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the fame fault, and added, that it was affect the tellership promised by well known that the duty of the deputy Majesty to Lord Thurlow, when tellers had been done for 400l. a year, accepted the great seal, in confiderat. and as the tellers had the appointment of his quitting a very lucratire line: of their own deputies, to make their his profession on that occasion. W: salaries 1000l. would be just giving the his noble friend had forborne to fecer. tellers 6ool. a year, additional finecure. the grant in form was to him a nu

Mr. Fox said that the purport of the unaccountable piece of negligence, bill was not to reduce the salaries of but the promise had certainly bea these offices, but to put an end to a made so long ago as the year 1778. matter which was in itself extremely Lord North faid it was true that whe odious, and had been much and very Lord Thurlow accepted the office d juftly complained of, viz. the existence Chancellor, he had been offered a tellesof offices, the holders of which re- fhip of the Exchequer, and thai te ceived an increase of emolument in offer had since been repeated, at differen: proportion as the expences of the coun- times; but why he had declined taking try increased, and grew rich from the it, he could not say. He thought the aggravation of the public burden. His committee might reasonably adopt the noble friend had barely put the tellers, provifo. in giving them 2,7001. above their Mr. Fox accounted for what had average peace amount. The deputy surprised the two former speakers

. tellers held places of very great trust, When the first offer of a tellerihip wa and none but persons of considerable made to the learned lord, two very character ought to be employed in young men were in possesion, a third them. He, therefore, thought 1000l. in reversion, and the first teller, to all salary far from being too much. appearance, a good life; he might then The influence that the crown would have expected something better to come derive from the bill was of a nature the within his reach. Circumstances had leait dangerous of any that could pof- since altered materially, one of the fibly exift.

To put a man in such a possessors was dead, and another very situation, as that the crown could never infirm. Was it, therefore, to be won. be useful to him was unwise; but to dered at, that, as the object seemed put it out of the power of the crown more attainable, the learned lord should to be hurtful to a man might often be have changed his mind? There was necessary and useful; and this was done no ground for this exception in his effectually, by making him independent favour, for by the very words of for life. It was impossible for the go- the patent by which he held his present vernment of a great kingdom to go on, pention, the promise of a tellership was unless it had certain lucrative and ho- mentioned; subject, however, to such nourable situations to bestow, as the regulations as fiould hereafter be made by reward of eminent and diftinguifhed parliament. The application was found. services. He did not mean, however, ed on no principle; it was merely subto push this argument so far as those, mitted to their consideration, whether who said that men of desperate for- they should go out of their way to do tunes, needy adventurers, and distrefied a favour to Lord Thurlow, and if they politicians, would be the only persons chose to adopt the proviso, on that who would accept the government of confideration, they undoubtedly had a such a kingdom. He tlought men of right to do so. large property could afford to serve their Mr. W. Pitt, Mr. Arden, Lord Surcountry as cheap as those who were less rey, Mr Husey, and the Solicitor affluent.--The salaries were settled as General (Mr. Lee) encouraged Mr. originally proposed.

Rigby to move his clause. The proMr. Rigby then said, that if it Mould mise was considered as a bargain beseem to meet the general approbation tween the crown and the noble lord, of the committee, he would move a for which the royal word was pledged; proviso, that nothing in the bill should he ought, therefore, to stand on the

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fame footing with every other possessor ed it to have been a bargain, he had or grantee of a tellership, at the time an indisputable claim to the exemption;

a when the promise was made.-Mr. if they placed him on superior ground, Fox faid, since it was confeffed that a and described it to have been an unfobargain had been made, he would licited and spontaneous promise on the give up his opposition, but hoped the part of his Majesty, then surely he House would hear no more of that must take it, in the words of his paboafted dignity of character which had tent, “ subject to such regulations as

, induced the learned lord to accept the parliament may hereafter adopt." feals without any- ftipulation. If he Thus was it debated, for near five reited on his disinterestedness, he ought hours, whether Lord Thurlow, on fucnot to set up a claim in proof that he ceeding to a tellership of the Exchehad thewn no such disinterestedness, quer, should hold it with the exorbibut had carefully and prudently attend. tant war fees, which the bill before ed to his interest, and taken care of the House was expressly meant to abohimself.

lith after the decease of the then preMr. Sheridan recommended to word sent tellers, or with the fixed salary of the proviso thus: “ Whereas a penfion 2700l. a year!-It was ingeniously arwas given to Edward Lord Thurlow, gued by Mr. Courtenay, that those because he nobly disdained to make any who introduced and supported the probargain for himself, when he accepted vifo were zealous but injudicious of the great feal; and whereas it is fit friends, and seemed more anxious for that the tellership for which he agreed his emolument than his reputation. before he would take the seal,” &c. – What idea would it convey to the pubThe clause was adopted for the pre- lic, that though by the proposed resent without a division. But

gulation the learned lord would reJuly 7, Mr. Rigby having moved to ceive 200l. a year more than the avereject the old claule, and to introduce rage peace amount of a tellership, yet another more strictly worded, the de- ftill he was unwilling to accept this bate was renewed with fresh vigour.- increased annual ftipend, because it Mr. Fox said he had consented to precluded him from the hopes of deadopt the proviso on Friday, because riving any advantage from the calahe understood it to be claimed as a mities of his country, in time of war. bargain, and not as a promise. Let A fee of 200l. the malignant part of the same be avowed now, and he the public would say, was insufficient would not oppose the motion. It had to tempt the learned lord to relinquith been boasted of as a great merit in the so invidious a contingency. learned lord, that he had accepted the Lord North having been frequently seals unconditionally, and his pension called upon, declared that no bargain had been approved of expressly on that had been made for the tellership: it plea: but on Friday last his friends had had indeed been repeatedly ofered, but declared, that he had bargained for a not accepted, nor ever totally rejecttelership as the price of the situation ed. He ridiculed arrogating the methat he quitted, when he took the rit of having made no bargain one day, feals. Both these things could not be and claiming the performance of one true, nor had the learned lord any on the next; it was what a French auright to claim all the merit of the one, thor called unir les plaisirs du vice, au and all the advantages of the other. merite de la virtu. He persisted, howHe was an enemy to all impofiors, and ever, in fupporting the clause, whicle therefore wanted to come at the fact. was lost on a division. If the friends of the learned lord avow

REFLECTIONS
A Man by swearing may draw down

It was well faid, that good-nature, a curse upon himself, but never like the God of Nature, was not alway's one upon his neighbour,

extreme to mark what was done gore!

584

A LETTER TO THE COURT OF DIRECTORS OF THE E.157

INDIA COMPANY, FROM WARREN HASTINGS, ESQ. GOVERNOR-GENERS

OF BENGAL, DATED FORT-WILLIAM, MARCH 20, 1783. To the Hor. COURT of DIRECTORS of the Hon. Umited EAST-IND..

COMPANY.

Fort-William, March 20, 173 HONOURABLE Sirs, In N

neral and Council, dated the 28th regular payment of his tribute of Sku of August, 1782, you have been pleased rupees 22,66,180. to enter into a large discussion of my " That it appears to this court, tz proceedings at Benaris, and to apprize the conduct of the Governor-Genea The board of certain resolutions, com- towards the Rajah whilst he 3: prehending your judgement upon them. Benaris was improper, and that the inThese resolutions, as the immediate prisonment of his person, thereby di cause and subject of my present address, gracing him in the eyes of his subjec I shall, to avoid the perplexity of fre- and others, was unwarran table an quent and remote reference, hereto highly impolitic, and may tend o Lubjoin :

weaken the confidence which the natix • That it

appears to this court, that, princes of India ought to have in the on the death of Sajuk Dowlah, 1775, a justice and moderation of the Comtreaty was made with his fucceffor, by pany's government." which the Zemindary of Benaris, with I understand that these resolution its dependencies, was ceded in perpe- were either published, or intended for tuity to the East India Company. publication. As they have proceeded

- That it appears to this court, that from an authority fo respectable, every Rajah Cheyt Sing was confirmed by the reader of them will naturally, and with Governor-General and Council of out hesitation, believe that the facts, on Bengal in the management of the said which they necessarily and indispensably Zemindary (subject to the sovereignty depend, have been fully establihed. of the Company) on his paying a certain And who are the readers? not the protribute, which was settled at Sicca prietors alone, whose intereft is imrupees 22,66,180; and that the Bengal mediately concerned in them, and whose government pledged itself, that the approbation I am impelled, by every ! free and uncontrolled possesion of the motive of pride and gratitude, to foZemindary of Benaris, and its de- licit; but the whole body of the pendencies, should be confirmed and people of England, whose pics guaranteed to the Rajah and his heirs have been excited on

the general for ever, subject to such tribute; and subject of the conduct of their servants that no other demand should be made in India; and before them I am arupon him, nor any kind of authority raigned and prejudged of a vioof jurisdiction exercised within the do- lation of the national faith in acts minions assigned him, so long as he of fuch complicated aggravation, that, adhered to the terms of his engage- if they were true, no punishment short mnents.

of death could atone for the injury " That it appears to this court, that which the interest and credit of the the Governor-General and Councildid, public had sustained in them. on the 5th of July, 1775, recommend I hope, therefore, I shall not be

Rajah Cheyt Sing to keep up a thought to give unnecessary trouble in body of 2cco horse; but at the fame calling your attention to a subject not time declared there should be no obliga- wholly personal, nor to fail in the retion on him to do it.

fpect, in which I have never yrt failed, “ That it appears to this court, that to your honourable Court, in the mide Rajah Cheye Sing performed his en- of my vindication, which will not ad

on the

mit of the common delicacies of ex- that the strict performance of solemn pression; for I cannot admit facts, how- engagements on one part, followed by ever affirmed, which I know to have acts directly subversive of them, and by no existence, and by which my cha- total dispossession on the other, itamps racter has been blaited; nor will a fiin

perpetrators of the latter the ple denial or refutation of them be guilt of the greatest possible violation fufficient against such a charge, if I of faith and justice. can at the same time appeal to your But this, and every other conclufion own knowledge, proved by the evi- from the facts adduced in proof of dence of your own arguments, and to

them will fall, if the facts themselves what your honourable Court possesses have no existence, I do, therefore, most of candoar for my first justification and positively and solemnly deny their acquittal.

existence. The facts afirmed, or expressed in I deny that the Bengal government terms equal to affirmation, in your re- pledged itself, that the free and unconsolutions, are as follow:

trolled possession of the Zemindary of I. That the Bengal government Benaris, and its dependencies, should be pledged itfelf, that the free and uncon- confirmed and guaranteed to the Rajah trolled pofiession of the Zemindary of and his heirs for ever. Benaris, and its dependencies, thould I deny that the Bengal government be confirmed and guaranteed to the pledged itself, that no other demand Rajah and his heirs for erer.

should be made upon him, nor any II. That it pledged itself that no kind of authority or jurisdiction exerother demand thould be made upon cifed within the dominions assigned him, nor any kind of authority or ju- him, so long as he adhered to the risdiction exercised within his domi- terms of the engagement, nions assigned him, so long as he ad- I deny that I ever required him to hered to the terms of his engagements. keep up a body of 2000 horse, contrary

III. That the Governor-General re- to the declaration made to him by the quired him to keep up a body of 2000 Governor-General and Council on the horse, contrary to the declaration made sch of July 1775, that there should to him by the Governor-General and be no obligation on him to do it. ' Council on the 5th of July, 1775, My demand, that is, the demand that there should be no obligation on of the board, was not that he should him to do it.

maintain any specific number of horse; IV. That Rajah Cheyt Sing was but that the number which he did bound by no other engagements to the maintain should be employed for the Company than for the payment of his defence of the general state. tribute of Sicca rupees 22,66,180.

I deny that Rajah Cheyt Sing was V. That Rajah Cheyt Sing was a bound by no other engagements to the native prince of India.

Company, than for the payment of his The judgment passed on my conduct, tribute of Sicca rupees 22,66,180. as deducible from these facts, is, that He was bound by the engagements it was " improper, unwarrantable, and of fealty, and of absolute obedience to highly impulitic, and may tend to every order of the government which weaken the confidence which the native he served. The various ard repeated princes of India ought to have in the professions of his letters are proofs and justice and moderation of the Com- acknowledgements of this conltruction pany's government.” Here I must of his vaffalago; and his own cabuleear, crave leave to say, that the terms "im- or the initrument by which he engaged proper, unwarrantable, and highly im- to perform the duties of his Zeminpolitic,” are much too gentle as de- dary, expresses it in the acknowledgeductions from such premiiles; and, as

ment of the Company's fovereignty. every reader of the letter will obviously I deny that Rajali Cheyt Sing was feel, as he reads the deductions which a native prince of India. inevitably belong to them, i will add, Cheyt Sing is the fon of a collector Loxd. Mag, App: 1783.

F

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of the revenue of that province, which antecedent and existing engagements, his arts, and the misfortunes of his and can only be construed such by the master, enabled him to convert to a express terms of those engagements. I permanent and hereditary poffeffion. have been guilty of this crime in my This man, whom you have thus rank- treatment of Cheyt Sing, or of none; ed amongst the princes of India, will and I may be allowed to regret, that, be aftoniihed, when he hears it, at an while you stated such facts as implied elevation so unlooked for, nor less at it, you did not in ternis declare it. the independent right which your com- There is an appearance of tenderness in mands have assigned him; rights which this deviation from plain conftruction, are so foreign from his conceptions, of which, however meant, I have a that I doubt whether he will know right to complain, becaufe it imposes in wliat language to affert them, unless on me the neceflity of framing the the example which you have thought terms of the accusation against myself, it conlittent with justice, however op- which you have not only made, but posite to policy, to thew, of becoming have stated the leading argument to it his advocates against your own interests, so Itrongly, that no one who reads should inspire any of your own ser- these can avoid making it, or not vants to be his advisers and instructors. know to have been intended.

I forber to detail the proofs of these But, permit me to ask, may I nat denials. In legal propriety I might, presume that this deviation arose from perhaps, claim a dispensation from it, fomething more than a tenderness for and require the charges to be proved, my character or feelings ? that it was not my self disprove them. But I have dictated by a consciousness that no fuch. already difpreved them in my narra- engagements existed ? For, if any such tire of my proceedings at Benaris, did exist, why were they not produced which luas been long since in your in support of the charges? hands, and is, I hope, in the hands of Even the facis, which are affirmed the public. To that I think it fuflic in the resolutions, are such as muit cient to refer, and to point out the depend upon foine evidence, for they ninth and following pages of the copy, cannot exitt independently. If the which was printed in Calcutta, for a Bengal government “ pledged itself," complete explanation; and, I presume, its pledge must be contained in the writas complete a demonftration of the ten inltruments which were expressly mutual relation of Rujah Cheyt Sing, formed, and declared to define the rethe vallai and subject of the Company, ciprocal relation and obligation of the and of the Company his fovereign. Rajah and the Company.

The subject to which I now proceed, The resolutions of your honourable and on which I reít my fullest acquit- Court, as they stand unconnected in tal, is too delicate to admit of my en- their original state, must be accepted tering upon it, without requesting as the conclufions from certain and your indulgence and pardon for what. established evidence; and this evidence, ever may appear ofensive in it, and I must presume, you meant to produce declarin that I fould have fubmit- in the long process of detailed arguted in filence to the serereft expressions ment which precedes them in your ge. of censure which you could pafs upon neral letter." This confifts of pieced me, had they been no mcre than ex- extracts, from opinions delivered by pressions, and applied to real facts; me in the debates of the council, which but, where the censures are not applied not only preceded the settlement made to real facts, and are such as fubitan- with the Rajah Cheyt Sing, when his tally affect my moral character, I Zemindary became the property of the frould be myself an accomplice in the Company; but, ftrange as it will apBjury, if I fufered the fligliteit im- pear, which paledon an occasion whelly pulation to rain, which it was in foreign from it, and at a time when the my power whelly to efface.

Company had not obtained the ceilion a breach of faith necessarily implies of the Zerrindary. At the point of the

settlement

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