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And comen shul thei fro the wilde feldus, and fro the mountuous places. (L. V. hilli placis, montuosis.) Wic. Jer. xvii. 26. And forward spurr'd his mounture fierce. Fairefaz. Godfrey of Bulloigne, b. vii. st. 96: also b. xvii. st. 28.


For the creaturis of God into hate ben mad, and tempting to the soule of men, and into a mouscacche (L. V. trappe, muscipulam) to the feet of unwise men. Wic. Wisd. xiv. 11. MOW. A mow of sheeues (acervus manipulorum) is in Wiclif, Ruth iii. 7, a var. r. of " Heep of handfullis." To Mow up, To acervate. Cockeram.

MOW, v. To may; to be able; or have might; (posse) is common in Wiclif. Chaucer (Boecius, b. iv. p. 4.) renders the Lat. Potestas, by "the mowing." Than thou schalt mowe reise thi face without wem. (E.V. moun, levare poteris.)- Wic. Job xi. 15.

Thou hast ordeyned his termes, that shal not moun be passid ouer (qui præteriri non poterunt).-Id. lb. xiv. 5. Then he shulde not mowe demeane him in undirstondyng nor in mynde, neither he shuld move be of power to undirtake any thyng of worship.

The Boke of Tulle of Old Age, ii. 1.

MOW, i. e. Mouth.

Thei weren seaterid, and not compunct, thei temptiden me, thei stormiden me with mowyng. (E.V. thei undermowiden me with undermowing, subsannaverunt me subsannatione.)- Wic. Ps. xxxiv. 16.

Thou hast put us repref to oure netebores; under mouwing (subsannationem) and scorn to hem that ben in our enuyroun.-Id. lb. xliii. 14.

MUCH. See Piers Plouhman in v. Moat.
What berth that buyrn? (man) quod I.
Thre leodes in oon lyth,

Noon lenger than oother,
Of oon muchel and might

In mesure and in lengthe.

Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 11172.

Thou spakist that thou schuldist do wel to me, and schuldist alarge my seed as the grauel of the see, that mai not be noumbrid for mychilnesse. (E. V. multitude, præ multitudine.)- Wic. Gen. xlii. 12.

And it (the hail storm) was of so greet mychelnes (myche greetnesse, magnitudinis), how greet bifore neuer apeeride in alle the loond of Egipte, sith that folk was maad.

Id. Er. ix. 24. That the mochefold wysdom of God (L. V. myche fold, multiformis) be knowen by princis and potestatis. Id. Eph. iii. 10.

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And he putte upon a multynge (L. V. peyne, ether raunsum, mulctam), in an hundreth talentis of syluer, and a talent of gold.-Wic. 4 Kings xxiii. 33.

MULE, s. The Fr. Mulet Cot. interprets - A moyle, mulet, or great mule; and adds, that this great mule is much used in France for carriage of sumpters, &c. Smollett uses the name moyle in distinction from mule:-" the former (the progeny of ass and mare) he loads with baggage, on the latter (the progeny of horse and she-ass) he mounts the servants."-Gil Blas, b. xii. c. 12.

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A good piece, the painters say, must have good muscling, as well as colouring and drapery. Shaftesbury. Mor. pt. i. s. 1. MUSE. MUSET. Cot. has Musette. A little hole, corner or hoard to hide things in; from Musser, to hide, &c., which Menage derives from the Lat. Mussare.

And chase them thorowe the muse

Of your noughty counsell.-Skelton. Replycacion, v. 212. The Pope, observing how the English bishops had forsaken their archbishop, espyed a muse through which all the game of the Popedom might soon escape, and the Pope be left to sit upon thorns in regard of his authority here in England.

N. Bacon. Historical Discourses, pt. i. c. 58, p. 184. For these words still left a muse for the people to escape. Id. Ib. c. 63, p. 207.


MUST, s.

I drynke right ripe must.


Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 12822.

And neuer thelesse the mutableness and enyl disposition of men it is so grete in our dayes. The Boke of Tulle of Old Age. Carton. In flannen robes the coughing ghost does walk, And his mouth moats like cleaner breech of hawk. Dryden. Suum cuique.

MUTE, adj.

In mewet (dumbly) spake I, so that nought asterte,
By no condicion, word that might be hard.
Chaucer. Court of Love, v. 148.

MUTTER. Therfore whan Dauid hadde herd his seruauntis speking priveli, ether moterynge (E. V. musyng, mussitantes), he understood that the onge child was deed. Wic. 2 Kings xii. 19. And knowen shul the errende in spirit understonding, and the musures (L. V. idel men, mussitatores) shul lerne the lawe.-Id. Is. xxix. 24.


The thridde (of the Magi)
Presented him with pitee,
Apperynge by mirre.

For mirre is mercy to mene,
And mylde speche of tonge.


Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 13137.

Thei shulde ben enoynt with myrtine oile. (L. V. oile of myrte tre, oleo myrrhino.)— Wic." Esth. ii. 12.


Exodus is open with ten plagis, with the ten hestis, with mystik, and with Goddis preceptis.- Wic. Eph. Pref. p. 68. James, Petre, Joon and Judee, maden seuene Epistlis, as wel goodly and mystik as compendiouse.-Id. 16. p. 73. When in subsequent times Shaftesbury became acquainted with the good Bishop (Burnet), he took undue advantage of his credulity, and mystified him exceedingly. Campbell's Lives of Chancellors, ii. 298.



NAIL. By nailes, by Goddes nailes: the nails with which he was nailed to the Cross. See Chaucer in Dictionary.

(And) nailed hym with thre nailes

Naked on the roode.-Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 12176.


Who so doth this, the schenship of his flesh he shal nakyn. (L. V. make nakid, nudabit.)— Wic. Lev. xx. 19. Forfend thi foot fro nakidhed (L. V. nakidnesse, a nuditate), and thi throte fro thrist.-Id. Jer. ii. 25.

O nice men, why nake ye your backes (cur, inertes, terga nudatis!).-Chaucer. Boecius, b. iv. m. 7.

NAKERES. L. Lat. Nacara. A kind of brazen drum used in the cavalry. Tyrwhitt. And see Du Cange.

Pipes, trompes, nakeres, and clariouns,
That in the bataille blowen blody sounes.


Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 2513.

(They) songen atte nale.

Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 4027.

NAME. NAMELY; Wiclif renders the Lat. vel and præsertim, namelich, namely. And whanne a childe was conseyued, she nemyde (E. V. nemnyde, vocavit) the childe borun, Onam.

Wic. Gen. xxxviii. 4. This boke of namys is vicious And thilk nemenyngis not men as many eymen, bot cytees, and regiouns, and wodis, and prouyncis sownen. Id. Prol. to 2 Paralipomenon.

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i. e. Ne was, was not, and see NAM, in Dictionary.

He nas kyng bote on zer.-Robert of Gloucester, v. 217.
Non wonder it nys.-Id. v. 289.

Ther n'as no good day, ne no saluing,
But, streit, withouten wordes rehercing,
Every of hem helpe to armen other.

Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 1651.
NATURE. A natural child, at common law, is
an illegitimate child; but in the civil (Roman) law,
it seems contradistinguished from an adopted child.
And see the Quotation from Shakespeare, infra.
Nature, the Vicare of the Almighty,
That hote, cold, heuie, light, moist and drie
Hath knitt, by euen number of accord
In easie voice, began to speake.

Chaucer. The Assemble of Foules, v. 179. I tell thee, Charles, it is the stubbornest yong fellow of France, full of ambition, an enuious emulator of euery man's good parts, a secret and villanous contriuer against mee his naturall brother.

Shakespeare. As You Like It, act i. sc. 1, fo. 186. That which all men have at all times learned, Nature herself must needs have taught; and God being the Author of Nature, her voice is but his instrument. By her, from him, we receive whatsoever in such sort we learn. Hooker. Ecclesiastical Polity, b. i. § 8. Natural born subjects are such as are born within the dominions of the crown of England; that is, within the liegiance, or as it is generally called, the allegiance of the King, and aliens, such as are born out of it.

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To absteyn fro oothis nedeles and unleeveful, and to eschewe pride, and speke onour of God. is matir and cause now whi prelatis sclaundren men, and clepen hem lollardis. . . .Wic. Bible. Prol. p. 33.

Also lordis and prelatis exciten strongly to ydolatarie, for thei sweren custumably, nedelessly, and ofte unavisely and fals, by the membris of God, of Crist, and by Seintis. Id. Ib. Who thost this up on Tyrun (Tyre) sum tyme crouned, whos nededoeris (weren) princis (L. V. merchauntis, negotiatores), his marchaundis noble men of the erthe.

Id. Is. xxiii. 8. The trauaile of Egipt, and the nede doing (negotiatio) or merchandise of Ethiope, and of Sabaym.-Id. Ib. xlv. 14. And some ysain that nedely, there is none, But that fre choice is yeven us everichone.

Chaucer. Troylus and Cressida, b. iv. v. 970.

For nedefully, behoveth it nat be

That thilke thinges fallen in certaine
That ben purveyed; but nedefully as they saine,
Behoveth it, that thinges which that fall,
That they in certaine ben purveyed all.

Id. lb. b. iv. vv. 1004, 6.
What it was we hear not;
No preface needs, thou seest we long to know.
Milton. Samson Agonistes, v. 1554.


The girdil forsothe of bijs foldun aten, purpur and reed cloth, twynned with nedle craft. (L. V. craft of broyderie, arte plumaria.)-Wic. Ex. xxxix. 28.

He hath his right cours forth holde
By stone and nedle till he cam
To Tarse, and there his lande he nam.

Gower. Conf. Am. b. viii. fo. 1764.


And he shal confounde thee in his metes, to the tyme he neentishe (L. V. anyntische, erininiat) thee twies or thries, and in the laste he shal scorne thee.-Wic. Ecclus. xiii. 8.


His nesing (L. V. fnesynge, sternutatio) (is) shynyng of fyr, and his ezen as ezelidis of morntid.- Wic. Job xli. 9.


But the Leuytis diden it more negligently (negligentius).
Wic. 2 Pur. xxiv. 5.

Whether shalt tho gyue to the hors strengthe, or don
about his necke neyenge (hinnitum).- Wic. Job xxxix. 19.


But a womman shal axe of hir neizboresse (vicina), and of her hoostessee siluern vesselis, and goldun, and clothis. Wic. Ex. iii. 22.

NEMENE, NEMPNE, i. e. Name, qv. NEPHEW. Lat. Nepos (most probably from ne-potis; hence the contracted form neptis; primary signification-not strong, weak. Freund). Neptis, as also nepos, were used in both mas. and fem. In Wiclif, 1 Tim. v. 4, the Lat. Nepotes, is rendered

"Children of sons;


" in Bible, 1549, "Neues;" in M. V. "Nephews," from Gr. Eкyova.

This year dyed Helda, the holy abesse of Whytby before spoken of; she was the neuew of Edwyne, some tyme, and lately, Kynge of Northumberland. Fabian. Chronicles, cap. cxxxv. p. 121. (Clodoneus) herynge reporte of the beaute and great vertue of Clotilda, neuew to Cundebald, Kynge or ruler of Burgoyne, sente unto hym a knight named Aurelius, to treate a maryage atween the Kynge and Clotild. Id. lb. cap. xcvii. p. 71. See NAS, supra.

NERE. Ne were. NESH.

God hath maad neische myn hert (E. V. tempride, mollivit); and Almişti God hath disturblid me. Wic. Job xxiii. 16. A nesshe answere (L. V. soft, mollis) breketh wrathe; an hard woord rereth woodnesse.-Id. Prov. xv. 7.


Thou shalt not taak in stedde of a wed, the nethermore and ouermore grynstoon (L. V. lowere and hizere) (of thi brothir), for his lijf he put to thee.- Wic. Deut. xxiv. 6. My mouth is not hid fro thee, the whiche thou madest in priue: and my substaunce is in the nethermoris of the erthe. (L. V. lower partis, inferioribus.) Id. Ps. cxxxviii. 15.


And he seide, Nerthelatere (L. V. netheles, veruntamen) my puple (it) is, sonus not denyende, and mad is to them a saueour.-Wic. Is. lxiii. 8.

NEW and NEW-Now and now, qv.

A clene herte forme in me, God, and a rist spirit inwardli newe (L. V. make thou newe, innova) in my bowelis. Wic. Ps. 1. 12. And Pandare wept as he to water would, And poked ever his nece, newe and newe. Chaucer. Troylus and Cressida, b. iii. v. 116.


And then she nicked him Naye,
And I doubt sheele do you the same.

King Estmere (in Percy). NIECE. The Lat. Neptis ex filia, is rendered by Wiclif, in L. V. neece of thy douzter; and in E. V. thi douter douzter. Lev. xviii. 10. And in Gen. xxxi. 43, Nepotes mei, E. V. mi neeces; and L. V. sones of sones.


I am as full of game
As euer I was, and as full of tryfyls,
Nil, nihilum, nihil, anglice nyfyls.

Skelton. Magnyfycence, v. 1157. NIGGLE, v. To play a trick of mockery or NIGGLER, S. delusion (on ourselves or others) in Todd. One who is clever and dextrous (sc. in playing such tricks). North, Grose. The Fr. Niger, to trifle; to play the fop or nidget. Cotgrave (see NIDING, NIDGET), has been proposed; but Niggle may be nickle, a dim. of Nick, in its consequential usage of to Cheat, &c. See NICK. Take heed, daughter, And niggle not with your conscience and religion. Massinger. Emperor of the East.

I shall so feed your fierce vexation,
And raise your Worship's storms: I shall so niggle you,
And juggle you; and fiddle you, and firk you.
Beaumont and Fletcher. Pilgrim, act iv. sc. 3.


And it neghede neigh the noon. Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 13934. He cam neitynge to the curtin (E. V. nezhende, proximans), and he reiside it, and sit the deed body with out the heed of Holofernes.- Wic. Judith xiv. 14.

The neeth forsothe (L. V. neizbore, propinquus) of them is strong; and he shal demen ajen thee the causis of hem. Id. Prov. xxiii. 11. Not that sche (Judith) purposede to bringe hym to dedly synne, but that he schulde desire to haue hir to wijf, and bi this thing Judith schulde haue homeli neiting to him, by which sche myste sle him. Id. Judith xvi. 11, mar. note.

Leten I nelle (I will not let or hinder)
That ech man ne shal haue his.
Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 3404.


If I yede to the plough,

I pynched so narwe,

A foot lond or a forow
Fecchen I wolde

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And be prester at your preiere

Than for a pound of nobles (the coin).

Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 6210. And he (Eleasar) began for to thenke the worthi excellence of age, and of his elde, and freborun horenesse of noblei (ingenitæ nobilitatis canitiem) and of best lynyng fro child. Wic. 2 Mac. vi. 23.

Those who of commoners are nobilified (plebeios nobiles) are all alike and of the same profession.

Holland. Livy, b. xxii. c. 34, p. 453. NOETICAL, adj. Gr. Nonrios, from vo-ev, to think, to understand; distinguished by Cudworth from Phantastical. See PHANTASM.

There are spurious phantasms that do little or nothing symbolize with the noetical cogitations, that yet are arbitrarily or customarily annected to them merely because the phantastic power would not stand wholly idle and unemployed.-Cudworth. Immutable Morality, b. iv. c. 1.

NOISE. Also, the persons making the noise, as a noise of musicians. See Shakespeare, Henry IV. Pt. II. act ii. sc. 4; and Milton, At a Solemn Music, v. 18," A melodious noise."

A leccherous thing (is) win; and noiseful (is) drunkenesse (L.V. ful of noise, tumultuosa); who so euer in these thingis deliteth shal not be wis.- Wic. Prov. xx. 1.

Old K. Have you prepar'd good musick?
Sir Gr. As fine a noise, uncle, as heart can wish.

Beaum. and Fletcher. Wit at Several Weapons, act i.

And if oon hadde be hard nollid (E. V. rered up the nol, cervicatus) (it is) wondur if he hadde be giltles. Wic. Ecclus. xvi. 11.

NOMBRE, i. e. Number, qv.


NON-CONFORMING. Non-conformist, or nonconforming clergy. Those who refused to conform to the Church of England by subscribing certain articles required by the Act of Uniformity, An. 1662; and see the Quotation from Fuller.

The juditious reader will distinguish three classes of Non-conformists, 1. Antient Non-conformists here in King Edward's daies, who desired only to shake down the leaves of Episcopacy, misliking only some of the garments. 2. Middle Non-conformists, in the end of Queene Elizabeth and beginning of King James, who struck at the branches thereof; chancellours and officials, and other appendent limbs, which they endeavoured to remove. 3. Modern Non-conformists, who did lay the axe to the root of the tree, to cut down the function itself, as unlawfull and antichristian.-Fuller. Church History, Cent. XVI. b. vii. § 30. A. D. 1550.

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NORIE, s. A foster child. Filius nutricius, alumnus.

(This ladye) saied these wordes, O my Norie, wenest thou that my maner bee to foryete my frendes?

Chaucer. Tést. of Loue, b. i. O my norice (norie, alumne), quod she; Philosophy, I say thou art blisfull, if thou put this therto that I shall sayne. ld. Boecius, b. iii. pr. 9. NORMAL. Lat. Normalis, from Norma, a rule; -a rule to measure right angles. Fr. Normal (a modern word). Florio has-It. Norma, normare, normevole. See ENORM. The Fr. Ecoles Normales were first established in France, An. 3 of the Republic.

Measured by, conformed to, rule; constructed upon, conducted according to, regular, systematic principles. Applied to schools in which future teachers are trained and taught upon such principles, are being practised also-in Preparatory or Model Schools—in the management and tuition of the children of the poorer classes.

The deviations from the normal type or decasyllable line would not justify us in concluding that it (rhythmical cadence) was disregarded. Hallam. Literature of Europe, v. i. p. 595.

NOSE. Wiclif renders tortus nasus, a wrong nose. Lev. xxi. 19.

The glorie of his (the horse) nosethirlis is drede. (L.V. nesetherlis, narium.)- Wic. Job xxxix. 20.


NOTE. Doth his note (Chaucer), minds his mark.

This miller goth agan; no word he said;
But doth his note, and with these clerkes plaid,
Till that hir corn was faire and wel yground.
Chaucer. The Reves Tale, v. 4066.
Nennins or his Notist avers that Arthur was called Mab-
Uther, that is to say, a cruel son, for the fierceness that
men saw in him of a child. (Uther, signifying in Welch,
Dreadful.)-Milton. History of England, b. iii.

As some do perceive, yea, and like it well, they should be so noticed.-T. Howard, in Harrington's Nuga Ant. (from Todd) about 1608.

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NOW. Now and now (as New and new, qv.) again and again.

And ever as she stood

She swouned now and now, for lack of blood.


OBJECT, v. s. Object and Subject are in metaphysics distinguished-Object, expressing the cause, and Subject, the effect-Object, the external thing, Chaucer. The Squieres Tale, v. 10744. Language has but one name for both. This disand Subject, the internal thought. See THING.

tinction, however, is in great favour with modern metaphysicians, who extend the application of the word subject, from the thought to that which thinks -the mind; see the Quotation from Coleridge, who elsewhere finds need for the v. To objectize, and the substantives-Objectivity and Subjectivity.

The Subject (be it observed) is the Ego of the German School, and the Object is the Non Ego. Coleridge (see infra) opposes the Phænomena-by

which the Existence of Nature is made known to us-to Self or Intelligence. All are but new terms for the Sensible qualities of Locke and Berkeley, and for the Mind of the former, and for the Spirit or Myself of the latter. In Siris, § 292, Berkeley teaches, that the real and objective natures of natural phænomena, i. e. natural appearances, are the same.

Hale and Cudworth supply instances of the familiar use of Objective and Objectiveness (see in the Dictionary). And the two words, Objective and Subjective, are employed in opposition as familiarly by theological writers. See Subjective, infra. And see Richardson on the Study of Words, p. 238, particularly the Quotations from Sir William Hamilton and Bishop Berkeley.

Nothing is there to come, and nothing past;
But an eternal Now does ever last.

Cowley. Davideis, b. i.
(The schoolmen) supposed eternity a standing point with
God, or a perpetual Now, so that all past and future ages
are as actually present before him, as this instant moment
is with us.
Tucker. Light of Nature, pt. ii. c. 13, § 2, Eternity.
Yet years were not-one dreadful Now
Endur'd no change of night or day.

Crabbe. Sir Eustace Grey.
NOY. The Early Version of Wiclif writes noyze,
the later anoie. "He shal speke wordis of anoie,"
loquetur verba tædii.-Ecclus. xxix. 6.

How longe, tee litle childer, looven childhed, and foolis
tho thingus that ben noysum (L. V. harmful) shul coveiten,
and unprudent men shuln haten kunning.
Wic. Prov. i. 22.

My soule nappide for note (L. V. anoye, præ tædio): con-
ferme thou me in thi woordis.-Id. Ps. cxviii. 28.

The Lord is Defendere of my lijf; for whom schal I
tremble the while noiful men (L. V. nozeris, nocentes)
neizen on me for to ete my fleischis.-Id. lb. xxvi. 2.
Yet evre' among, sothly to saine,
I suffre noie and mochel paine.

Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose, v. 3772.

A bason! cried another, no such matter, 'tis nothing but
a paltry old sconce, with the nozzle broken off.
Mem. of Martinus Scrib. c. iii.

Numeri forsothe, whether the conteynen not the myste-
ries of al the hool craft of noumbrarie.

Wic. Pref. Ep. p. 68. Thei dolue myn hondis, and my feet; and ful noumbrable maden alle my bones. (L.V. thei noumbriden, dinumeraverunt.)-Id. Ps. xxi. 18.


The numerosity of the sentence (expressing a proverb) pleased the ear, and the vivacity of the image dazzled the fancy.-Dr. Parr. Discourse on Education.


Thanne thei leten hir, and Delborah, hir noryshe (L.V. nurse, nutricem), and the seruaunt of Abraham, and the withfolloweris of hir.- Wic. Gen. xxiv. 59.

NUT. Chaucer writes Note as well as Nut.
And many homely trees there were,
Notes, &c.-Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose, v. 1377.


O, i. e. One, qv.

OASIS, or AUASIS, s. A Greek form of a Coptic or Egyptian word preserved by the Arabs; Wahe, i. e. habitation; applied to-A small inhabited tract, fertilized by springs; surrounded by vast deserts, yet protected from the moving sands by hills. The Oasis of Herodotus was a city about seven days' journey from Thebes over the sands, and called in Greek, "The Island of the Happy." Thalia, c. xxvi.

Timasius was sentenced to live in Oasis, and sent thither with the common guard upon him. Now this Oasis was a sad barren place, from whence no man could ever return who was once carry'd into it.-Zozimus, b. v.


Forsothe betre is obeischaunce than slayn sacrificis. (L. V. obedience, obedientia.)— Wic. 1 Kings xv. 22.


This is nothing but a Spartan obfirmation of mind, back'd with a sense of shame, a desire of glory, on the contentment of being conscious to themselves of their own stoutness and tolerance.-H. More. On Enthusiasm, § 59.


And after the obite of hym (Abraham) (L. V. deeth, obitum) God blisside to Ysaac, his sone.

Wic. Gen. xxv. 11.

As soon as the kynges obyte was done.
Berners' Froissart, v. ii. p. 140.

Singly (the thoughts of men), are every one of them a representation or appearance of some quality or other accident of a body without us; which is called an Object. Hobbes. Of Man, pt. í. c. 1. Now the sum of all that is merely Objective, we will henceforth call Nature, confining the term to its passive and material sense, as comprising all the phænomena by which its existence is made known to us. On the other hand the sum of all that is Subjective, we may comprehend in the name of SELF or INTELLIGENCE. Coleridge. Biographia Literaria, v. i.


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OCCUPY. In Luke xix. 13, the Vulgate, Negotiamini, is rendered by Wiclif-Chaffare; in Bible, 1549, the expression is, Buy and sell. In Modern Version, Occupy till I come. A. S. Ceapiath. And see the Quotation from North in the Dictionary. Sty vp, and sey to Achab, Joyn thi chare, and cum down, lest reyn before occupy (occupet) thee.

Wic. 3 Kings xviii. 44. Bertaulte of Malygnes, who is now renomed the rychest man of sylver and gold that is knowne in any place by reason of the course of merchandize that he useth by land and see: he occupyeth (i. e. carries on business, tradeth) to Dāmas, to Cayre, and to Alexandre.

Berners' Froissart, v. ii. p. 318. They that go down to the sea in ships, and occupie by the great waters, they see the workes of the Lord, and his wonders in the deepe.-Bp. Jewell. Sermon on Josh. vi. 1.

Thus haue we made, as it were, a small globe of the intellectual world, as faithfully as we could, togither with a designation and description of those parts which I find not constantly occupate (occupatas) or not well converted by the industry and labour of men.

Wats. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, b. ix. last ch. Upon ten thousand pounds diligently occupied they may live in great plenty and splendour. Dr. Johnson to Mrs. Thrale.

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OKER, v. and s. By this word Wiclif renders the Lat. Fanus and Fanerare. From Goth. Aukan; A. S. Eac-an, to eke, qv. And see Ocker in Jamieson. To aug-ment, to increase (by lending on interest).

Thow shalt oker (L. V. leene) to many folkis, and thi self shal not borwe to oker of eny man. (L. V. take borrowing, foenus accipies.)- Wic. Deut. xxviii. 12.

OLD. In Chaucer, Age; also, Aged man. See Eld, supra.

He had a beres skin cole-black for olde.

Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 2144.

And at the last the king hath me behold
With sterne visage; and seid, What doth this olde
Thus far ystope in yeres, com so late
Unto the courte?-Id.

Court of Loue, v. 280.

OLIFAUNT, i, e. Elephant, qv.


I smote you in brenning wynd, and in myldew, the multitude of your gardeyns, and your vijn terdis; and olyuetis or placis wher olyues wexen, and fijge placis eruke eete. Wic. Amos iv. 9.


God being all things, is contrary unto nothing, out of which were made all things, and so nothing became something, and omncity informed nullity into an essence.

Browne. Religio Medici, pt. i. § 35.


ONE is used indefinitely, without specifying any particular individual, but when so used it is distinguished from the numeral One; and considered


to be the Fr. On, which the Etymologists (Menage and Roquefort) derive from the Old Fr. Hom, man. Thus-On dit, On fait, are Hom dit, Hom fait. Ascham (see in Todd's Johnson) observes, that formerly the English used Men, where they now use One. As" they live obscurely, Men know not how, and die obscurely, Men know not when." We should say-One knows not how or when. But that such usage was established before Ascham's time is manifest from the Quotation from Gower, in Dictionary. One, has the pl. Ones. Macd.

He has no children.-All my pretty ones? Shakespeare. Macbeth, act iv. sc. 3. ONE. See Athanasian Creed, in v. Three, infra. After one (standard), alike. See Chaucer, in Dictionary.

At one.


In one (course), without ceasing. Chaucer, infra.
Non sauh but he one (alone).-Robert of Brunne, p. 44.
And thus I wente wilde wher
Walkyng myn one (myself alone).

Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 5023. That oon dooth, alle dooth, And ech dooth by his one (himself alone). Id. lb. v. 11175. And loo! a man of the companye, criede, seyinge, Maistir, I biseche thee, byhold in to my sone, for he is oon aloone to me (unicus; a var. r. has conlepy; and Luke viii. 42, olypi; vii. 12, oonlypi, are text readings).

Wic. Luke ix. 38. These thingus thenkende, that hem (being) slain, he shuld aspie (insidiaretur) to oure onlihed (L. V. aloonenesse; that is, to us silf aloone, nostræ solitudini) and the reume of Persia to ouerbern in to Macedoyne.-Íd. Esth. xvi. 14. And ioyne hem the toon to the tother to thee in to oo tre: and thei shuln be into oonyng (L. V. onement, unionem) in thin hond.-Id. Ezek. xxxvii. 17. Sir! saideth thei, we ben at one, By even accorde of everichone, Out take richesse, all onely.

Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose, v. 5820. And eke his herte had compassion Of wimmen, for they wepten ever in on.

ld. The Knightes Tale, v. 1773.

That lord hath litel of discretion That in swiche cas can no division, But weigheth pride and humblesse after on. Id. Ib. v. 1783. And they and he, upon this incorporation and institution, and onyng themself into a realme, ordaynyd, &c. Fortescue (in Crombie), p. 375. Our God is one, or rather onenesse, and meere unitie, hauing nothing but it selfe in it selfe, and not consisting (as all things doe besides God) of many things. Hooker. Ecclesiastical Polity, i. § 2. ONEIROCRITICK, s.

Even to dream that we are dead, was no condemnable phantasm in old oneirocriticism, as having a signification of liberty, vacuity from cares, exemption and freedom from troubles unknown unto the dead. Browne. Letter to a Friend.

ONION. Into mynde come to us the goordis, and the peponys (melouns), and the leeke, and the uniowns (L. V. oyniouns, cepa), and the garlekes.- Wic. Num. xi. 5.

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Yet doom'd to be the scene of blacker guilt,
Opprobry more enduring.

Southey. Joan of Arc, b. iii. v. 89. OR, ORE. Mr. Tyrwhitt says, Grace, favour, protection.

He wepte on God vaste ynow, and cryde hym mylce and ore (mercy and grace).-Robert of Gloucester, p. 281. This church, in was (whose) ore I am ido.— Id. p. 475. Lemman! thy grace, and swetè bird, thyn ore. Chaucer. Marchantes Tale, v. 3724.

OR, i. e. Ere. The whiche whanne thow bringyst in, and he etith, he blisse to thee or than (L. V. bifore that, priusquam) he die. Wic. Gen. xxvii. 10. Wiclif renders the Lat. Oratio,

ORATION. Orisoun.

Wherfor whan Eschines was exilid in to Rody, and thilke orisoun of Demostenes was red, that he had anentis

him, alle men wondrynge and preisynge, he seide sore sittyng, "What if te hadden herd thilke beest tellynge his owne wordis."-Wic. Pref. Ep. p. 63, col. 2. Judith wente into her oratorie (oratorium) and, clothende her with an heire (cilicio), putte askes up on hir hed. Id. Judith ix. 1. What errour is so rotten and putrid, which some oratorious varnish hath not sought to colour over with shews of truth and piety.

Bp. Taylor. Artificial Handsomeness, p. 20 (in Todd).
Not in his alb and cope, and orary,

Came Urban now.-Southey. Don Roderick, § xviii.

Y made perdis and orcherdis. (E. V. gardynes and appil gardynes, hortos et pomaria.)-Wic. Eccles. ii. 5. ORD. See OR, in Dictionary.

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And (I dremed) how Hosanna by organye
Oldefolk songen.-Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 12088.

I proceed now to the second thing implied in being faithful; and that is purity and orthodoxness. Killingebeck. Sermons, p. 17 (in Todd). OSCITATE, v. Dr. Johnson, though he has not this word in its place (nor has Mr. Todd), uses it to explain the v. To yawn-To gape, to oscitate. OSTIARY.

Lastly (come) ostiaries, which used to ring the bells, and open and shut the church-doors. N. Bacon. Historical Discourse, c. x. p. 28. OSTRICH. The Lat. Struthio is rendered by Wiclif, E. V. ostriche; L. V. a strucioun. Lev. xi. 16.


And he sente to him a golden laxe or nouche, as custume is for to be gouen to cosyns of kyngus. Wic. 1 Mac. x. 89, et aliter.

OVER. The Glossary to Wiclif's Bible (Oxford, 1850) collects numerous examples of Over prefixed, and of many where it is merely preposed-now out of use. Some are renderings of the Lat. Trans and others of Super-in Composition.



Thou shalt not ouerbere the teermes of the neizboure (transferes).-Deut. xix. 14.


He quercarrede them thur; ful myche water. (L.V. ledde over, transtulit.)- Wis. x. 18.


The fadir of litis anentis whom is not ouerchaunging (transmutatio).-James i. 17.


As a brid that ouerfleth. (L. V. flieth over, transvolat.)

Wis. v. 11.

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And with cedre al the_hows was clothide, hauynge grauyngis ouerbeynge. (L. V. apperynge aboue, eminentes.)-3 Kings vi. 18.


Ne glorie thou in to the moru, unknowende what the dai to overcome bringe forth (to comynge, super-ventura). Prov. xxvii. 1.


Forsooth I moost wilfully schal yue (impendam), and I my silf schal be ouerzouun for your soulis. (L. V. gouun above, superimpendam.)—2 Cor. xii. 15.



In thi domes I ouer hopide. (L. V. hopide aboue, supersperavi.)-Ps. exviii. 43.


Ouer alle lust of the man she shall ouer ledyn desyr. (L. V. brynge desir ouer, superducit.)-Ecclus. xxxvi. 24.

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Glorifiende the Lord hou myche soenere zee schul moun, he shal ben ouer wrthi zit. (L. V. be miștiere, supervale


The oueruoidenesse of men these thingis fond (advenit) in to the roundnesse of erthis (in orbem terrarum). (L.V. voidenesse, supervacuitas.)- Wis. xiv. 14.

OVER. In the var. r. of Wiclif, Job xxxviii. 30, we find-Overer, i. e. part.-superficies.

And thei maden a hode in the ouereste parti (L. V. hizere, superiori) azens the myddel, and a hemme weuyd al about the hode.- Wic. Er. xxxix. 21.


The upper bill of the parrot is so much hooked, and so
much overlaps the lower, that if, as in other birds, the lower
chap alone had motion, the bird could scarcely gape wide
enough to receive its food: yet this hook and overlapping
of the bill could not be spared, for it forms the very instru-
ment by which the bird climbs.

Paley. Natural Theology, c. xvi. § 4.
OVER-LEAP, v. To over-reach, to over-shoot
My wikkidnesses ouertiden myn hed. (L. V. ben goon himself; i. e. the mark or object aimed at.
ouer, supergressæ sunt.)-Ps. xxxvii. 5.
to over-leap itself is (met.) to over-leap the eminence
aspired to, and fall, &c.

I have no spurre
To pricke the sides of my intent, but onely
Vaulting ambition, which ore-leapes itself,
And fulls on the other-[Enter Lady].

He that loueth sone or douster ouer me, is nat worthi of me (super me).-Id. Mat. x. 37.

Quer al (L. V. every where, ubique) lefe we signes of gladnesse.-Id. Wis. ii. 9; also vii. 24.

OVER-BRIM, v. To brim over, or pass over the
brim or edge.

Fam. Wisdom comes with lack of food.
I'll gnaw, I'll gnaw the multitude,
Till the cup of rage o'erbrim.

Coleridge. Fire, Famine, &c.


So might I wene that thinges all and some
That whilom ben bifall and overcome,
Ben cause of thilké soveraine purveiaunce
That forwote al withouten ignoraunce.

Chaucer. Troylus and Cressida, b. iv. v. 1069.
Thei crouned hym with thornes sharpe and kene,
The vaines rent, the bloud ran doun apace,
With blode overcome were both his eyen.
And bolne with strokes was his blessed face.
Id. Lam. of M. Mag. v. 129.
To green over, met. to colour

Your love and pity doth the impression fill,
Which vulgar scandal stamp'd upon my brow;
For what care I who calls me well or ill,
So you o'er-green my bad, my good allow?
Shakespeare. Sonnet cxii.


Wherfore I am a-fered
Of folk of holy kirke,

Lest thei over-huppen as oothere doon,
In office and in houres.

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Yet reason tells us, parents are o'erseen,
When with too strict a rein they do hold in
Their child's affections, and controul that love,
Which the high powers divine inspire them with.
Taylor. The Hog hath lost his Pearl, act i.
OVER-SEETHE, v. To seethe or boil over.
Your stately seas
And over-seeth their banks with springing tides.
P. Fletcher. Eclogue iii. st. 6.
OVER-THWART, v. To oppose, to pervert; and
further, To wrangle.

He sayde, for a crokid intent
The wordes were purverted,
And thus he over-thwarted.

Antecrist cam thanne,
And al the crop of truthe
Torned it up so down
And over-tilte the roote.

Skelton. Ware the Hauke, v. 211.

Piers Plouhman's Vision, v. 14033.
in Dictionary.

If all the world to seeke I over-went,
A fairer crew yet no where could I see
Then that brave Court doth to mine eye present.
Spenser. To all the Ladies in the Court.
Among them dwelt (her parents joy and pleasure)

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To thee seide myn herte; Ful out-soște thee my face. (L. V. souste, exquisivit.)—Ps. xxvi. 8.

The biginnyng forsothe of fornycacioun is the out-sechyng of maumetis. (L. V. seching, exquisitio.)- Wisd. xiv. 12. OUT-SHAME, v.

Thei ben confoundid, and ful out-shameden. (L. V. aschamede, erubuerunt.)—Is. xlv. 16.


To this paple forsothe is maad an herte mystrowende and out-sharpende. (L.V. terryng to wraththe, exasperans.) Jer. v. 23.


And he out-sterte with out to the puple. (L. V. skippide out, exiliit.)-Judith xiv. 15.


For thow has disturblid us (turbasti); out-stourbe thee the Lord in this day. (L.V. disturbie, exturbet.)

Josh. vii. 25.

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