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respecting the relation between the three first gospels-with special reference to the question, whether the coincidences of those gospels are to be ascribed to interpolations made, with a view to harmonize the three, by-some one in later times.
In the special introduction to John's gospel, a solution is presented of a series of chronological, geographical, and archaeological difficulties, proposed in Brettschneider's Probabilien, and materially affecting the genuineness of the gospel.
The only alteration of importance in the dissertations on the Epistle of Paul, consists in the addition of some observations in opposition to Schulz's arguments against the Pauline origin of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
The last considerable addition to this volume, is an answer to the arguments of Ullmann against the geuineness of 1 and 2 Peter.
To these may be mentioned some additions of less moment, -the remarks on the apomnemoneumata of Justin, including a review of the rescarches of Vater, Winer, Mynster, Paulus and Olshausen—a new explanation of the introduction to Luke's gospel-observations on the two genealogies of Jesus—an answer to the question why Joseph had no residence at Bethlehem, though a Bethlehemite by birth-observations on the last chapters of Mark and John, on the introduction to the Acts of the Apostles, on the Epistle of James, and on the Apocalypse.
A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews. In two volumes. By Moses Stuart, Associate Professor of Sacred Literature in the Theol. Seminary at Andover. Vol. I. Andover, 1827. pp. 288. Vol. II. Andover, 1828. pp. 388.
This extended and elaborate work owes its origin, Prof. Stuart informs us, to the nature of his official duties. Finding, in his regular course of lecturing on this epistle, that
it was impossible to present as full a view of the various important subjects necessarily brought forward, as was desirable, he was led to “ the design of publishing in extenso,” on this difficult portion of the New Testament. In the first, or introductory, volume, the author discusses all the preliminary questions usually agitated concerning this book. As 1, the persons to whom the Epistle was addressed. On this point, Prof. Stuart comes to the conclusion, that the opinion of the ancient church, that it was addressed to the Christians of Palestine, has all the evidence in its favor that could be reasonably demanded.
His examination of the antiquity and canonical authority of this Epistle results in the opinion, that it was written before the destruction of Jerusalem, and that, at a period very little after the apostolic age, it must have had " a currency and credit, not at all, or at most very little, inferior to that of other acknowledged books of the New Testament.” That Paul was the author of this Epistle, is the conclusion, at which Prof. Stuart arrives, after an examination, which occupies nearly 200 pages, a conclusion which he deduces from the testimony of the early church, and the coincidences of sentiment, manner, phraseology, and dietion between this Epistle and the acknowledged productions of this apostle. That it was originally written in Greek, and not in Hebrew, as some of the early Christian writers supposed, the author shows to be altogether probable. The second volume contains a new translation, and a continuous commentary on the whole Epistle. At the end are arranged numerous critical dissertations on difficult passages, which required a more extended investigation than could be given them in the course of the commentary.
From our geographical position, it is possible that our publication may come into the hands of some individuals who have not had an opportunity of examining this work of Prof. Stuart. It is solely for the purpose of calling their attention to it, and of earnestly recommending it to the careful
study of all, interested in the critical investigation of the Sacred Scriptures, that this brief account of its contents is given. As the taste for works of this nature is rapidly increasing in our country, it is of the utmost importance that it be properly directed. Our biblical students are now forced to have recourse to German works; a very large proportion of which, although professedly written on the principles of strict historical interpretation, as frequently violate those principles as any of the older doctrinal commentaries. It is not preconceived opinions, in favor of the truth, which alone bias the mind of a commentator, and a skeptic is not necessarily impartial. The history of interpretation can scarcely afford more striking examples of the violent wresting of scripture to make it accord with a system, than may be found in many productions of the recent German school.
The German exegetical works differ so much from each other, that they cannot be spoken of as a whole. Those which have proceeded from that class of the Rationalists, of which Paulus of Heidelberg may be considered the repre. sentative, are seldom entitled to the praise of fair and candid interpretation: Their authors, professing to believe the Bible, yet rejecting its doctrines, are in a constant struggle with the plain sense of the sacred text. A much more valuable class consists in the productions of men of the school of Winer, who, without considering themselves at all bound to believe what the scriptures teach, examine and report their meaning, with as much impartiality as is possible, from the nature of the case, for them to exercise. These works abound, indeed, with misrepresentations, arising from the impossibility of such men as their authors, differing, as they do, so entirely in feeling and experience, with the sacred writers, properly comprehending their doctrines. A third class includes the works of pious and learned men, which may be read with unmingled satisfaction. This class is
happily rapidly increasing. The distinguishing excellence of all these works is, that they are philological. They bring together, and present in one view, matter illustrative of the language of scripture scattered through a vast number of books. Some of the best and most popular of their number consist mainly of the critical materials collected by such men as the Fratres Poloni, Grotius, Carpzov, Raphelius, Elsner, Krebs, Lightfoot, Wetstein, and others woven into a continuous commentary. That suitable works of this nature are scarcely to be met with, out of Germany, is a fact which is admitted on all hands; and may be easily accounted for. Talent in England is diverted into a thousand channels; in Germany it is confined to very few. The intellect which in the former country is employed in active pursuits, in the latter is expended on literature; hence, the press there teems with such a multitude of productions in every department of learning. The particular reason, however, that there is such a marked deficiency of exegetical works in England, lies in the manner in which theological studies are there pursued. Neither in Oxford nor Cambridge is there a full theological faculty, nor are exegetical lectures on the scriptures regularly delivered. In Germany, on the contrary, every university has its theological faculty, all the members of which deliver such lectures; and frequently also, men belonging to the philosophical department, as the languages, ancient and modern, fall within their sphere. Every student is required to produce a certificate of his having attended at least two courses of lectures of this kind, before he is admitted to an examination for licensure. It is not wonderful, therefore, that exegetical works are numerous in the one country and scarce in the other. As there is no probability that this state of things in England will very soon be changed, we need not expect to be supplied with works of this nature from that quarter. We are, therefore, the more indebted to Prof. Stuart for his labors in this department. The reception which bis work has already met with, is sufficient to convince him that his zeal and efforts are not in vain.
Novum Testamentum : accedunt Parallela SS. loca necnon veterum Evangeliorum et Epistolarum capitula et canones Eusebič. 12mo. London, 1828.
J. G. Stickel, Prolusio ad interpret. tertii capitis Habacuci, Pars I. 8vo. Neustadt, 1828.
Beitrag zur allgemeinen Hermeneutik and zu deren Anwendung auf die Theologische. Von. F. H. Germar. 8vo, Altona, 1828.
Fr. Münter Notitia codicis graeci Evangelium Johan. nis variutum continentis. 8vo. Copenhagen, 1828.
Vorlesungen über die Briefe Pauli an die Galater und Epheser. von J. F. Flatt. 8vo. Leipzig, 1828.
Dr. George Christian Knapp's, Königl. Consistorialraths Seniors der theologischen Facultät auf der vereinten Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Directors der Frankischen Stiftungen, Ritters des rothen Adlerordens zweyter Klasse &c. Vorlesungen über die christliche Glaubenslehre nach dem Lehrbegriff der evangelischen Kirche. Aus der hinterlassen Handschrift unverändert herausgegeben und mit einer Vorede begleitet, von Carl Thilo ordentlichem Professor der Theol. an der vereinten Univer. Halle-Wittenberg. Halle, 1827. Erster Theil S. 448. Zweiter Theil S. 600.
These lectures on theology, by the late Dr. Knapp, have been published, as stated in the title page, from the manuscript of the author, since his death. The editor, Prof. Thilo of Halle, in the preface, gives his readers all the information