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And thow shalt make two golden rynges, the whiche Of whiche wayes (that leden folk to our Lord Jesu Crist
CRANE. Ger. Kran Machina rostrata, in
thou shalt sette in the creestis of the breest broche. (LV. and to the regne of glory) ther is a ful nohle way, and wel covenable, and this way is cleped Penance. vented for raising goods from or importing them hiznesses, summitatibus.)— Wic. Ex. xxviii. 26.
Chaucer Persones Tale. into a ship (wharf, warehouse, &c.), so called (I CREVICE. Wiclif renders Crasyngs, Chines, CO ER. In our old writers, Kyuere.
know not by whom first, says Wachter) from its and Creuassis from the same Latin words. See Craze
likeness to the beak of a Crane. Couere, or Kever, as used by Robert of Gloucester
and Chine. Confirming the etymology assigned to CRANK.
Chine, (see in v. Wound), Piers Plouhman, Wiclif, Chaucer, and Gower,-equivalent to Recover.
Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee
CRIME. Spenser writes, “ The tree of life, the Covered field. See Quotation from Milton in y.
Jest and youthful Jollity,
crime of our first father's fall.” And in Paradise Soldan,
Nods and becks and wreathed smiles,
Lost, ix. 635, the tree of prohibition is called root (This) coverith hym fro wanhope.
Such as hang on Hebes cheek,
of all our woe. In b. iv. 222, our death the tree of Piers Plouhman, v. 7782. And love to live in dimple sleek.-Milton. L'Allegro.
That country life I hated as a crime.
Fairefaz. Godfrey of Bulloigne, vii. 12. sic, and was coouered. (L. V. rekyuerid, convaluisset.) that is full of sheuves. (See Wic. in v. Chark.)
O heav'n! in evil strait this day I stand
Bille, 1519. Amos ii. Before my judge, either to undergo
Myself the total crime, or to accuse (E. V. proteccion, protectionem salutis tuæ), and thin rizt Clerkes wite the sothe,
My other self, the partner of my life.
Milton. Par. L... 127. hond hath vptake me.-Id. Ps. xvii. 36.
That al the clergie under Crist
But oonlich, &c.-Piers Plouhman, v. 6066.
Mrs. Fl. Then there is the crimp's money, for procuring
the company an able recruit.
The Cozeners, act i. sc. I.
CRIPPLE. couerlyte (L. V. cloth on the bed, stragulum) and helte in
And with taseles cracched.-Id. v. 10532. with watir and spradde upon his face.
Al beeste alto brokan or crippid . ye shulen not offre Id. 4 Kings viii. 15. CRATER, 8. Lat. Crater ; Gr. kparnp. Ap
to the Lord. (L. V. bresid, tusa.)- Wic. Lev. xxii. 24. And some, thou saidest, had a blaunche fevere,
plied to the bowl or cup surrounding the mouth of CRIPS. See CRISP. And praidest God they should never kevere. Chaucer. Troylus and Cressida, i. 917. a volcano, and including the mouth itself.
Sometimes, as the wind changed, the smoke grew thinner,
discovering a very ruddy Name, and the jaws of the pan or My boonus han dried up as critouns. (E.V. croote, creIt is impossible to deny to him (Dr. Reid) the more crater, streaked with red and several shades of yellow.- mium, i. e. dry fire wood.) Marginal note explains, That coretable glory, that his efforts, even when he erred specu- Bishop Berkeley. Works, i. xxxviii. To Dr. Arbuthnot, that dwellith in the panne of the friyng; latively, had always in view . the primary and essen- ril 17, 1717.
Wic. Psalm c. 4. tial interests of religion and morality: Dr. Brown. Philosophy of the Mind, Lect. xxv.
One thing I can venture to say, that I saw the finid matter rise out of the centre of the bottom of the crater,
CROCK, s. Crocks are crooked timbers, restout of the very middle of the mountain.
CROCKET. COW. Add - The A. S. Ceow-an, D. and Ger.
ing on stone blocks, to support the
From same to same. CROTCHET. Sroof in ancient buildings.-Craven, Kaw-en, to chaw or chew, qv. (the cud) - present CRAW.
Dialect. And see the Quotation from Dryden in v. a more specious etymology.
And greet hungur was in Samaria, and the fourth part
of a mesure clepid cabus of the crawe of culueris was seeld
Crock or Crook-was also the name given to a COWARD.
disease that contracts or crooks—a spasm. — Skinner.
Also to the short under hair in the neck.–Brocket. Cowardly thow, Conscience,
And he schal entre into chinnis, ethir crasyngis (E. V. Counseilledest hym thennes.- Piers Plouhman, v. 1768.
Crockets (in Gower (see in v. Chaplet] Croked) or creuissis, scissuras) of stoonys and into the canes of hard
roochis fro the face of the inward drede of the Lord. Crochets are locks of hair; Skinner and SpeghtCOWER, v. See in Cotgrave. Fr. Couver ; to
Wic. Is. ii. 21. They are Crooks or curls. brood, sit on, or cower over.
CREANCE-isfaith, trust. Creancer, is-a be- Paine thee not eche croked to redresse, Couvoir. A hen's nest, the place where she sits liever, a teacher of faith, or belief; Generally, A
In trust of her that turneth as a ball;
Great rest standeth in little businesse; teacher or tutor; also a Creditor, one who trusts.
Beware also to spurne again a nall; Boult. But, mistress, do you know the French knight, Udal.
Strive not as doth a crock with a wall; that cowers i'the hams. Shakespeare. Pericles, act iv. sc. 3.
And lo! the creaunser (creditor), that is to whom the Deme thy self-that demeth others dede,
And trouth thee shall deliner-it is no drede.
Wic. 4 Kings iv. 1.
Good Counsaile of Chaucer. Speght, fo. 336.
(Men) caste for to kepe a crokke CRAB, and
To save the fatte aboue.-Piers Plouhman, v. 13516.
Thou shalt as a vessel of a crokere (L. V. pottere, figuli) CRIB. I gripe, to grasp — by the common CREATE. In the Wiclif Bible, 2 Mac. xiii. 4, breke them togidere. - Wic. Ps. ii. 9; also Wisd, xv. 7. change of g and p, into their cognates, c and b. Deus Mundi Creator is rendered “ Maker of Nought The time was wherein wit would worke like waxe, and
of the world,” that is, ex nihilo, out of nought. crocke up gold like honey.-Lily. Mother Bombie, iii. 2. CRACK. Creatour weex (became) creature
To knowe what was bothe.-Piers Plouhman, v. 11240.
Thes forsothe among polutid thinges shulen be holde, of And the armes after
hem that ben meued in erthe, & wesil, and a mouse, and a
Kanstow me telle. Of either of tho theves.- Piers Plouhman, v. 12221.
Kynde, quod Wit, is a Creatour
cokedrille (L. V. cocodrille) eche after his kynde.
Wic. Lev. xi. 29. of alle kynnes thynges, CRAFT. Fader and formour
CROME. See CRUM.
Of al that evere was makere;
CROMMED. See CRAM.
That gynnyng had nevere. That feithfulliche libbeth.-Piers Plouhman, r. 3931.
Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 5204. (To Hem) the Lord zane wisdom and understouding, that
Soch mightes arne ylike to postes and pillars that upright thei cowden craftili worche (fabre). — Wic. Ex. xxxvi. 1.
CREAUNT. See CREDENT.
stonden, and great might hau to bear manye charges, and
yf they croke on any side, litel thinge maketh hem overCREED. See Mıs-CREANT.
throwe.-Chaucer. Test. of Loue, b. ii. CRAM. The thef that had grace of God
He met with his love in crokeing of the moon. Bidderes and beggeres Was for he yald hym creaunt to Crist on the cros.
Id. Pard. and Tap. v. 398. Faste about yede,
Pers Plouhman, v. 7810. They kembe hir crokettes with cristall. With hire belies and hagges
Id. Pluman's Tale, v. 2246. Of breed ful y-crammed.
CRENATE. CRENELLATED. Fr. Creneller. To
He (Mahomet) daunted a dowve (L. Vi hadden abundaunce, saturati sunt.)
The cells are prettily crenatett or notched round the And day and night hire fedde,
The corn that she croppede
Soon the fires
He caste it in his ere.- Piers Ploukman, v. 10425. Sawe I, eke of these Pardoners ...
Flame on the summit of the circling forts,
CROPE. See CREEP.
I made him of the same wood a croce.
Chaucer. Wif of Bathes Prologue, v. 6066. phrases very intelligible, and neither to be donsense, nor
By the crois which that Seint Heleine fond. gibberish, nor cramp words to conceal a conceited iguo- CRESE. See INCREASE,
Id. Purd. Tale, v. 12885.
The skyes donne
The tabernacle forsothe thou shalt make thus, ten curteyns (cortinas) of biys azenfoldid.- Wic. Ex. xxvi. 1.
CURTEIS. See COURT.
CUR CROUKE. See CROCK.
perdurable-if ne were baptisme that we receive, which
benimeth us the culpe.-Chaucer. Persones Tale. CROWCHE. Coin with a cross marked on one
CULPRIT. See CULPABLE. side. And many & crouche on his cloke,
CULVER. And keyes of Rome.-Piers Plouhman, v. 3547.
Thanne wolde the colvere come The deuyll myghte daunce therein (i. e. in his pouch) To the clerkes here.-Piers Plouhman, v. 10429. for any crouche.-Skelton. Bouge of Court, v. 363.
Upon a sepulcher in St. Peter's at Rome, in a combent A recheles curat is wrse than the crucifieris of Crist, for posture, lie the feminine statues of Old Age and Youth. he crucifieth him in hise membris.- Wic. Bible, Prol. p. 32. Raymond. Il Mercurio Italico, 1646 and 1647, Introd.
CRUDE. Add–The A. S. Hreow, is raw, from CUMBLID. See CLUMSID. Hrrow-an, Ge-hreowan (met. to rew or rue): the Coum forte ye comelid hondes, and make ze strong feble past part. Hreowed, Hreow'd, is Rude, and Ge- knees. (L, V. hondis loosid atwynne; M. V. strengthen, hreowd with Ce united in pronunciation is Crude. confortate dissolutas manus.) — Wic. is. xxxv. 3. Lat. Crudus.
CUND. See the Quotation from Pennant in v. CRUEL.
Tunny. So if I kidde any kyndenesse
I confess you did not steer; but you cunned all the way:
and could not see how the land lay. Myn even cristen to helpe,
Peregrine Pickle, v. i. c. 2. Upon a cruwel coveitise
CUNNING. Myn herte gan hange.- Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 8809.
Some he kennede craft, Than Peter answered and said, Can you beare yourself high and cruel amonge the commons, -a man is nothing
And konnynge of sighte.-Piers Plouhman, v. 13424. worthe without he be feared, doubted, and sometime re
CURB. nowned with cruelty.–Berners' Froissart, i. 635.
Thanne I courbed on my knees.- Piers Plouhman, v. 617.
Hard Phænicia's sons yoges of cuppis and cruetis (urceorum), and manye othere thingis lyke to thes ye don.— Wic. Mark vii. 5.
Fierce, fear surrounding curbers of the deep.
A. Hill. Free Thoughts on Faith. CRULL. See CURL.
CURD. CRUMP. CRUST.
Whether not as mylc thou hast mylkid me and as chese
thou hast crudded me (coagulati).- Wic. Job x. 10. (And thow shalt take) a cake of a loof, a crustid cake spreynde with oyle, a crompid cake (crustulam, laganum). CURE. See PARISH. Piers Plouhman, infra.
Wic. Ex. xxix. 23.
Bisshopes and bacheleurs CRUMPLE.
That hau cure under Crist. Ac in riche robes
Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 175. Rathest he walketh,
Forsothe bisyli cure or keep (cura),
for to gyue thi self Y-culled and y-crynyled
prouable, or able werk man to God. - Wic. Tim. ii. 15. And his crowne y-shaue.
Maister, we witеn, that thou art sothfast and thou techist
in trewthe the weye of God, and there is no cure, or charge
to thee of eny man, for thou beholdist not the persoone of
men.-d. Mat. xxii. 16, et aliter. CRUTCHED Friars. See CROUCH.
CURIET. See CUIRASS. CRY.
CURIOUS. Thanne fil the knyght upon knees
Other thur; no curiouste seen that hen in the seyntuAnd cryde hym mercy.- Piers Plouhman, v. 12349. arye, before that thei ben inwrapped (alii nulla curiositate A fool womman and crious (L. V. ful of cry, clamosa)
videant).- Wic. Num. iv. 20. and ful of euile drastis to delicis, sate in the fate doris of hir hous.— Wic. Prov. ix. 13.
CURLEW. Fr. Courlis, Curlue. Cot.
The corlew (lyveth) by kynde of the eyr CUBICULAR.
Most clennest flesh of briddes. And he comaundede to his cubicularies (L. V. chamber
Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 1991. layns, cubicularis), that she shulde gon out, and comen in, to prezen her god by thre dajes.— Wic. Judith xiii. 6.
CURMUDGEON. Add—These frumentarii or
cornmudgins were subject to severe penalties, " for CUBIT. The lower portion of the arm, from the
hoarding and keeping in their grain.” Perhaps the elbow to the wrist ; applied to a measure equal to true word is Corn-mychyng. See MICHE. its average length.
These curmudgeonly cits regard no ties, no obligations Putte thou elde clothis, and these torent and rotun when they have an higher interest in view.-Foote. The thingis under the cubit of thin hondis (sub cubito) aud on Bankrupt, act i. Also in The Minor, act i. the cordis.- Wic. Jer. xxxviii. 12.
CURRANT. Fr. Raisine de Corinthe. A fruit CUCKOLD.
introduced from Corinth. Who so wilneth hire to wif,
The ruby tinctured corinth clustering hangs,
And emulates the grape.- Somerville. Hobbinol, c. 3.
CURROUR. See COURIER.
CURRY, v. The common etymology is the Lat.
the Fr. Couroyer-(which is equivalent to Arroyer,
to array, qv.) And Minsheu, though not rejecting CUL. Fr. Cu, Cul. The bottom.
Coriarius, explains to curry by the Fr. Couroyer du The deuyll kysse his cule.
cuir : Acoustrer le cuir. It. Acontiare il cuio; Sp. Skelton. Why come ye not, &c. 130.
Currar (zurrar) el cuero; Fr. Courroye is a thong, CULL, i. e. To kill or quell.
or belt, i. e. leather so prepared— Corroyeur ; Sp. To cull hir adversaries,
Zurrador; a preparer or dresser of leather.
And her bak claweth.-Piers Plouhman's Crede, v. 727.
malignitatibus.)-Wic. Bar. ii. 33.
Alle forsothe thes cursidnessis (L. V. abhomynacyouns, CULPABLE. CULPE. See Acouped, supra.
crecrationes) diden the tiliers of the erthe that weren Any creature that is coupable.
bifore zow, and polutide it.-Id. Lev. xviii. 27. Piers Plouhman, v. 11969.
Who bowith doun his eres that he here not the lawe; We ben all yborne sones of wrath and of dampnacion bilis.)-1d.
his orisoun shal be maad cursful. (L. V. cursid, execra
vu. 9; also Ecclus. X.
CURTILAGE, or COUTILAGE. A garden, a court or field adjacent to the house. Skinner, and see Spelman in v. Curtilagium.
Of hony by the bees in hyues in places which the labourers of landes callen now their curtylages.
The Boke of Tulle of Old Age. Caxton, 1481, f. 4. How grete delectacyons and playser is had in gardynes and curtilages greffed with trees.
Id. Ib. a. 3.
Chaf shal not be gouun to fow, and fe shulen yelde the customyd (L. V. customable, consuetum) noumbre of tilys.
Wic. E. v. 18. A man without grace is as a veyn fable, and it schal be customable (E. V. oft, assidua) in the mouthe of unlerned men.-Id. Eccles. xx. 21.
Leesing is a wickid schenschip (opprobrium) in a man, and it schal be customabli. (E. V. besily, assidue.)
Id. 16. 26. Betere is a theef than the customableness of a man that is a leesyngmongere. (E. V. besynesse, assiduitas.)
Id. 16. 27.
Marlow. Jew of Malta, act i. CUT, v. To cut an acquaintance is a common expression.
Sotheli no man sendith ynne a medlynge of rudee, or newe clothe (panni rudis) into an olde clothe; sotheli he takith awei the plentee of it fro the olde the clothe, and a wors kittyng is maad. (L. V. brekyng, scissura.)
Wic. Mat. ix. 16. And I the last wakide, and as that gederith clustris astir the grape kutteres. (L.V.gedereris of grapis, vindemiatores.)
Id. Ecclus. xxxiii. 16. Thei weren al to-kut, and to-brosed. (L. V. kit into diuerse partis, dissecarentur.)-Id. i Par. XX.
In lyke maner wyse wold Ihu Cryst suffre the cuttynge of the circumcision for to saue all the spirituel body of the chirche.— The Golden Legend. Caxton.' Westmestré, 1483.
CYNO-SURE. That star, or other object, to which all eyes are directed. The Lode-star.
DA DA, or TA TA, is the cry of children (when they want any thing, say Menage and Cutgrave). The cry is appropriated as if intended for the name of the male parent. See DADD and Tata. The Fr. Dadee, is childish toying, speech, or dalliance.
DADDLE, ) Diminutives of Do; To do in
Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 577.
Chaucer. Milleres Tale, v. 3260.
Thus deled hath the gode knighte
His londe be his dai,
Right upon his dethes bedde
So sike there as he lay.
id. Cokes Tale of Gamelyn, v. 130.
i, e. The gode knight divided his lund among his Be thou not customable with a daunseresse (E. V. leper- sons, " be his dai," by his day, se, of death. esse, saltatrice), nether here thou hir.- Wic. Ecclus. ix. 4.
M. Harding would have had us put God's word to daying, DANGER.
and none otherwise to be obedient to Christ's commandNor dangerless
ment, than if a few bishops gathered at Trident shall To the English was their flight.
allow it.-- Jewell. Rep. to Harding. Jelf, ii. 424. Southey. Joan of Arc, b, viii. v. 371. Day-mair dreams.-Coleridge. Biog. Lit. ii. 377. DARE, v. Latere ; to cower, to lurk or be hid, DAZE. See Dash. To confound, or confuse; or cause to do so. As to dare a lark. See DERN, to dim, to obscure. DARN.
Moyses of an hundrid and twenty zeeris was whanne he And he, gon (L. V. zede) into a hows wolde no man wite, diede; the eyze of hym daswed (L. V.dasewide, caligarit) and he might not dare, or be priuy. (L. V. be hid, latere.) not, ne the teeth of hym ben meued.- Wic. Deut. xxxiv. 7.
Wic. Mark vii. 24.
Daswen shal not (non caligahınt) the eyen of men seende, Sothli and the kyng, to whom I speke stedefastli, woot and the eeris of men heerende bisily shul herknen. of these thingis; sothli I deme no thing of thes for to dare
Id. Is. xxxii, 3. him or unknowe. (L. V. is hid, latere.)— Id. Luke xxvi. 26. Thine eyes shall se and dase upon them all day long.
Sotheli it daarith (L. V. is hid, latet) hem willinge this (M. V. fail with longing for.)-Deut. xxviii. Bib. 1549. thing, that heuenes weren bifore, and the Erthe.
Id. 2 Pet. iii. 5.
DEACON. DEACONHOOD. Forsothe ze moost dere, oo thing danre zou not, or be not A man was a dekene dwelling in the side of the hil of unknowun (L. V. be not hit, non lateat) for oo day anentis Effraym, whiche dekene took a wijf of Bethleem of Juda. God (is) as a thousynd zeeres.-ld. 16. v. 8.
(E. V. Leuite, Levites.)- Wic. Julg. xix. 1. As the worme or serpent under floures
Tymothe the Apostle enfourmeth and techith of the orDarith ful ofte and kepith him covertly.
dynaunce of byschophood and of the dekenehood. Lyfe of our Ladye. Carton, k. 5.
Id. 1 Tim. Prol. p. 453. Right so thou serpent ful of inyquyte
DEAD. In the dead of the night,-depth ; when Under fayr colour of humylite Thy venim darith, and also thy falseness.-Id.
the stillness is greatest, the middle; so of feasting,
the midst. DARE, v. Audere.
And so astonied and asweved We mowen not goon; if oure leeste brother schal descende
Was every virtue in my heved, with us, we schulen go to-gidrees; elles, hymn absent, we That al my felinge gan to ded. dorun not se the face of the Lord (audemus).
Chaucer. House of Fame, ii. 44. Wic. Gen. xliv. 26.
It behoveth by necessitie that al men be mortal or deadly. DARK.
Id. Boec. b. v. pr. 6. Al to-derkned is the Sunne (L. V. maad derke, obtene
What should I more seine? bratus est) in his rising, and the moone shal not schyne in In him lieth all, to doe me live or deine. his lizt. - Wic. Is. xiii. 10.
Id. Legende of Dido, v. 1181. The erthe forsothe was veyn with ynne and void, and But they in abstinence pray and wake, derknessis (tenebræ) weren upon the face of the see.
Lest that they deuden.-Id. Sompn. Tale, 7483.
Inf. I'm well.
Duke, Thou wert not so e'en now. Sickness's pale hand
Laid hold on thee even in the deadst of fasting. won in a race.
Dekkar. Honest Whore, i. 3. The dart is sette op for virginitee,
O'er his wither'd countenance
Deathy and damp a whiter paleness spread.
Southey. Don Roderic, ( xv. DASTARD.
A deathiness And if you put him to the torture, will he,
Came over her.-Id. Madoc, 63. Will he, that dastardling, have strength enongh?
Look! it burns clear, but with air ardent Coleridge. Piccolomini, pt. i. act iv. sc. 3. Its dead ingredients mingle deathiness. DAUB.
ld. Thalaba, v. 27. Whether it shal not be seid to you, Wher is the dawbynge DEAF, ad. And so the Lat. Surdus is used in that ye dawbiden? (litura, quam linistis.) See Pargel MS.
Wic. Ez. xiii, 12.
Persius, 1. 6, v. 35. Seu spirent cinnama surdum. Shal it not be sayde unto you: Where is now the morter,
Whether the cinnamon breathe its scent deafly, i.e. that ye daubed it with all ?- Bib. 1549. Ib.
feebly, dully. And Pliny, Color surdus, The dull And Y shalle fulAlle myn indignacioun in the wal, and colour (of the beryl). Nat. Hist. 1. 37, c. 5. (20). in hem that dauben it without temperynge; and Y shal And Horace, exsurdare palatum, to dull or deaden seye to you, The wal is not, and the prophetes of Israel that dauben it, ben not.-Id. Ib. v. 15.
the palate, 1. ii. sat. 8, v. 38. DAUGHTER.
DEAF. See DUMB.
Chaucer. Seconde Nonnes Tale, s. 15754.
tithe yeer of remyssion, come, be confoundid the delyngis of or tranquillize, to soothe.
possessioun passe to othir.- Wic. Num. xxxvi. 4. Forsothe noon of men mai daunte, or chastite the tunge So thus he departed and let the remnant deale (domare); sotheli it is an unquiet or unpesible yuel thing. (divide, separate).–Berners' Froissart, i. 288.
Wic. James ii. 8. To the tetes yee shul be born, and up on the knes men DEAN, DENE. See DEN. shal daunte you. What maner if to whom (si cui) a moder Ordeyne thou of them tribunes, and centuriouns, and daunte, so I shal coum forte you. (L. V speke plesauntly, quinquagenaries, and deenys. (E. V. Rewlers upon ten, faire, blandientur, blandiatur.)-Id. Is. lxvi. 12, 13.
decanos.) - Wic. Ec. xviii. 21. DAW. A silly bird; a silly fellow, &c. Skelton.
DEAR. DAWE, i. e. Day,
And I shall sende you myselve And so it was by thilke dawe.-Gower, b. 8, fo. 174,
Seint Michel myn archangel,
That no devel shall you dere, DAY, s.
Ne fere you in your deying. And God sanz lift that it was good, and deayded lift fro
Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 4531. derknessis; and clepide lizt day, and derknessis nizt. No dynt shal hym dere.-Id. Ib. v. 12124.
Wic. Gen. i. 1.
DEARLING. See DARLING, DAY, v. See DAYESMAN. DAY, s. is used to denote some particular Day: as Day for payment; DEATH. See DEAD. day of death, &c. And to-day (Jewell) is as the
DEBATE, Dutch, Daghen ; Ger. Tagen; to appoint a day for
So tickle be the tearmes of mortall state, trial; to put on, bring to trial.
And full of subtle sophismes, which doe play Lene me a marke, quod he, for dayes three,
With double senses and with false debate,
T'approve the vnknowne purpose of eternall fate.
Spenser. Faerie Crucene, b. 3, c. iv. st. 28.
DEE DEBONAIR. The debonere forsothe shuln eritagen the erthe. (L. V. myld men, var. r. bonere, mansueti.)— Wic. Ps. xxxvi. 11.
Go forth welsumli (prospere) and regne, for treuthe, and debonernesse, and rightwisnesse. (L. V. myldenesse, mansuetudinem.)-Id. 16. xliv. 5.
DEBREAK, o. To break apart; to distract; to distress.
Liban is debroken on him (L. V. was sori, contristatus est), and alle trees of the feelde been smyten togidre.
Wrc. EZ. xxxi. 15. And the unelene goost debreykynge him. (L. V. debrey. dynge, qv. discerpens.)-Id. Sürk i. 26.
DEBRISE, i. e. Debruise. To bruise to pieces. And in Taphnis the dai shal wexe blac, when I shal debrisse there the ceptris of Egipt. (L. V. al to-breke, contriuero.)— Wic. Ez. xxx. 18.
The rewme in party shal be sad (solidum), and in party debrusid.-Id. Dan, ü. 42.
DEBT. To whom ony thing is dettid, ethir owid of his freend, ether neizbore, and brother, he schal not mowe axe, for it is the yeer of remyssiouu to the Lord.— Wic. Deut. xv. 2.
Like as (O Capitaine) this farre seeing art
Of us is lookt os debet by us dew.-Godfrey of Bulloigne, cant. v. st. 6. By R. C. Ésq. 1594. (Tooke.)
DECADENCE. I conceive the principal cause of its decadence, to bave proceeded from that little esteem which it preserved during the ignorance and barbarity of the lower ages.
Evelyn. Of the Period of Painting. Even painting itself, whose diminution and decadency we so much deplore, was happily never in higher esteem amongst us, nor more sought after than it is at present.
Id. 16. Preface. DECEIVE, i.e. Delude. In Spenser, — Elude, escape; and in Bacon (see in Dictionary), literally, to take away from.
But ah! who can deceive her destiny,
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. 3, c. iv. st. 27.
Browne. Letter to a Friend.
Thou didst smile,
Shakespeare. Tempest, act i. sc. 2.
Select Thoughts. 68. The aspirant dealt with all imaginable kindness and candour to the declinant (of the Great Seal).
North. Life of North, ii. 64. DECOPED. Fr. Decouper; to cut down, off, away.
And shode he was with great maistrie,
Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose, v. 843.
DEDUIT. I himself, sc. To retire for amusement, pleasure, &c. Deduction (in Logic) is contradistinguished from Induction (qv. And see Synthesis). Deduction assumes as a premiss a general proposition (established by prior induction), and infers one less general-or it descends from universals to generals, from generals to particulars, and from causes to effects.
Upon his hond he bare, for his deduit (diversion),
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 2179.
DEEM. See DISME; and the quotations from Froissart and Grafton.
For the word of God is quyk, and spedi in worching, ...
DEN and stretchith forth to the departynge of the soule and of DEFOUL. See DEFILE.
DELINQUENT, s. A word (as in Hume) inthe spirit, and of the ioynturis, and merewis, and demere of thouztis (E. V. departer or demer, discretor), and of in- DEFY or DISFY, v.
troduced in the Dissentions between Charles and his
Fr. Deffaire, or Desfaire. Parliament; but is of constant occurrence as a word tentis and of hertis. — Wic. Heb. iv. 12.
To defeat; to undo; let or cast out; to dissolve; long endenized in Nath. Bacon's Historical DisDEFACE.
to digest. See Defeasance. But whan se fasten, nyle be ze maad as ypocritis sorow.
Shal nevere fyssh on Fryday,
course, an. 1647. It is also used by Wats. ful, for thei defacen hem self (E. V. putten her facis out of Defyen in my wombe.-Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 3252. In these differences of inward parts, there are often
found the causes continent of inward diseases, which phy. kyndly termys, erterminant facies suas,) to seme fastyng to Hony is yvel to defye.--Id. 15. v. 9730.
sitians not observing do sometime accuse the humors not men.- Wic. Mat. vi. 16.
And the defied out, thou schalt couer with erthe (egesta). delinquent (minime delinquentes), the fault being in the
Wic. Deut. xxiii. 13. DEFAIL, v.
very inechanique frame of some part. Defy a litil wist the wyn, bi the which thou art dronken Wats. Bacon. Advancement of Learning, b. iv. e. 2. Thi sones and thi douštren be thei takun to another (digere).-11. 1 Kings i: 14.
During the late military operations, sereral powers had peple, seyinge thin eyen, and defailynge (L. V. failen, videntibus oculis tuis et deficientibus) at the sist of hem al
Whanne Nabal had defied (digessisset) the wyn, his wijf been exercised by the lieutenants and deputy-lieutenants
shewide to him thes wordis.-Id. 16. xxv. 37. day: and be there not strength in thin hoond.
of counties: and these powers, though neceseary for the Wic. Deut. xxviii. 32.
defence of the nation, and even warranted by all former DEFY, r. See AFFY.
precedent, yet not being authorized by statute, were now DEFAME, c. The Lat. Diffamare is used by
Mylde men and holye
voted to be illegal; and the persons, who had assumed later writers merely as—to spread a fame or report;
Defyed alle fulsnesse,
them, declared delinquents. And folk that it usede.- Piers Plouhman, v. 14056.
Hume. History of England. An. 1610. and so the Eng. Diffame and Defame, by Wic.
We defy him and all his (the Devil's) works. — Tyndale. And he, gon out, biganne to preche and diffame or pap- Answer to Sir Thomas More, p. 38. (Parker Soc. Ed.)
DELITESCENCY. Fr. Delitescence ; Lat. Delische (diffamare) the word. Wic. Mark i. 45.
Thus given and taken was the bo efie.
litescens, delitescere. To lie hid; to lie concealed. See see that no man wite. But thei goijnge out defa
Fairefaz. Godfrey of Bulloigne, xix. 6. The mental organization of the novelist must be chemeden (L. V. diffameden) hym throw; al that londe. At this the challenger with flerce defy
racterized, to speak craniologically, by an extraordinary Id. Matt. ix. 31. His trumpet sounds.-Dryden. Pal, and Arcite, b. 3. development of the passion for delitescency. DEFAULT. This defial is not a Gothic and misplac'd idea.
Scott.' General Preface to Waverley Novels. Thou askist, that we žeuen to the men, that ben wery
Iph. in Tauris. (Goethe) n. p. 129.
DELIVER. and han defautid, looues (defecerunt).
With a leperesse, or tumbler (saltatrice) be thou not The enemys of hem suffryden peynes fro the defauting
Of Romulus that was deyfyed,
besy, ne here hir; lest par auenture thou pershe in the of ther drinc. (L.V. defaute, defectione.)-Id. Wis. xi. 5. Fel to the erthe.-Lyfe of our Ladye, h. i?
delyuere doyng of hir. (L. V. spedi werk, efficacia.)
Wie. Ecclus. ix. 4. DEFEATURE, i. e. Disfeature. Loss or want of DEIGN.
DELVE. good feature. Shakes. Venus and Adonis, in Dic
Now forsothe scorne me the fungere in time, of whom I And thei fauen that monei to the crafti men, and ma
deynede not (non dignabar) the fudris to sitte with the souns, for to bie stoonys hewid out of the delues other tionary. hondis of my floc,- Wic. fob xxx. I
quarreeis (de lapidicinis).- Wic. 2 Par. xxxiv. 11. DEFEND. DEIS. See Dais.
Allas! quod Haukyn, the actif man tho,
That after my cristendom The whiche (Balaam ) eerli arysynge, seide to the prynces, Goo ze into youre loond, for God hath defended DEISM. See DEIFY.
I ne hadde be deed and dolven (buried)
For Do-welis sake.- Piers Plouhman's Vision, 5. 9563. (L. V. forbeed, prohibuit) me to come with you.
Wic. Num, xxii. 13.
Dykeres and detreres
Digged up the balkes.-Id. 1. v. 4010.
DELUGE. See DILUTE. strongeste).--Id. Judg. vi. 2. All her array, her feinale pride deject,
The which dignitees and powers, if they comen to any That herdist in Syna dom, and in Oreb domes of defen
Or turn to reverent awe.- Milton. Par. L. ii. 219. wicked manne, they doen as grete damuges and destruc
cions, as doeth the flambe of the mountaigne of Æthna, sion. (L. V. defence, defensionis.)-Id. Ecclus. xlviii. 7.
whê ye flambe waloweth up, ne no deluuyg ne doth so cruel For while that Adam fasted, as I rede,
The name and office of delator is odious to me.
harms.-Chaucer. Boecius, 1. ii. pr. 6. He was in Paradis, and whan that he
Ellesmere to Elizabeth. Campbell. Chancellors, ii. 207. Ete of the fruit defended on a tree,
DELUSION. See DELUDE.
DELAY, v. Fr. Delayer; Lat. Diluere. See
the quotations from Fox, Spenser, and Holland,
The two great orators of Greece and Rome, Demosthenes Defends the touching of these viands
call it a Demagogue,) in a popular state. Thou accusest me by cause that I defend to paye the
DELIBER. trewage.-The Golden Legend, fo. 14, c. 3.
Swift. Letter to a young Clergyman. Anone they were ready to defend (resist) their enemyes. Now therfor delyruere thon, ether auyse thou (delibera) DEME. See DEEM. Berners' Froissart, i. 396. and se, what word I schal answere to hymn that sente me.
Wic. 2 Kings xxiv. 13.
They enioyed and demened grete feste.
The Golden Legend, fo. 21, c. 2. My delicatis, or nurshid in delicis (L. V. delicat men, dedefended (forbade) them in any wise to pay any raunsome. licati) walkiden sharp weies; sotheli thei weren led as a
Thenne Sathan prynce and demener of deth, said to helle, Id. lb. i. 323. floc radyshide with enmyes.- Wic. Bar. iv. 26.
Make you redy to receive Jhesu which gloryfyeth hymself Oh sons! like one of us man is become
to saye, I am the sone of God-and he is man that died the To know both good and evil, since his taste DELIE, ad. Fr. Delie, thin, fine, De-lier ; Low deth, for he said my soule is sorrowful unto the deth.
Id. 16. Of that defended fruit.-Muton. Pur. L. xi. 86.
Lat. Dis-ligare, solvere. Menage. Du Cange. DEFER
Her clothes wer maked of right delie thredes (tenuissimis DEMI-REP, s. Swift, in his Introduction to Po(This God is a strong God) zeeldynge anoon to hem that filis).--Chaucer. Boecius, b. i. pr. 1.
lite Conversation, mentions among the new abbrehaten hym, so that he scater hem, and ferther differre DELIGHT. The critics and commentators do viations “ exquisitely refined,” Rep for reputation; (differat) not; anoon zeldynge to hem that thei deseruen.
Wic. Deut. vii. 10. not agree in their interpretation of delighted in the A Rep, one of no reputation ; Demi-rep, one with Sothli Felix deferride hem (L. V. delayede, distulit); following quotations from Shakespeare. Some say only half a reputation; or good character. - Works,
ii. 99. seiynge, Whanne Lisias, the Tribune, schal come, I schal delightful, full of, filled with, delights. Some now, here you.-Id. Deedes xxiv. 22.
delighted; others, lighted or lightened of all that is DEMOCRITISM. From Democritus; called the DEFIGURE, i. e. Disfigure.
gross. The expression in Drayton illustrates the laughing philosopher. Like a wise, discreet and circumspect prelate, ye should Poet's meaning: “ The most deliticious maid, with
His sober contempt of the world wrote no democritism or have examined (as other since,) such sad and credible all delights adorned.”
Cynicism, no laughing or snarling at it, as well underpersons as were present at her (the Maid of Kent's) trances,
(Lot) delited hym in drynke
standing there are not felicities in this world to satisfy a and diffuurings, &c.
As the devel wolde.-Piers Plouhman, v. 516.
serious mind.-- Browne. Letter to a friend. Cromwell tó Fisher. Burnet, Records, v. i. p. 4, N. 124. Thou shalt fulfille me therto in gladnesse with thi chere,
DEMORALIZE, v. Fr. Demoralizer, -sation, DEFILE.
delitingus (L. V. delityngis, delectationes) (ben) in thi riztt
To corrupt the mo(Shal nevere) fend ne fals man Jup. Be not with mortall accidents opprest,
Srals; to be, become, or Defoulen it in thi lyue.-Piers Plouhman, v. 8949.
No care of yours it is, you know 'tis ours;
cause to be or become, immoral. These words, of DEFINE.
Whom best I loue, I crosse; to make my gift
no long standing in French, have been recently inAnd the diffyning (definitio) or certeyntee therof (the
Shakespeare. Cymbeline, act v. sc. 4.
troduced into this country, and are now (1840) in auter) vnto the lippe, or brinke, therof in cumpas, o palme
And, noble Signior, or bond.- Wic. Ez, xliii. 13.
If vertue no delighted beautie lacke,
DEN, DEAN, DENE, variously written. A Dean Forsothe diffinition, or dome, is fully don. (L. V. deter
Id. Othello, act 1. sc. 3. (common in the west of England) is a hollow, with mintng, definitio.)-Id. Dan. xi. 36.
Clau. I (aye) but to die.
sloping sides (sometimes with a small stream be
This sensible warme motion, to become DEFORM.
A kneaded clod; and the delighted spirit
tween); a small valley. And loo thes folweden (other seuene oxen, in as myche To bath in fierie floods, or to reside
And thei weren oppressid of hem greetlij, and thei maden defuurme (L. V. foule, deformes) and leene, that neuer In thrilling regions of thick ribbed ice.
dichis and dennes to hem silf in billis (speluncas. See siehe in the loond of Egipt, I saw3.- Wic. Gen. xli. 19.
Id. 16. act iii. se. 1. Defensable).- Wie. Judg. vi. 2.
DEW DENATIONALIZE, v. Fr. Denationalizer. To The fleet passed from the Euphrates into an artificial DE-SYNONOMIZE. See Coleridge, Biog. Lit.
derivation of that river, which pours a copious and navigable i. 80. Mr. Trench seems to admire this word; he take away or deprive of nationality; of the national
stream into the Tigris.-Gibbon, c. xxiv. character, rights, privileges, &c. (A new word.
calls the process of desynonymizing, that of gradually See DEMORALIZE.)
DERK. See DARK.
coming to discriminate in use between words which DENATURALIZE, v. To take away, to strip
have hitherto been accounted perfectly equivalent, or divest of the nature, or natural feelings.
and, as such, indifferently employed. On the Study word. See DEMORALIZE.
Gordon. Tacitus, Hist. b. v. of Words. Lec. v,
DESERVE. If conscience be indeed the superior faculty of our na
DETACH, v. Fr. De-tacher; It. Dis-taccare ; ture, then, every time it is cast down from this preemi
Eche creature forsothe to his kinde fro the bigynnyng Sp. Des-taccar. nence, there must be a sensation of painful dissonance ;
was afeen figured, deseruende (deserviens) to thiu hestes, and the whole man feels out of sorts, as one unhinged or that thi childer schulden be kepte unhurt.
DETASTE. See TASTE, DISTASTE.
Wic. Wis. xix. 6. denaturalized.-Chalmers. Constitution of Man, ch. ii.
Ah! this blind guide made numbers walk astrayForsothe nyle ye forzete of wel doynge or gyuynge and DENOUNCE. The Angel denounces (i. e. pro- of comunyng; forsoth by such oostis God is disseruyd
By dreams and tables forcing them to fall
Who now in darkness do detaste the day;
And him (as chiefe) most tortur'd of them all.
Stirling. Doomes-day, 7th Hour. Without remorse drive out the sinful pair, yours.-Berners' Froissart, ii. 638. le. do or return ser
DEVELOPE. Pope is the earliest authority yet vice for it. From hallowd ground th' unholie, and denounce To them and to thir progenie from thence
DE-SHADOWED. See Dis-SHADOWED.
produced for this word, now so obtrusively emPerpetual banishment.-Milton. Pur. L. b. xi. v. 105.
ployed. DENT. DESIDIOUSNESS.
He found, in this retreat, where the connections eren of
nation and language were avoided, a perfect seclusion and Forsothe twei dentyngis (E. V, rabitis, incastat rura) But great men grew to (too) great in their own esteem
retirement highly favourable to the developement of abfor the service of their country, betaking themselves to schal be in the sidis of a table, by which a table shal be
stract subjects in which he excelled all the writers of his serve themselves. This desidiousness of the greater sort joyned to another table.- Wic. Ér, xxvi. 17.
time.-- Mackenzie. Mirror, No. 42, Story of La Roche. made one step further to the full perfection of thut inanner Then shalt thow se an entrē by the ferther side; Though it be streyte tofore, inner large and wide
of trial, both of the persons and estates of the English, DEVEST.
To collect power towards subduing the adverse, and the
devastative, and for the direstation of evil.-Southey. MaDENUMBER.
doc, pt. i. $ 2. Note, from Trials of Bardism. Who knews the power of thi wrathe? and for thi drede DESIGNING, adj. Is usually applied where
DEVIL. thi wrathe denoumbren. (L. V. noumbre, dinumerare.) some ill intent is presumed. Wic. Psalm lxxxix. 11.
Ye forsothe wileth not heren zowre profetus, and devyn
oures, and sweneneres, and brid deuyneres, and deuel éle
peres (maleficos. L. V. wicchis), that seyn to you, fee Denouer, to untie a knot. Skinner interprets,—doubt. desiderabilia) more than gold and a stoon myche preciouse.
Wic. Jer, xxvii. 9. And for comers hereafter shullen fully out of denwere all
Wic. Psal XV 11. the sooth know of these thinges in acte, but as they werne,
DEVISE. Also as we use advise—To admonish, Y eete not desireful breed (L. V. desirable, desiderabiI have put it in Scripture in perpetual remembrance of lem) and fleshe, and wyne eutride not in to my mouth. instruct, direct, inform. At point devise--all points true meaning.-Chaucer. Test. of Loue, b. i.
Id. Dan. x 3.
of his array wel devised. DEPAIR. DESOLATE.
Up rist this joly lover Absolon, As the tryed syluer is depeired, i. e. appaired, qv.
And the swift fall
And him arayeth gay at point devise,
Chaucer, Milleres Tale, v. 3689.
Ther maist thou see devising of harneis
So uncouth and so riche, and wrought so wele, quit the parish.
Shelley. Revolt of Islam, c. v. s. 28.
Of Goldsmithrie.- Id. Knightes Tale, v. 2500.
And therto he was strong, and big of bones, if such a number of peasants were to deparochiate.
Sotheli to schewe opynli the pryuytees (mysteria) of a To don that any wight can him devise (direct). The Orutors, act i. frend, is dispeir (E. 1. dispeiring, desperatio) of a soule
Id. The Knightes Tale, v. 1427. DEPART. unblessid.- Wie, Ecclus. xxvii. 24.
Our Lord Jesu, as holy writ deviseth (informs), Forsothe whanne the puple schal, be gederid to gidere, Why mad is my sorewe perpetuel, and my wounde de- Yave us ensample of fasting and praieres. symple cry of trumpis schal be, and they schulen not sowne speirable (L. V. despeirid, desperabilis) forsoc to be cured?
Id. Sompnoures Tale, v. 7486. departyngti. (E. V. stowndmeel, concise.)
Id. Jer. xv. 18.
DEVOLVE. Add to the quotations :
Which line of Ahiud falling in Joseph, as having no Neither can these latter (active energies of the mind) DESPISE. Used by Becon simply as—To look,
issue, the right of inheritance devolved upon one of the be made out of the former (passive energies) by any ab
younger line, viz. upon Mary, and consequently upon Jesus straction or separation, no, nor by any depingation or chyto contemplate.
her son and legal heir.- South, vol. iii. Ser. 7. mical distillation or sublimation neither.
Now canst thou not deny that thy God requireth of thee Nay, the King, and also the people in general, might Cudworth. Mor. 222.
here the fulfilling of all his precepts, if thou despisest to have gained by either a devolution or extinction of sorne DEPLUME.
live with him for ever. - Becon. Dialogue between Chris- payments, whereof the right discontinued but an hour tian Knight and Satan. (Parker Soc. Ed.)
were irrecoverably lost to the city. And thus was the Roman eagle deplumed.
State Trials. The King and the City of London, an. 1682, D. N. Bacon Historical Disc. pt. ii. p. 241, c. 30. DESPOIL.
He hath by reservations, provisions, collations of vacanDEPOSE.
Filisteis camen that thei schulden dispuyle (L. V. spoyl cies apud sedem, resignations, devolutions, and other such Thou, Tymothe, keep the depoost, or thing bitakun to
out) the slayn men, and thei founden Saul and his thre tricks extremely encroached on the rights of all, to the thee (in 2 Tim. i. 14, or takyn to thi keping, depositum) bi sones liggynge in the hil of Gellboe, and thei kittiden awei infinite vexation, damage and mischief of Christendom.
Barrow. Of the Pope's Supremacy. the heed of Saul, and dispuyliden hym of armeris. (L. V. the hooly Gost, that dwellith in us.- Wic. 1 Tim. vi. 20. Our Saviour-as having effected that, Almighty God
spoyleden hym out, et spoliaverunt.) – Wic. 1 Kings xxxi. 8. The education of youth of both sexes principally devolves hath deposed his wrath toward mankind.
My houses be-by the oversight, dispoil, and euill be- upon the women, not only in their infancy, but during that Barrow, v. iii. Sermon 40, p. 455.
haviour of such as I did trust,-in ruyn and decaye.) period, in which the constitution both of body and mind. DEPRAVE.
Wolsey to Henry VIII. (Atheneum, Sept. 12, 1840.) the temper and dispositions of the heart, are in a great
measure formed.-Gregory. Comparative View. And thei token not the drede of the Lord, nether assent- DESPOND.
Wherever there is a house, the stranger finds a welcome, iden to my councel, and depraueden at myn amendyng.
and to the other erils of exterminating tacksmen, may be
St. Chrysostom thus despondently concludes. (E. V. bacbitiden, detraxerint.) - Wic. Prov. i. 30; and
Barrow, v. i. Sermon 9, p. 112. added the unavoidable cessation of hospitality, or the devosee Dionisme.
lution of too heavy a burden on the ministers. DEPROSTRATE. See PROSTRATE. DESTRAIN. See DISTRAIN.
Johnson. Journey to the Western Islands.
DEVOUR. How may weak mortal ever hope to file
DESTRIER, s. Fr. Destrier; A steed, a great His unsmooth tongue, and his deprostrate style? horse. Cotgrave. Low Lat. Dextrarius, a horse
Thei sayn of fou, Thou art a deuouresse (devoratris) of G. Fletcher. Christ's Victory and Triumph, st. 43.
men, and stranglinge thi folc.- Wic. Ez. Xxxvi. 13. well broken and trained, from dextrare equum, doDEPUTE. mare, fingere, to make a horse (dextrous) active or
DEW, v. In modern editions, written due ; as if (The Apostil) counceileth to onhed, and shewith neithir serviceable. See Du Cange.
meaning endue, or endow. But this is the only inthur; his ristfulnesse have this deserued, but al what euer
(He) baited his destrier
stance given of due, used as a verb. to be depute to the grace of God. - Wic. Rom. Prol. p. 299. Of herbes fine and good.
This is the latest glorie of thy praise, The most conspicuous places in cities are usually deputed
Chaucer. Rime of Sir Thopas, v. 13481. That I, thy enemy, dew thee withall.
Shakespeare. Henry VI. Pt. 1. act iv. sc. 2.
DEW, s. DERACINATE. Fr. Desraciner, to deracinate, That coveiten to destruye.- Piers Plouhman, v. 11797. Deweth (L. V. send ye out deu, torate) zee hedenus fro root out, or pluck up by the roots. Cotgrave. Therfore ther weren maad sleayngis of fudge, and eldre,
aboue, and cloudis reyne thei, the riftwis.
Wic. Isaiah xlv. 6. DERIVE.
of wymmen and children distruyingus (L. V. distruyingis,
exterminia) and dethis of meydens and litel children, Who is the fadir of reyn, and who gat dropis of deu (roris). Two streames of teares were from his eyes derived.
Wic. 2 Mac. v. 13.
Id. Job xxxviii. 28. Fairefar. Godfrey of Bulloigne, xii. 96. Bote I moste ben in prison, thurgh Saturn,
Which (Chaucer) first made to distil and raine Education only transmits opinions which must have de- And eke thurgh Juno, jalous and eke wood,
The gold dewie drops of speche and eloquence rived originally from some other source.-Tucker. Law of That hath wel neye destruied all the blood
Into English tongue through his excellence.
A Balade in praise, &c. of Maister Geffry Chaucer. 30