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was the disease of idleness, that left the resources of abundance ungathered. The frugal industrious Palatines, gradually by hard work acquiring available means, became, in their cultivated holdings, a peculiar people, living in frugal comfort in the unhappy land their misfortunes and not their misconduct had compelled them to inbabit.

CHAPTER XVIII.

London.

THE TWO GREAT CAPITALS OPPOSITE EACH OTHER — SECURITY

FROM ATTACK DIFFICULT NAVIGATION OF THE THAMES QUEEN ELIZABETH'S LONDON, AND QUEEN ANNE'S—THE WALLS AND GATES STREETS — THE ROW REMNANTS OF ROMAN LONDON THE TRAINED-BANDS-GOVERNMENT AND POLICE.

A GLANCE at the map of Europe will readily convince any one who looks at France and England and recalls their common history, that inevitably, through political forces acting on geographical conditions, London and Paris must have arisen where they now are. In times when, although there was little travelling by land there was still less by sea, a highway from Britain through Europe naturally took the Straits of Dover as the shortest sea-passage. This would create a seaport on either side of the Channel : and so we have Calais and Dover. But the vast commerce and intercourse for other purposes exchanged from either side would bring together in each country a centre of accumulation for population and wealth. If this had been in either instance on the sea-shore, the city so created must have been exposed to risk in time of war. In either case, therefore, without avowed design, but by the counter-pressure of facilities and difficulties, a capital arose as near to the sea-shore as seemed to be consistent with safety to the citizens and the wealth accumulating within its walls. London, with the larger river, is especially unapproachable by water—though once in the course of history, the Dutch, who were then endeavouring to grasp the dominion of the ocean, made their cannon heard at Whitehall. The navigation of the Thames below the London docks is extremely capricious and difficult; and in times of panic about an invasion of the island, and a sacking of London, terrors have been appeased by those who knew what they were saying, assuring their friends that if the lighthouses, beacons, and buoys of the lower Thames were removed, the most skilful sailor in the world could not guide a fleet within cannon-shot of London.

There is a map of London as it stood in the reign of Queen Elizabeth in one of the many collections of maps and representations of towns and eminent buildings published by the Jansens of Amsterdam.1 This map is brought into our own period, by being re-engraved on a reduced scale for a book called 'A New View of London,' published in 1708. The object of bringing the two maps together is to give significance to commentaries that invariably accompany comparisons of London past with London present at the time of the comparison, at whatever that time may be-the unprecedented rapidity of increase both in the enlargement of space and increase of population.

1 Illustriorum principumque urbium septentrionalium Europæ Tabulæ. Amstelodami; ex officino Joannis Jansonii.' Of several copies of this work, I have never seen two with exactly the same in what they contain. Both the Elzevirs and Jansens seem to have had large collections of maps and architectural engravings, and to have selected out of them from time to time a parcel for publication. The title given above is in my own copy; but in it there is another title-page, later in date, and profusely decorated with figures, mythical and real -among the realities, a finely engraved full-length portrait of our King James and his favourite Buckingham. The title of this copy is, • Theatrum præcipuarum urbium positarum ad septentrionalem Europæ Plagam,' yet the greater part of it is devoted to Italy. The method of rendering the edifices in these maps is signally useful and interesting for historical purposes, though it is not perhaps justified by canons either of art or geographical science. All the buildings are represented in a composite method of elevation and ground-plan. This enables one acquainted with the present state and the past history of any town to decide whether it is accurately represented by the artists who assisted

If we begin at the west end we find that the London of the older map ends at Whitehall opposite to the garden of Lambeth Palace. Whitehall is there, with large gardens attached to the buildings on either side, and where it expands, the Gothic Cross of Charing lifts its spire. Then at the turn by Somerset House, the Strand, like Whitehall, has gardens; and beyond these, on the north, are fields and woods till the distinguished Dutch printers. Any one accustomed to wander inquiringly through London feels certain that the map in the collection is perfectly accurate. A few others in the same volume are compositions on imperfect data. This is signally conspicuous in the representation of 'Edenburgum-vulgo Edenburg' The Castle, the High Street, Holyrood House, the City Wall, Arthur's Seat, and the Calton Hill are all there, but they are imaginary portraits.

16 A New View of London; or, an ample account of that City, in two volumes, or eight sections: being a more particular description thereof than has hitherto been known to be published of any city in the world.' The particulars crowded together in the title - page, in small print, would fill some three pages of this book. It is distributed under eight heads :

1. Containing the names of the streets, squares, lanes, markets, courts, &c.

2. Of the churches—their names, foundations, &c. 3. Of the several companies—their nature, halls, armorial ensigns, &c. 4. Of the queen's palaces, eminent houses, &c. 5. Colleges, libraries, museums, repositories of rarities, free schools, &c. 6. The hospitals, prisons, workhouses, houses of correction. 7. Of fountains, bridges, conduits, ferries, docks, keys, wharfs, &c. 8. An account of about ninety public statues, their situations, &c.

QUEEN ELIZABETH'S AND QUEEN ANNE's. 187

we reach Temple Bar. The wall beginning at the Blackfriars Stair turns with obtuse angles by the ports of the Aldgate, the Cripplegate, and the Moorgate. The Aldgate is on the way to a considerable northern suburb — the Smithfield and Clerkenwell; and again at the Bishopsgate a street runs northward beyond the wall, making St Botolph's and Bishopsgate Street. The same line of street passes southward through the city, over Old London Bridge, to the Southwark, where the most conspicuous objects are two circular buildings like the Colosseum, the one called the Beare Bayting, and the other the Boull Bayting.

In the map of 1708, some open spaces to the eastward, where buildings stand in the older map, may be held to represent relics of the track of the great fire of 1666. The western extremity of the town is at the Tothill Fields, and on the other side of the Park at the Palace of St James's. At the Piccadilly side it stretches westward about as far as Clarges Street. At a street running east and west in the direction of Mount Street and Conduit Street, the town ends on the western side, and the country begins on the line of Regent Street, passing up to the “ road to Oxford,” with a few houses on either side of it; and northward “St Giles in the Fields” and “ Cock and Pye Fields," where the road, making a twist southward, now represented by High Street and Broad Street, converts itself into High Holborn. The town extends northwards to Montagu House and Southampton House, and encloses Bloomsbury Square and Red Lion Square. Eastward the town recedes, Gray's Inn looking northward on open country ; it extends again eastward

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