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an average breadth of five miles. It is 1,000 miles on by its manager, Mr. W. C. Cowie. Finally, in from Singapore, 1,200 from Hong Kong, and 1,600 1877 and 1878, the Sultans of Brunei and Sulu ceded from Port Darwin. The headquarters of admin- , to a syndicate formed by Baron Overbeck and Mr. istration are at Jesselton. Other stations are at (now Sir Alfred) Dent the greater portion of the Labuk, Kotabelud, Tuaran, Tambunan, Kaningau, territory now known as the State of North Borneo. Tenom, Beaufort, Pensiangan, Lamag, Papar, This syndicate's rights were acquired in 1881 by Putatan, Ranau, Timbang Batu, Semporna the British North Borneo Provisional Association, Mempakul, Sipitang and Rundum.

and transferred by that body in 1882 to the British Gencral Description.

North Borneo Company. Some further cessions

have since been added to the Company's territory. The greater part of the country is at present The British Government assumed a formal procovered with jungle, but the soil is found to be

tectorate over the territory by agreement with well adapted for the growth of almost all tropical

"The State of North Borneo,” dated the 12th May, products, more particularly rubber, tobacco, coco

1888. By this agreement the State is to continue nuts, sugar, coffee, sago, tapioca, and pepper. to be administered by the Company as an indepen

The country is mountainous. The highest point dent State, under the protection of Her Majesty's yet discovered is Kinabalu, over 13,000 feet.

Government, who may appoint consular officers, The inhabitants, who according to the Census and shall conduct all foreign relations, but does taken in 1921 number about 257,804, are mainly not interfere in internal administration. Bruneis, Ilanuns, Bajaus, and Sulus on the coast,

Climate. who subsist by fishing and trade ; further back, the Dusuns cultivate yearly well-irrigated The climate, though tropical, is equable; the rice fields ; and in the interior they plant temperature varies from 70° to 90°, but there is tobacco and hill padi (rice), and hunt, usually a light breeze. The annual rainfall is clearing fresh jungle every year; the Muruts, from 80 to 120 inches, according to situation. another interior tribe, are very numerous and

Industry. peaceable, occasionally varying more peaceful pursuits by head-hunting raids on a petty scale.

The principal products of the country are There are Chinese settlements on the coast; they

estate rubber, timber, tobacco, coal, copra and cultivate the flat areas, and carry on a considerable cutch. The last decade has witnessed a rapid trade. There are 415 Europeans and 37,500 expansion of the rubber industry. The value of Chinese in the territory. Sandakan, the chief town, rubber exported in 1917 was 635,2881., in 1918, with suburbs, has a population of 12,000. There and in 1921, 289,6341. The vast timber resources

670,7671., in 1919, 782,037l., 1920, 689,403!., are several missions, including the Church of of the country form one of its principal assets, England, with stations at Kudat and Jesselton and Beaufort, and the Roman Catholic, with a church

but until recently only the fringe of the forests and school at Sandakan and four stations on the formed in 1920 for more adequate timber exploi

was being worked. A Company was however West Coast. The former, which is supported by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in

tation with modern lumbering apparatus. Timber Foreign Parts and the Church of England Com

being exported in increasing quantities to munity, has a stone church and two schools at large sawmills have been working for some years,

China, Australia and England. At Sandakan two Sandakan and one at Jesselton. The Basel Mission also has schools at Kudat, Beaufort and and a modern band sawmill has been recently

installed. Tobacco was formerly the principal Papar, and at Sandakan and Tenom. A few

article of export. Exports of tobacco were valued Governinent vernacular schools have reoently

at 176,6181. in 1917, 49,4491. in 1918, 230,1221, in been opened.

1919, 200,3761. in 1920, and 149,9011. in 1921. History.

The number of coconut plantations has rapidly The State and town of Brunei appear to have increased, and exports of copra have risen con: been prosperous from a very early age. They were siderably in value. Cutch, & tanning material visited by Europeans in 1322, 1503, and 1520, but obtained from the bark of certain trees, is manu. the first settlement in Borneo was made by the factured at Sandakan. Agriculture is now beyond Dutch at Landak and Sukadana in 1608, and soon

its primitive state, and certain of the more abandoned. Two English settlements were made advanced tribes use the plough and harrow. about 1609, and abandoned in 1623. The Dutch There is a large trade in the collection of jungle factories were re-established in 1747 and 1776, produce. The hill lands are well adapted for the but finally given up in 1790.

cultivation of tapioca, gambier, pepper and tea. A British settlement was formed under the East Shipbuilding is increasing in Sandakan Bay. India Coinpany in 1762, at the island of Balam

The exports comprise also, sago, coffee, pepper, bangan, which hadł een ceded by the Sultan of gutta-percha, indiarubber, rotan, firewood, salt Sulu. This was attacked by pirates in 1775, and fish, beeswax, edible birds' nests, camphor, resin the staff was removed to Labuan, a small factory (called damar), cattle, cutch, etc., sent almost being at the same time established at Brunei. A entirely to Singapore and China ; from Singapore second attempt in 1803 was made to establish a

part of these find their way to Europe. settlement on the former island, and in Marudu

The Chartered Company does not itself directly Bay, and on its failure the East India Company engage in trade. gave up its connection with Northern Borneo.

The revenue is derived from import and export Sir James Brooke, in 1842, established the inde. duties, stamps, and royalties, a poll tax, licences pendent State of Sarawak, which, as well as Brunei, for the sale of opium, spirits, and tobacco; and is under the exclusive influence of Great Britain; from the sale and rent of forest lands, suburban and Labuan became a British Colony in 1846. Some lots, and town sites. Americans obtained extensive cessions in North Borneo in 1865 from the Sultan of Brunei, but they

Development. were never utilised. In 1872 a company, called Sandakan on the East and Jesselton on the the Labuan Trading Company, established itself in West are the principal ports. Both towns have Sandakan, the business of which was later carried developed rapidly, and are now supplied with


electric light and cold storage. Considerable sums is mainly by water. The State has joined the have been spent by Government on reclamation, Postal Union. Course of post from London, about improvement of water supplies, etc., at both twenty-six days. Postage to all British posports.

sessions for letters 6 cents per oz. ; foreign Mincrals.

countries, 12 cents for the first oz., 6 cents each

succeeding oz. Excellent coal is being worked by the Cowie Harbour Coal Company, and coal is being supplied

Year. Revenue, including to vessels at the principal North Borneo ports.


Land Sales, Sandakan is also rapidly becoming of importance


$ as a coaling station for ocean liners. Gold in

1912 1,508,285

915,690 alluvial form is found in certain of the rivers

1913 1,810,259

990,388 on the East Coast.

1914 1,791,533

1,020,150 Large deposits of iron ore have been discovered.

1915 2,009, 256

1,035,974 Indications of the presence of petroleum occur in

1916 2,139,319

1,085,331 many parts of the State and prospecting work

1917 2,404,112

1,155,699 is being cariied out by concessionary companies. 1918 2,597,681

1,331,257 1919 2,864,433

1,530,783 Currency and Banking.

1920 3,645,719

1.844,744 The Company has a copper coinage of and 1 cent. pieces, a nickel coinage of 1 cent, 2 cent. and

On the completion of the Singapore-Labuan5 cent. pieces, and it issues notes, expressed in Hong Kong cable in April, 1894, the mainland of dollars. A State Bank of North Borneo has been Borneo was joined to Labuan by a cable covering established with head office at Sandakan, and a

a distance of about 10 miles to Mempakul. branch office at Jesselton. There are agencies of

There is a telegraph line from Mempakul where the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corpor: the cable reaches land to Jesselton, whence ation, the chartered Bank of India, Australia and messages are transmitted by radiotelegraphy to China, the Chinese Commercial Bank, and the Kudat, Sandakan and Tawau-Sebatik. Branch Bank of Taiwan. A State Bank is in process of telegraph lines establish communication with formation.

Lamag and Lahad Datu from Sandakan, and Money orders on North Borneo are issued in Beaufort and Tenom from Jesselton. The England, India, the Straits Settlements, Ceylon, majority of the smaller Government stations are Hong Kong, and elsewhere, and vice versa, and in telephonic communication with one another British postal orders came into use in the State and with the local centres of administration, during 1908.

Telephone exchanges are in operation at Jesselton,

Sandakan and Kudat.
The territory is administered by a Court of

Directors in London, appointed under the Royal Year.

British tonnage.

Total tonnage. Charter, and a Governor and Civil Service


385,331 appointed by them. There are five Residencies, 1913


547,014 viz., the Sandakan, West Coast, East Coast,


578,812 Kudar and Interior Residencies.


434,198 The appointment of the Governor is subject to 1916


387,693 the approval of the Secretary of State.


455,390 The law of the country is based on the Indian


546,785 Penal, Criminal Procedure, and Civil Procedure


654,858 Codes, with an adaptation in special instances of 1920


671,535 several of the Acts in force in the British Colonies, 1921


698,615 and an Imam's court, for the administration of Mohamedan law, with native courts for trials by local customs. There is a force of about 750


EXPORTS, armed police under European officers.



1913 Means of Communication.


7,398, 128 1914 4,755,283

6,281,341 The Straits Steamship Company run steamers 1915

4,479,817 every 10 days between Singapore and local ports.

7,419,094 1916 4,293,711

8,692,644 There is additional communication by steamer with 1917 4,165, 176

9,223,487 Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan, and a local com- 1918


8,735,092 pany runs a line along the coast and to adjacent


7,930,583 12,462,763 islands. The Government have constructed a 1920 11.009, 471

12,049, 471 metre-gauge railway from Brunei Bay to Beau- 1921


7,908,136 fort, 20 miles, and from Beaufort to Jesselton, 57 miles, and a line of 33 miles from Beaufort to Tenom, which will open up the interior. In all, the

Court of Directors. length of railway (including branches) completed Rt. Hon. Sir West Ridgeway, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., is 120 miles. The principal coastal terminus is K.C.S.I., President and Managing Director. Jesselton, at which port there is a steel jetts where Edward Dent, Esq., Vice-President. vessels up to 1,000 tons can load and discharge Assistant Managing Director, Hon. Mountstuart cargo. Over 600 miles of telegraph line are open, Elphinstone. and wireless stations exist at Jesselton, Kudat, G. E. R. Bromley-Martin, Esq. Sandakan and Tawau. Several riding roads Sir John Hewett, G.C.S.I., K.B.E., C.I.E. already exist, and over 100 miles of bridle path Sir M. F. Ommanney, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., I.S.O. have been constructed. Internal communication Secretary, Harington G. Forbes.

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Under Secretary, C. F. Colling.

Nursing Sister, West Corst, Miss E. H. Rankin. Assistant Under Secretary, W. J. Worth.

Executive Engineers, Public Works Department, London Office, 37, Threadneedle Street, E.C. Capt. J. A. Houston, $5,400; C. Herbert,

$5,400 ; Capt. C. G. Wright, $4,740. Governors.

Assistant Engineers, Public Works Department, 1881. W. H. Treacher, C.M.G.

E. R. Baker, $4,285; A. E. Crisp, $4,200; 1888. C. V. Creagh, C.M.G.

W. A. Coveney, $3,696; E. B. Jackson, $3,564. 1895. L. P. Beaufort.

Superintendents of Police, Capt. C. H. C. Pearson, 1900. Hugh Clifford, C.M.G.

$4,440; Capt. W. C. Cole-Adams, M.C., $3,540 ; 1901. E. W. Birch, C.M.G.

Capt. G. Summerfield, $3,180 ; Capt. A. Rice1904. E. P. Gueritz.

Oxley, D.F.C., $3,180. 1911. F. R. Ellis, C.M.G.

Marine Surveyor, J. C. Graham, $4,920. 1912. J. S. Mason.

Assistant Cominissioner of Excise, A. R. Rivett, 1913. C. W. O. Parr.

$6,120. 1915. A. C. Pearson, C.M.G.

Assistant Commissioners of Customs, H. J. R. 1922. Sir W. Rycroft, K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

Beckett, $5,400 ; E. W. Skinner, $1,080.

Chief District Treasurers, J. Cant, $4,440; A. J. STAFF.

B. Broodbank, $4,680.

Assistant Postmaster General and Superintendent List of Heads of Departments in the Civil Service of Telegraphs, H. A. Dabell, $3,858. of North Borneo.

Assistant Auditor, K. B. Phillips, $4,260. Governor, Major-General Sir William Rycroft, Legal Adviser, C. F. C. Macaskie, $4,920 (with K.C.B., K.C.M.G., $17,136.

allowance). Government Secretary, F. W. Fraser, C.B.E., Superintendent of Printing Office, R. G. L. $8,571 (with allowance).

Horton, $6,840. Assistant Government Secretary, E. A. Pearson, Secretary to Finance Commissioner, V. M. Hill, $4,920 (with allowance).

Judicial Commissioner, Capt. D. T. J. Sherlock, Radio Operator, G. C. Fenton, $3,428.
M.B.E. (Military), $7,540 (with allowance).

Paymaster, W. Lake,
Commandant Armed Constabulary, with local Assistant Conservator of Forests, J. Logan.

rank of Lieut.-Colonel, C. H. Harington, Assistant Settlement Officer, G. S. Tuxford.
$7,200 (with allowance),

Government Surveyors, R. C. Rose, T. J. H. Resident, Sandakan, H. W. L. Bunbury, $7,200

Speedy, N. Barnett, W. H. Grant, T. C. (with allowance).

Humphreye. Resident, West Coast, G. C. Irving, $7,200 (with

District Officers. allowance). Resident, Interior, G. C. Woolley, 87,200 (with H. S. Arrindell, H. Myddelton, C. F. Skinner, allowance).

G. F.C. Woollett, E. W. Morrell, G. N. Owen, Resident, East Coast, J. Maxwell Hall (acting),

H. M. Ince, C. D. Martyn, E. G. Grant, C. R.

Smith. $6,120 (with allowance). Resident, Kudat, W. C. M. Weedon, $6,120 (with

Assistant District Officers. allowance).

W. A. Surfleet, S. G. Holmes, B. R. Cole-Adams, Financial Commissioner, Chas. H. Dunn, $8,280 J. W. G. Hills, G. H. Vinen, A. N. M. Garry.

(with allowance). Auditor, T. W. Rose (acting), $6,360.

Cadets. Commissioner of Lands, W. W Smith, $7,200 R. A. Rutter, E. P. Hill, R. F. Evans, J. F. (with allowance).

Nicoll, C. R. Sarel, C. R. Woodward, H. R. Chief Surveyor, E. A. Pavitt, $7,200 (with allow

Nutall-Smith, C. D. Round-Turner, S. A. ance).

Dircctor of Railways and Works, Capt. J. W.

Watson, $8,571.
General Manager of Railways, C. F. Ashton

Pryke, $7,200.
Principal Medical Officer, Dr. P. A. Dingle,

PALESTINE. $8,571.

Palestine is bounded on the north by the French Protector of Labour, D. R. Maxwell, $5,880 (with sphere of Syria and the Lebanon, on the west by

allowance). Superintendent of Immigrants, Capt. H. V. and Hejaz territory, the boundary running from

the Mediterranean, and on the south by Egyptian Woon, $4,440 (with allowance). Commissioner of Customs and Excise, M. M. just west of Rafa on the Mediterranean to just

east of Taba at the head of the Gulf of Akaba, Clark, $7,200 (with allowance).

and then north-east. On the east, the boundary Inspector of Prisons, The Commandant.

is undefined. Mycologist and Agricultural Adviser, E. Bateson,

The boundary on the north was settled by the $8,571. Conservator of Forests and Director of Agricul- but has not yet been entirely demarcated. From

Anglo-French Convention of 23rd December, 1920, ture, D. D. Wood, $8,571. Postmaster General and Superintendent of Nakura, and about half way between Tyre and

the Mediterranean Sea, just south of Ras-el. Telegraphs, C. F. Newton Wade, $6,120 (with Acre, it runs eastwards and north wards to Metallowance).

ullah (British), and across the Upper Jordan Valley Other Officers.

to Banias (French). It then runs south-eastwards Medical Officers, Doctors R. H. Fletcher, J. K. to Skek, and thence down the rivers Jeraba and

O'Byrne, A, H. Hamilton and J. Martin. Massadiye to the north-eastern shore of the Lake Nurse Matron, Jesselton, Miss M. E. Dipple. of Tiberias and across the Lake to Semakh at its Vurse Matron, Sandakan, Miss B. C. Fulton. Southern extremity.

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Palestine comprises four zones of country. On that object, it being clearly understood that the west, along the shores of the Mediterranean, nothing shall be done which may prejudice the which are deficient here in good natural harbours, civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish is a low plain, which varies from 15 to 20 miles Communities in Palestine, or the rights and in width at Gaza to about two miles at Acre, but political status enjoyed by Jews in any other which, at one place, the plain of Esdraelon, country.” stretches for a considerable distance into the in- The terms of the mandate for Palestine were terior, and separates the high lands of Galilee from approved by the Council of the League of Nations those of Samaria and Judea. From the coastal on the 24th July, 1922. plain, the country rises into a plateau, intersected The High Commissioner is assisted by an by deep valleys, which drops steeply to the east, Advisory Council, composed of the heads of the to the third zone, which is formed by the great principal Government Departments, and 10 “undepression down which the River Jordan runs to official” members (four Moslems, three Christians, the Dead Sea, and which is prolonged for another and three Jews), representing the various com100 miles to the Red Sea as the Wadi Araba. munities. This depression reaches a depth below sea level of English, Arabic and Hebrew are the official 2,600 feet in the deepest portion of the Dead Sea, languages of the country. the surface of which is about 1,300 feet below sea The Jewish population of Palestine have perlevel, and which is 46 miles long with an average fected their internal organisation by convening breadth of 8} miles. East of the Jordan valley an elected Assembly, which elected a National the country rises again, and merges into the Syrian Committee, to represent the Jewish population of desert.

Palestine in its dealings with the Administration. The climate of Palestine varies with the alti. The British Government and Palestine Adtude : the coastal region is sub-tropical and humid; ministration recognise the Zionist Organisation, the elevated hilly zone is drier and more temperate; which in Palestine is represented by the Palestine the Jordan Valley is hot and the rainfall slight; Zionist Executive, as the Agency of the Jewish while, further east still, the neighbourhood of the people in all matters pertaining to the upbuilding desert makes its effect marked on both the of the Jewish National Home. temperature and the rainfall. The summer months The Supreme Moslem Sharia Council was conare almost rainless. January and February are stituted by order of the High Commissioner in the wettest months, and the main rainfall occurs December, 1921, to control and manage Moslem between November and April.

Awkaf and affairs in Palestine ; it consists of a Water for domestic use is obtained in towns President (Rais-ul-Ulema), and four members mostly from rock-cut cisterns in which rain water is elected by secondary electors, who again are collected, and in rural districts also from wells. | elected by the inhabitants of the Liwa of JerusaJerusalem has a piped water supply, pumped lem (two members) and the Liwas of Nablus and from a spring about 10 miles south of the town Acre. It nominates, for approval by Government, by an installation made by the Military Authorities the officers of the Sharia Courts, and controls the soon after its occupation, and from Solomon's appointments and dismissals of Sharia and Wakf Pools, near Bethlehem, by an installation made by officers. It has established an orphanage in the Civil Administration.

Jerusalem and a technical office to deal with the Considerable progress has been made towards repair of sacred buildings, and has carried out the eradication of malaria, formerly so prevalent, extensive tree planting on Wakf land and in by Government distribution of quinine in villages, Moslem cemeteries. oiling of wells and cisterns, and drainage of swamps. The Government is assisted in anti

Constitution. malarial work by research and survey units On 1st September, 1922, a new constitution attached to the Department of Health by the was promulgated to replace the existing a rangeJoint Distribution Committee of America and the ments. It provides for the appointment of a Rockefeller Institute of America.

High Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief and

an Executive Council. Government.

Under this constitution a Legislative Council Under Turkish rule, part of Palestine was in replaces the Advisory Council and will have the Vilayet of Beirut and part in the independent authority to pass such Ordinances as may be Sanjak of Jerusalem. After its conquest in 1917- necessary for the peace, order and good govern1918 by the British Forces, the country remained ment of Palestine, provided (1) that no Ordinance under British Military Administration until July shall restrict complete freedom of conscience and 1st, 1920, when Sir Herbert Louis Samuel was the free exercise of all forms of worship, save in appointed High Commissioner, and a Civil Admin. so far as is required for the maintenance of public istration set up.

order and morals, or shall tend to discriminate in Peace has not yet been concluded with Turkey any way between the inhabitants of Palestine on but under the Treaty of Sèvres, signed on 10th the ground of race, religion or language ; (2) that August, 1920, Turkey renounced her sovereignty no Ordinance shall take effect until either the over Palestine and the administration of the High Commissioner or His Majesty has asserted country was entrusted to a Mandatory to be thereto; (3) that the High Commissioner may selected by the Principal Allied Powers. The reserve any Ordinance for the signification of His Supreme Council had already selected His Majesty's pleasure, and shall so reserve any Ordi. Britannic Majesty as Mandatory at San Reino nance which concerns matters dealt with specifion 25th April, 1920. The Mandatory was to be cally by the provisions of the Mandate, and that responsible for carrying into effect the terms of His Majesty may disallow any Ordinance to which the Balfour Declaration of November 2nd, 1917, the High Commissioner may have assented within viz. :-“ His Majesty's Government view with one year of the date of the High Commissioner's favour the establishment in Palestine of a national assent. home for the Jewish people, and will use their The Legislative Council consists, in addition to best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of the High Commissioner, of 22 members, of whom

So on.

JO will be official members and 12 unofficial | The site of Solomon's Temple is occupied by members. All the un-official members will be the Mosque of Omar, which contains a relic of be elected, not less than two of them being Muhammad and the reputed sacrificial stone of Christians and two Jews, and the rest Moslems. Abraham. Bethlehem, the scene of Christ's

The elected members are chosen by primary Nativity and the birthplace of King David, is and secondary elections. Every male Palestinian five miles south of Jerusalem. The Church of citizen over 25 years of age is entitled to vote the Nativity, at the east end of the present village, at the primary election, unless he has lost his is said to be the oldest Christian church in civil rights or claims to be a foreign subject, existence. or under foreign protection, or is otherwise dis- The population figures for the other principal qualified. The number of secondary electors to towns are: Jaffa, 47,709; Haifa, 24,634 ; Gaza, be elected in each electoral area is determined 17,480; Nazareth, 7,424 ; Nablus, 15,947 ; Safed, on the basis that every 200 primary electors elect 8,761 ; Tiberias, 6,950; Hebron, 16,577 ; Ramleh, one secondary elector. If any village or quarter 7,312; Bethlehem, 6,658; Lydda, 8,103; Acre, has between 150 and 200 primary electors, it is 6,420. entitled to vote for one secondary elector ; if it The Jewish Colonies are grouped in four has between 350 and 400 primary electors it is districts as follows : in Jerusalem-Jaffa District, entitled to vote for two secondary electors, and 24 ; in Samaria, 15; in Lower Galilee, 24; in

Upper Galilee, 10. Any person may be elected as a secondary The total population of these settlements is about elector provided he is on the register of primary | 15,200. Eighteen of them belong to the Jewishi electors for the district.

National Fund, which was established by the The secondary electors are then formed into Zionist Organization for the purpose of acquiring twelve electoral colleges according to the religious lands to remain the national property of the community to which they belong ; the number | Jewish people. The Palestine Land Development of colleges to be allotted to each religious com- Company, also organised by the Zionist Organizamunity being proportioned to the number of tion, owns the lands of Tel-Adas, Kalandiah, and secondary electors belonging to the several com- some lands on the Carmel, on the Kishon, at munities, and each electoral college elects one Jaffa, Jerusalem, Rehoboth, Gedera, etc. The member of the Council.

other colonies were founded mostly by Baron Special provision is to be made for the government Edmond de Rothschild. The total area of the of territories comprised in the Mandated territory Jewish Settlements is 652,652 dunams (4h dunams to the east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, to, equals 1 acre). which certain Articles of the Mandate have been The local affairs of the Jewish Colonies are declared by the Council of the League of Nations controlled by Vaads or Councils elected by the to be inapplicable. A local Arab Administration male and female residents who own registered has been formed under His Highness the Emir holilings or pay taxes. Abdullah ibn Hussein, G.B.E. (son of King Hussein of the Hejaz and brother of King Feisal of Iraq) assisted by a staff of Arab Advisers. The

Instruction, High Commissioner for Palestine is represented in The approximate number of children under 14 Transjordan by Mr. H. St. John Philby, C.I.E., in Palestine is as follows :-Moslem, 110,000 ; I.C.S., The official language is Arabic.

Christian, 12,500 ; Jews, 12,000. The schools The eastern and southern boundaries of Trans maintained by the Government number 313, and jordan are yet to be defined.

contain 19,000 children. The great majority of

the pupils are Moslems. The extension of village Area and Population.

education undertaken by the Government is

being carried out, and 190 new schools have been The country is, at present, divided into four opened since October, 1920. The Training Col. districts, administered by District Governors : leges for Teachers have been extended and the Jerusalem-Jatfa, Northern Samaria and the nunber of men students increased to 75 and of Southern District.

women to 50. Technical education is being carried Palestine, as administered by the Palestine out systematically in the villages and in some of Government, is about 9,000 square miles in extent, the towns. A Law School has been opened in and includes only that part of historic Palestine Jerusalem, and a School of Pharmacy is in process which lies to the west of the Jordan. The popu- of organization. lation of this territory on October 23rd, 1922, was The Christian and Jewish Communities provide, approximately 757,182, of which number one- the former to a very large extent, and the latter third is located in 22 small towns and large almost entirely, for the education of their own villages.

children. There are 590,890 Moslems, 73,024 Christians, The Zionist Organization, through the Depart. 83,794 Jews, some 7,028 Druzes, and 163 Sainari. ment of Education attached to the Palestine tans, 265 Babais, and the remainder are Sikhs, Zionist Executive, controls 175 educational insti. Hindus and Metawileh.

tutions in Palestine, with a staff of 504 teachers, Palestine, east of the Jordan, known as Trans- and attended by about 18,000 pupils. These Jordania, is controlled by a separate administration institutions include Gyinnasia at Jerusalem and under supervision of the High Commissioner for Jaffa, Teachers' Training Colleges (General, Palestine.

Orthodox, Women's and Kindergarten), Schools The chief town, Jerusalem, which had been in of Music in Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa, an Agri. Moslem hands since 1244, and under Turkish rule cultural School, an Arts and Crafts Institute since 1517, surrendered to General Allenby on (Bezalel), Cominercial Evening Classes, and a December 9th, 1917. Its population is 62,578. Technical College. The Christian schools main. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is visited tained by various religious bodies number about annually by large numbers of Christian pilgrims, 125, incluing one secondary school and one principally of the Orthodox and Coptic Churches. college ; some 11,500 pupils are on their rolls.

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