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District Administration,

Police and Prisons Departments. District Commissioners, Paul Sheldon, 7001. to Commandant of Policc and Governor of Caols, 8001. ; B. C. Johnstone, 6001, to 7001.

Capt. G. E. Smith, 7001.
Assistant District Commissioners, W. H. Ingrams, Assistant Commandant of Police, G. Whittington,

J. S. Last, Capt. R. S. F. Cooper, M.C., J. P. 4501. to 5501.
Jones, C. W. Seymour-Hall, Capt. G. H. Inspector, W. Manning, 3001. to 4001.
Shelswell, Lieut. J. H. Vaughan, M.C., 2001. Chief Prison Officer, J. H. Hewett, M.B.E., 3501.
to 6001.

to 4501.

Medical Department. Treasurer (vacant), 9001.

Deputy-Principal Medical Officer (vacant), 1,0001. Assistant Treasurer, H. L. Bayles, 4501. to 5501. Senior Medical Officer, J. S. de Sousa, 8001, to

9001. Audit Department.

Temporary Medical Officers, H. Waller, 6001. to Assistant Auditor-in-Charge, A. E. Forrest, 4001.

7001. ; R. Howard, M.B.E., 8001. ; P. L. L. to 5001.

Craig, 7001. ; H. G. Phippen, 7001.

Matron, Mrs. E. K. Zurcher, R.R.C., 2501. to Customs.

3501., and 201. uniform allowance. Chief of Customs, N. B. Cox, 8001.

Nursing Sisters, Misses A. E. Chambers, N. Assistant Chief of Customs (vacant) 4501, to

Marson, M. Gittens, A. B. Bailey, Miss C. E. 5501.

Lewis, Mrs. Howard, 2001. to 2501., and 201. Assistants, F. E. Irving, H. L. Renwick, 3001.

uniform allowance. Port Service and Shipping Departments.

Public Health Department. Port Officer, Capt. 0. C. M. Barry, D.S.O., R.N.,

Medical Officer of Health, B. Spearman, 6001. to 7001.

9001., 1001.personal allowance (non-pensionable). Assistant Port Officer, Lieut. C. J. Charlewood, Assistant Medical Officer of Health, H. C. E. D.S.C., R.N.R., 4001. to 5001.

Quin, 6001. to 9001., 1001. non-pensionable

allowance. Agricultural Department.

| Economic Biologist, W. M. Aders, 5001. to 7501. Director of Agriculture, F. C. McClellan, C.B.E..!

Education Department. 9001. Assistant Director of Agriculture, R. Armstrong, Director of Education, W. Hendry, 8002. 5001, to 7501,

European Masters, G. B. Johnson, L.

W. Mycologist, Miss E. J. Welsford, M.B.E., 5001, to Hollingsworth, 5001. to 6001.

7501. Inspectors of Plantations, C. A. O'Connor, G.

Public Works Department. Tomson, H. Waterland, 3501. to 5001,

Director of Public Works, A. McClure, 002.

Assistant Director of Public Works, S. P. Bland, Judicial and Legal Departments.

7002. Courts.

District Engineer, W. Fairley, 6001. to 7001. Judge, T. S. Tomlinson, 1,3001.

Assistant Engineers, E. Wiltshire, H. C. Platte,

M.C., 4001. to 6001.
Assistant Judge, Haythorne Reed, 9001.
Magistrates, S. H. Greville-Smith, Capt. B. A. K. Storekeeper, J. H. Bennett, 4001. to 5001.

Architectural Assistant, P. C. Harris, 4001. to 5001. McRoberts, Capt. A. M. Grieve, 5001, to 7001.

Superintendent of Water Works, E. Cuss, 4001, to Registrar, J. Parnall, 5001. to 6001.

5001. Administrator-General's Department.

Senior Clerk of Works, F. Roy lance, 1001, to 5001,

('lerks of Works, W. J. Gulliver, W.J. Borrow, Administrator-General, W. M. Keatinge, 6001. to 3001. to 4001.

7001., 501. allowance as Secretary to Wakf Overseer Mechanic, W. B. Spink, 3001. to 4001. Commission. Attorney-Generals Department.

Railway and Electricity Department. Attorney-General, S. S. Abrahams, 9001.

Director, R. Withycombe, M.B.E., 8001., 2001.

Wireless Telegraph allowance.
Crown Solicitors.

Assistant Director, S. W. Dyer, 5001., by

251. to 7001. Crown Solicitors, Messrs. Mead and Wiggins, 4001. ' Assistant, W. H. Elston, 4001. by 202. to 500l.

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This Appendix gives some account of Iraq (Mesopotamia), North Borneo, Palestine, Sarawak and certain miscellaneous British Possessions and Protectorates which are not included in the main portion of the

Historical and Statistical Account above.

IRAQ (MESOPOTAMIA). alluvial plain about 35,000 square miles in area

with a fertile soil wherever the land can be Iraq, in the sense in which the name is irrigated without being drowned. A considerable used now, is that part of the former Ottoman extent of it is, however, covered by marshes Empire which stretches from Fao on the Persian formed by the uncontrolled action of the river Gulf to a point north of Mosul and just south of and canals. The northern portion known as Jazirah-Bin-Umar, on the Tigris. It comprises the ! Jazirah or “the Island,” is more undulating, vilayets of Basrah, Baghdad and Mosul, with the and is in places broken by ranges of hills. It is exception of Amadiyah which, by the Treaty of fertile under irrigation in the north, but further Sèvres, is left to Turkey.

south the plains become more arid until it passes The area of Iraq is about 116,511 square into a hard desert tract. miles. It is bounded on the north by the new The climate of Iraq is of the continental Turkish frontier, which approximates to latitude sub-tropical type, with very high temperatures in 37° N. and follows the northern boundary of the summer in the plains. In July and August the vila vet of Mosul. On the east, it is bounded by mean daily maximum temperature is 104° F. at Persia The frontier, the delimitation of which was Basrah, and 110° F. at Baghdad, while in completed by a Turko-Persian Commission in 1914, December and January the mean daily minimum runs in the north through, and in the southern temperature is 47° F. at Basra and 40° F. at portion skirts, the Kurdish mountains which form Bahgdad. The rainy season is from November to the western edge of the Persian plateau, and March. There is a rainless summer of six months descends 10 miles above Mohammerah to the lasting from about April to September. The Mosul Shatt-al-Arab, the river formed by the union of area has a rainfall of about 13 inches a year and the Euphrates and the Tigris. On the south, relies on the rain to grow its crops. The rest of Iraq is bounded by the Persian Gulf and the country, however, has an annual rainfall of Koweit; and on the south-west and west by the only about seven inches, and the crops are grown, deserts of northern Arabia and Syria. On the with very little help from the rain, on irrigated the north-west, the boundary between Iraq land. and Syria was settled by the Franco-Britishi The chief towns are Baghdad, Basrah, Mosul. Convention of 23rd December, 1920. It runs Kerbela, and Nejef. The two last, situated on from the Tigris at Feishkhabur to Albu Kemal on the edge of the Arabian desert, are pilgrim centres the Euphrates, and thence across the desert to which attract Shiahs from all parts of the Imtar, south of Jebel Druz. Apart from the hill Mohammedan world, but especially from Persia country in the north-east, Iraq mainly con- and India. sists of great plains traversed by the Euphrates and the Tigris. The country between these rivers

Population. is divided into two parts. The southern portion, According to a census taken in 1920 the popula stretching from Baghdad to Basrah is a great tion numbers 2,849,282, made up as follows :

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* The figures for Mosul include the population of the Kurdish area of Sulaimaniyah, viz., 155,000,

of whom all but 1,100 are Sunnis. Natural Products.

to a small extent, on the Diyala canals, near The chief articles of export from Iraq before Baghdad. Rice of better quality but in vers the war

were dates, wool and barley: Dates small quantities is grown in the Kurdish hills. and wool have continued to be exported, but In the Kurdish regions round Sulaimaniyah and the export of barley has fallen almost to Rowanduz and to the north of Mosul tobacco nothing, mainly because of the purchases made an important crop. The crop is hardly sufficient by the British military authorities in Iraq. for local requirements. None is exported. Round Mosul the prevailing crop is wheat, but all In the Baghdad Vilayet cotton can be grown, the wheat grown is consumed in the country. Experiments carried out since the occupation of Rice, in most cases “ red "rice of inferior quality, Baghdad in 1917 tend to show that Iraq cotton is gļown on the swampy lands on the Middle compares favourably with cotton grown in othe: Euphrates, in the Amarah area on the Tigris, and i parts of the world.

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Wool is exported in considerable quantities. Government and the Government of Iraq. The The principal sheep rearing districts are the Naqib resigned office in November, and a new Mosul area and the Kurdish hills.

cabinet, mainly composed of ministers who had There are traces of petroleum in many places previously served under him was formed under round Mosul and Kirkuk and near the Persian the Presidency of 'Abdul Muhsin Beg Sa'dun. frontier in the direction of Khanaqin.

Minor products are millet, licorice root, gall-

EXPENDITUEE. nuts, gum and dye-roots.

1921-22 Rs. 573,29,010 Rs. 634,20,581




The railways open to traffic are-


Metre Gauge.


1. From Basrah to Baghdad with branch to 1920-21 92,551,947 289,646,726 12,405,059 127,743,117
Hindiyah Barrage.

1921-22 67,260,029

2. From Baghdad to Quraitu on the Persian High Commissioner, Sir P. Z. Cox, G.C.M.G.,

frontier with a branch line to Kifri.
In all, 609 miles of open line and 884 miles Private Secretary, Capt. R. E. Cheeseman.

G.C.I.E., K.C.S.I.
track mileage.

Counsellor, Sir Henry Dobbs, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E. Standard Gauge (4ft. 8 in.).

Secretary, B. H. Bourdillon, I.C.S. 3. From Baghdad to Shargat 187 miles of open Judicial Adviser, N. Davidson. line and 213 miles track mileage.

Financial Adviser, H. A. Smallwood, C.M.G.
With the exception of about 75 miles of the Oriental Sccretary, Miss Gertrude Belí, C.B.E.
Baghdad-Shargat line, which was built by the Assistant Secretary, R. S. M. Sturges.
Baghdad Railway Company before the war, the Under-Secretary, T. c. Wigan.
whole of this railway system has been made by Inspector-General, Iraq Levies, Lt.-Col. H. T.
the British authorities during and since the war.

There is a gap of 70 miles between the Mesopo. Director of Railways, J. R. Tainsh (acting).
tamian railhead at Shargat and Mosul ; and the
Baghdad Railway comes down to Nisibin, about President and Minister of Interior, 'Abdul

Iraq Cabinet.
110 miles from Mosul. Thus railway commnica-
tion between Constantinople and Basrah, vit Adviser, K. Čornwallis, C.B.E., D.S.o.

Muhsin Beg al Sa'dun.
Aleppo, Mosul and Baghdad is complete except Minister of Finance, Sasun Eff. Haskail.
for a gap of less than 200 miles.

Adviser, S. H. Slater, C.I.E., I.C.S.

Minister of Justice, Naji Beg Suwaidi.

Adviser, E. M. Drower. The war left Iraq in British occupation; Minister of Education, Haji 'Abdul Husain and by the Treaty of Sèvres (10th August, 1920), Chalabi. Turkey renounced all sovereignty the Adviser, J. A. Glen (officiating). country: On March 2nd, 1921, the supervision of Minister of Defence, Nuri Pasha Sa'id, C.M.G., the affairs of Iraq was transferred to the Colonial

D.3.0. (acting for Ja'far Pasha, C.M.G.).
In Turkish times each of the three Vilayets was

Adviser, Lieut.-Col. P. C. Joyce, C.B.E,, D.S.O.

Minister of Communications and Works, Yasin governed by a Vali, who received orders directly

Pasha al Hashimi. from Constantinople. The official hierarchy, in Adviser, Maj. H. H. Wheatley, O.B.E., M.C. descending order of importance, was :

in charge of Vilayet.

Minister of Auqaf, 'Abdul Latif Pasha Mandil.


Adriser, R. S. Cooke.


As Iraq came under British control, as a
result of the military operations of 1914-1918,

NORTH BORNEO. British Political Officers took over the administra

Situation and Area. tion of liwas and qadhas, working under the orders of the Chief Political Officer (later the The territory under the jurisdiction of the British Civil Commissioner). This system was modified North Borneo Company (incorporated by Royal when Sir Percy Cox was appointed High Com- Charter under date of 1st Nov., 1881), now known missioner. When he took up his post in the

as "The State of North Borneo," comprises the autumn of 1920, he organised a provisional native whole of the northern portion of the island of Government composed of a Council of Arab Borneo from the Sipitang River on the west to Ministers which was presided over by the Naqib lat. 4° 10' N. on the east coast, together with of Baghdad. On August 23rd, 1921, the Sharif adjacent islands ; it is held under grants from the Faisal, third son of the King of the Hejaz was

Sultans of Brunei and Sulu, and contains an area proclaimed King of Iraq, by virtue of a referendum of 31,000 square miles qual to Scotland), with to the people, which resulted in his election by a coast line of about 900 miles. It extends from 96 %. The government of the country is thus 115° 20' to 119° 20' E. long., and froin 4° 10' to vested in an Iraq Government, the King being 7° 25' N. lat. The southern boundary was settled advised by the British High Commissioner, while by a convention at London on the 20th June, 1891. each Ministry has a British Adviser attached to it. The principal stations of the Company are at Every Liwa is administered by a native Muta-arrif, Sandakan, Lahad Datu, and Tawao, on the east, who is assisted by a British Inspector.

Kudat on the north, and Jesselton on the west. On October 11th, 1922, the High Commissioner At each of these there are excellent harbours, and the Naqib signed a treaty (not yet ratified) | especially at the first-named, which is situated in a to regulate the relations between His Majesty's / magnificent bay some fifteen miles in length, with


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