these crierances,

liamentary reform, Mr. Powys, but they were not mentioned by the previous to reading the Duke of Rich- righe honourable gentleman as the mond's letter to the York Committee ground-work of his motions. Why (p. 465) observed that a spirit of fpe- were they not read and compared, fo culation had gone forth, and had given as to ascertain what the subscribers birth to various systems of reformation; follicited? And why were

not the and each was fupported with warmth fignatures couted, so as to make and with zeal. Therefore, until it was known how they food, in point of known which of them was most agree- comparison, with the great body of able to the people at large, it would electors throughout the whole kingnot be proper to agitate the business dom? To the missionaries whose zea in parliainent. Millonaries of no in- and activity he had already mentioner, considerable rank had ventured to he should add a noble and respectable spread very strange doctrines, which, character, of high rank and great t2being plausible, and addrefied to the lents, who was one of the main pilpaliions of men, had gained many pro- lars of this baseless fabric of equairefelytes, who would be satisfied with presentation; one who overlooked the nothing less than extending the right narrow bounds of practice, and dealt of election to all the men in England. in the more ample field of theory. On the other hand, he could prove

Mr. T. Pitt said he had formerly from authority no less respectable than opposed going into a committee on the that of the Quintuple Alliance, and ttate of the representation, because, Conftitutional Society, that this mea as no specific remedy was submitted to sure alone would not be sufficient. To the House, such a step would have the sense of the people, whenever he tended to alarm the minds of fobes could discover it, he would bow as men, to enflame the madness of theolow as any man: but still without fa- rifts, and to excite expectations, that crificing his own opinion, if he thought neither could nor ought to be gratis they looked for something unreasona- fied. He had not, howerer, declared ble, or what should appear to him to himself an enemy to all reform, or tend more to their prejudice than ad- such as miglit tend to meliorate the revantage. The grievances of the peo- presentation on muderate and coniti. ple were held out to the public, as the tutional principles. It was his belief idea under which this scheme of re that this might be efferied by one formation was hatched. The petitions augmentatiun of the county muruburs;

Loxd. Mac. App. 1783.

4 D

1107

nor did he see any inconvenience like power into the scale of the people. ly to arise from such a measure, if con The external forms of a government, fined within certain bounds. The it was well known, might remain, and number of knights of the shire, as yet the virtue and essence of that go well as of the burgesses, had actually vernment might be totally changed, varied, at different times, in the histo from casual or permanent causes. For ry of parliament; it was, therefore, no example, though the forms of parliainnovation; but in the present state of ment might remain among us, yet, if things, it was certainly an alteration, an artful minister should deceive the an experiment, that ought to be applied ear, and abuse the confidence of the with caution. So large an augmenta prince upon the throne, and find means tion of county members as had been by faction and corruption to itrengthen fuggeited by his right honourable his authority against the sense of all friend, with a suitable addition to the mankind, and the experience of the metropolis, as well as to Scotland, ad- calamities which his misgovernment ded to the present total of the House might draw, year after year, upon the of Commons, would render that af- country-if such a bad minifter could sembly too unwieldy for the dispatch maintain his power, in defiance of tire of business. But if that objection indeperdent part of parliament, and of could be obviated, who would answer the nation, he should not hesitate to for the effect so great an alteration pronounce that such a government, might produce on their deliberations? whilft it lasted, was so far forth an However plausible the expectations abfolute monarchy; perhaps the more from such an increase of independent absolute, as wearing the malk of liinfluence might be, they ought not berty. If, on the other hand, in such to forget that almost within their own a constitution as our's, the force of memory, the religion and liberties of cabal and faction could seize the exethe country had been rescued, against cutive power, against the fense of the the influence of the county members, prince and of the people; if the tituby that very branch of the representa lar monarch should be so reduced, as zion which was now reprobated as to have no choice in the appointment roiten and corrupt. lf, therefore, the of his ministers; no voice as to the order of the day should be negatived, measures they were to pursue; no freehe would offer an amendment, by in- will as to granting or withholding the serting the words “ an augmentation graces and favours of the crown; in of one member to each county in Eng ihort, should there remain nothing to land and Wales," and he would take him, but the painful pre-eminence of the fende of the Fouse upon

it. He suffering daily insults upon the throne, really believed the people at large did he should not scruple to call such a not, at that moment, call for any als government a republic, and a republic teration whatever; at the same time, of the worst fort. If the causes of it could not be denied that a spirit of fuch extremes were temporary, the discontent and innovation was abroad, mischiefs would be temporary a'so; but sich deserved to be taken into con the constitution once altered, the causes sideration on the present question. He might become permanent, and we had been bred up in a veneration for should then, indeed, become hopeless the principles of a well regulated and of a remedy, unless by other revolulimited monarchy, which he had always tions, which might perpetually vary conceived to be the principle of the the nature and eflence of our governBritish constitution. And as, on the ment. He was ready to acknowledge one hand, he thould dread a minister that he faw no new evils that induced who should dare to own an intention the necessity of any change, yet fill of throwing all potible power into the it was his opinion, that the addition fcale of the crown, fo he fhould care of one knight of the shire to each fully feparate bimfclf from one, who county would improve the representaavoired his design of throwing all tion. He foresaw, while he recere

[ocr errors]

mended

.

mended such an experiment, that it vailed against the influence of the would not appease the clamour of those crown? The policy of discontinuing who were loudest in their calls for al- the war he would not then speak of, terations. It ought, however, to be but that the House of Commons diduely weighed whether the wisdom and rected the measure no one could dedignity of parliament would not be ny. Of course the influence of the belt consulted, by yielding, as far as crown, if it had ever been prevalent, it was fit to yield, and by withstand was then no more. Had it fince broken ing afterwards what it was their duty beyond its bounds? Had it threatened to withstand; there was every poslible any abuse of the constitution? Neidifference between firmness and obsti- ther the petitions, nor the arguments nacy, the one being grounded in rea- urged in support of them, stated any {on and the fitness of things, the other such thing. How had the petitions in passion and prejudice. So prudent been obtained? County meetings were and moderate a reform would tend advertised; projectors, with set speechgreatly to increase the confidence of es, and ready framed petitions, were good men in their representatives, and prepared to meet a number of prejuto discourage, by a sort of proteft, that diced people, who came invited to Ipirit of innovation which had given fign what was ready for their signature. so just an alarm. And that he might The question was begged, or borrowed, preclude the imputation of courting or hospitably stolen to accommodate popularity, by appearing to espouse a the craving appetites of such craving plan of reform, whilst he took cfpe- guests. Those who liked neither the cial care that it should be such as would invitation nor the fare very prudentsecure to him the only interest, which, ly remained at home. Whom, thereas an individual, was supposed to bias fore, was the House to respect; the his opinion, he concluded by offering few reformers, or the contented mulhis own borough (Old Sarum) as a vo titude? luntary facrifice at the thrine of the Mr. Beaufoy defended the refoluconftitution.

tions, as an improvement perfectly conLord North aked if aught but fonant to the genius of our constitufrenzy could excuse laying violent tion; as offering no violence to the hands upon the constitution, with no rights of any description of men. To better foundation for such conduct, obviate the charge of innovation, he than the mere fancy of its being dif- entered into a detail of the gradations ordered, independent of any solid evi- by which the House of Cominons had dence of distemper! The force of de- attained its present rank in the consticlamation had been exhausted on evils, cution. Each successive privilege, when which none could deplore more than he first asserted, was clearly an innovation; did. But these misfortunes, these ca even the Speaker's office, nay, the freelamities, were as little imputable to any dom of debate came under the same defeet in the constitution, as the earth- description. No constitution could quake of Lisbon to the frame of go- long remain unaltered that was not vernment of that country. The Ame. adapted to the circumstances of the rican war had been undertaken for the times, and the general difpofition of express purpose of maintaining the just the people; for as the people improved rights of parliament; in other words, in the knowledge of the means and the of the pecple of Great-Eritain, over ends of government, improvements in the dependencies of the empire. Hence the conftitution would be demanded, it was popular at its commencement, and could not long be refused. When and eagerly embraced both by people the house of Stewart ascended the throne, and parliament. And when at last it it was their misfortune not to perceive became unpopular, had the conititu- what those circumstances and that diftion been fo disordered as the reformers position had rendered essentially requiwould persuade the public, how came lite. He, therefore, advised the imit to pars that the public voice pre- provement proposed, as the only secu

rity

4 D 2

« PredošláPokračovať »