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special temporary arrangement is in force in Zanzibar whereby officers can remit up to half the amount of salary payable locally in rupees to their families through the Government at the rate of twelve and a half rupees to the pound sterling.

In Nyasaland sterling currency is in use, and no local allowance is paid.

When officers of any of the East African Dependencies are not in East Africa, e.g., when on leave, their salaries and allowances (if any) are issued in sterling by the Crown Agents for the Colonies.

(ii) In West Africa the currency is sterling.

CLIMATE. 9. East Africa.--- The climate has a better reputation than that of West Africa, but differs widely in different parts.

West Africa.-The climate is not now on the whole unhealthy for Europeans; the conditions of life having greatly improved during recent years. In particular, the prophylaxis and treatment of tropical diseases are now much better understood, and the result has been a great reduction in the death and invaliding rates. The death-rate among European officials (excluding deaths in action or from wounds or from sinking of vessels at sea), for the 18 years to 1921, has been as follows :

Rate per 1,000. 1904 273 | 1907 17.8 1910 20-4 1913 118 1916 10:3 1919 ... 12.5 1905 28:1 1908 17.7 1911 13:9 1914 12:7 1917 14'4 1920 16:3 1906 21.2 1909 17.3 1912 124 1915 13.5 1918 16.5 1921 12:0

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MARRIED CANDIDATES. 10. Married candidates are eligible for these appointments, and if a married officer is appointed to one of the East African Dependencies he may usually have his wife with him. He should, however, understand that no prornise can be given that it will be possible to allocate him to healthy stations; and it is generally very desirable that he should first find out for himself exactly what the conditions of life are and whether the conditions prevailing in his district are such as would be suitable to his wife.

There is at present a great shortage of quarters in all the East African Dependencies, and married officers must be prepared to share quarters with batchelors.

An officer may not take his wife with him to Somaliland without first obtaining permission.

If a married candidate is selected for West Africa he must obtain permission from the Governor of the Colony to which he is appointed if he wishes to take his wife with him. Permission will not usually be granted during an officer's first tour. If he has proceeded to West Africa in the first instance without his wife, he must obtain the permission of the Governor if he wishes her to join him.

PART VI.

METHOD OF APPLICATION. 1. From the foregoing information it will be seen--a) that the higher offices in the colonies are filled by promotion; (b) that the lower offices, not requiring professional qualifications, are usually filled either by the appointment of local candidates or by means of open competitive examination at home; and (c) that there are consequently but few openings outside Tropical Africa for candidates from this country, except for those possessing the professional and other qualifications above specified.

WEST AFRICAN APPOINTMENTS. 2. The salaries attached to appointments in West Africa are higher than those attached to similar appointments elsewhere, and West African service also carries with it special privileges in respect of leave of absence, which are granted on account of the climate.

Candidates should on no account apply for or accept a West African appointment in the expectation of ultimately being transferred elsewhere, as the number of opportunities for such transfer is exceedingly small. No applications for transfer can be entertained until an officer has served for five years in West Africa, and officers desiring to be transferred must be prepared to accept a reduced salary. Only a small proportion even of applicants who satisfy these conditions succeed in obtaining transfers.

MODE OF APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT. 3. All applications for appointments* described above as being filled by selection of the Secretary of State must be addressed to the Assistant Private Secretary (Appointments) to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Downing Street, S.W.1. Forms are supplied by the Assistant Private Secretary, which the candidate must fill in, with full particulars regarding his career and qualifications, and the employment he desires; he must name on the form two referees who will answer from personal

* For appointments filled by the Crown Agents for the Colonies (see especially Part I, paragraph 3), application should be made direct to the Crown Agents for the Colonies (M Dept.), 4, Millbank, 8.W.1.

knowledge for his character and capacity, and he must return it to the Assistant Private Secretary (Appointments) with originals and copies of testimonials (not more than six), which should be sent in all together. He should also send his birth certificate (or a certified copy). The originals of the testimonials and of the birth certificate will be inspected and returned to the candidate, and the copies retained for record in the Colonial Office. If the candidate is considered sufficiently suitable he will be informed that his name has been noted on the Secretary of State's list in connection with a particular class of appointment, and that his nam: will be considered with those of other candidates as vacancies from time to time occur ; but no promise can in any case be made, and no definite prospect whatever can be held out, that the Secretary of State will be in a position to offer employment to any particular candidate. If a candidate is offered an appointment, he can usually be allowed sufficient time to make preparations and to terminate the employment in which he may be engaged.

Candidates who are in residence at a British University, or who have left it within the last fer years, are advised to consult the Appointments Committee or similar body (if such exists in their University), before communicating with the Assistant Private Secretary (Appointments).

Candidates who do not send testimonials will not be considered, unless they give satisfactory reasons for the absence of testimonials.

The selection of candidates depends on the general educational attainments, the professional or other subsequent training and experience (if any), and on the character and personal fitness of the applicants. These qualifications are judged by the candidate's academic and subsequent record, by testimonials from properly qualified persons who have a personal knowledge of the candidate and his career, and by personal interviews at the Colonial Office.

Attempts to influence the Secretary of State's selection through Members of Parliament or other persons who are not personally well acquainted with the applicant are useless, and will be regarded as indicating that the applicant himself does not consider his qualifications sufficiently good to justify his appointment on his own merits. They can in no case operate to the advantage of a candidate, and may seriously prejudice his chances of success.

INFORMATION REGARDING VACANCIES. 4. It is impossible always to foresee the occurrence of vacancies, and the Secretary of State cannot undertake to give any information as to the likelihood of a vacancy or vacancies occurring. Nor can he undertake to keep candidates or others informed of the actual occurrance of vacancies. But if and when a candidate has been noted on the list of applicants for a class of employment, his name somes up for consideration whenever a vacancy in that class occurs.

APPENDIX I.

SPECIAL INFORMATION REGARDING PARTICULAR CLASSES OF

APPOINTMENT. Particulars as to legal, military, police, medical and survey appointments, etc., and as to leave and pension in East and West Africa and the Eastern Colonies are published in separate memoranda, namely :

Miscellaneous No. 117. Legal Appointments.
Miscellaneous No. 225. Survey Appointments in the Colonies and Protectorates.
Miscellaneous No. 256. Appointments of Assistant Auditors in the Colonial Audit

Department.
Miscellaneous No. 280. Agricultural and Forestry appointments.
Miscellaneous No. 99. Medical Appointments in the Colonies (except West Africa).
African (West) No. 678. West African Medical Staff.
Eastern No. 67. Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States Cadetships.
Eastern No. 68. Ceylon Cadetships.
Eastern No. 74. Rules as to Leave, Pension, &c., in Ceylon.
Eastern No. 118. Hongkong Cadetships.
Eastern No. 121. Rules as to Leave, Pension, &c., in Hong Kong.
Eastern No. 122. Rules as to Leave, Pension, etc., in Straits Settlement and Federated

Malay States.
Eastern No. 127. Ceylon Irrigation Department. Regulations as to appointment of Irrigation

Engineers.
Eastern No. 130. Police Probationers in Straits Settlements, Federated Malay States, Ceylon

and Hongkong.
African No. 973. Regulations for the employment of Officers in Kenya, the Uganda, Nyasa-

land, Zanzibar and Somaliland Protectorates and the Tanganyika Territory.
African No. 839. Pensions and Gratuities (East Africa).

African (East) No. 1082. Widows' and Orphans' Pension Scheme (East Africa).
African (West) No. 748. West African Pensions Laws.
Special Rules as to Leave of Absence, &c. (West Africa).
African (West) No. 759. West African Colonies and Protectorates. General Conditions of

Service for Civil Servants.
African (West) No. 997. Pension Scheme for Widows and Orphans of European Officers

serving in the West African Colonies and Protectorates.
West Indian No. 158. Constabulary Forces of British Guiana, Trinidad, and Jamaica

(nomination and competitive examination ; limits of age 21 and 26).
Australian (Western Pacific) No. 158. Appointment of Government Medical Officers for Fiji

and the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony and the British Solomon Islands Protectorate.

Australian (Western Pacific) No. 209. Fiji and Western Pacific Cadetships. Any of these pamphlets can be obtained from the Assistant Private Secretary (Appointments) on application.

APPENDIX II.

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PUBLICATIONS. 10. The following works contain recent information regarding conditions in Tropical Africa, and may be of interest to candidates :

Regulations for His Majesty's Colonial Service. Published by H.M. Stationery Office (9d.). The Agricultural and Forest Products of British West Africa, by G. C. Dudgeon. John Murray, 1911 (6s. net).

Notes on the West African Colonies, published by the Oversea Settlement Department of the Colonial Office, 3-4 Clement's Inn, W.C.2 (6d.)

The West African Pocket Book: a Guide for newly-appointed Government Officers. Waterlow and Sons, 1922 (23). (Copies supplied free to officers on appointment.)

Alone in West Africa, by Mary Gaunt. T. Werner Laurie, 1912 (158. net).

Lucas's Historical Geography of the British Colonies, Vol. 3, West Africa. 3rd edition, revised by A. B. Keith, D.C.L., Clarendon Press (88. 6d.).

Health Preservation in West Africa, by J. C. Ryan, late Medical Officer, West African Medical Staff. Bale, Sons and Danielsson, 1914 (58. net).

West African Directory and Year Book, 1920-21, published by the Africa and Orient Review, 158, Fleet Street, E.C.2.

Red Book of West Africa, published by W. H. and L. Collingridge, 148 & 149, Aldersgate Street, E.C.1, 1920.

A Vanished Dynasty (Ashanti), by Sir F. Fuller, K.B.E., C.M.G. (late Commissioner of Ashanti). Murray, 1921 (168. net).

A History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti, by W. W. Claridge, in two volumes. Murray, 1915 (40s. net).

Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast, by A. W. Cardinall. George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., 1921 (128. 6d. net).

Gold Coast : Handbook prepared under the direction of the Historical Section, Foreign Office. FH.M. Stationery Office, 1920 (18. 6d. net).

A Transformed Colony : Sierra Leone, by T. J. Alldridge (late of the Sierra Leone Service). Seeley & Co., 1910 (168. net). Out of Print.

Sierra Leone, its people, products, and secret societies, by H. 0. Newland. Bale, Sons and Danielsson, 1916 (78. 6d. net).

An Introduction to the Geography of Sierra Leone, by Harold Michell. Freetown, 1918. On sale at the Crown Agents for the Colonie- (18. 4d. net).

Sierra Leone Studies. (Published in Sierra Leone).
Sierra Leone. Handbook prepared under the direction of the Historical Section, Foreign Office,
H.M. Stationery Office, 1920 (18. 6d. net).

The Gambia, its history, ancient and modern, by H. F. Reeve. Smith, Elder & Co., 1912 (10s. 6d. net).

Gambia. Handbook prepared under the direction of the Historical Section, Foreign Office. H.M. Stationery Office, 1920 (18. net).

The Nigeria Handbook, by A. C. Burns. Lagos, 1922-23 (78. 6d. net). (Copies supplied free to officers on appointment.)

Nigeria. Northern Provinces Gazetteers : (1) Bauchi, compiled by the late F. B. Gall, 1920 (38. net); (2) Ilorin, compiled by K. V. Elphinstone, 1921 (5s.6d. net); (3) Kano, compiled by W.F. F Gowers, C.M.G., 1921 (6s. 6d. net); (4) Kontagora, compiled by E. C. Duff, 1920 (13. 6d. net);

(5) Nassarawa, 1920 (23. net); (6) Nupe, compiled by E. G. M. Dupigny, 1920 (58. 6d. net); (7) Sokoto, compiled by E. J. Arnett, 1920 (48. net); (8) Žaria, compiled by E. J. Arnett, 1920 (33. net); on sale at the Crown Agents for the Colonies, 4, Millbank, S.W.1.

Letters and Sketches from Northern Nigeria, by Martin S. Kisch (late Assistant Resident). Chatto and Windus, 1910 (68. net). Out of Print.

The Making of Northern Nigeria, by Captain C. W. J. Orr, R.A. (late of the Northern Nigeria Service). Macmillan & Co., 1911 (88. 6d. net).

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Nigeria, its People and Problems, by E. D. Morel. Smith, Elder & Co., 1911 (10s. 6d. net).

On Horseback through Nigeria, by J. D. Falconer (of the Mineral Survey). T. Fisher Unwin, 1913 (12s. 6d. net). Out of Print.

The Tailed Head-Hunters of Northern Nigeria, by Major A. J. N. Tremearne. Seeley & Co 1912 (168. net).

In the Shadow of the Bush (Southern Nigeria), by P. A. Talbot. W. Heinemann, 1912 (18s. Dett
Through unknown Nigeria, by John R. Raphael. T. W. Laurie, 1914 (158, net).

Native Races and their Rulers : Sketches and Studies of Official Life and Administration in Nigers by C. E. Temple, C.M.G., Way & Co., Ltd., 1918 (58. 6d.).

Notes on Tribes, Provinces, Emirates and States of the Northern Provinces of Nigeria, by O. Temple.
Capetown, 1919.

Among the Ibos of Nigeria, by G. T. Basden. Seeley, Service & Co., Ltd., 1921 (258. net).
Up against it in Nigeria, by Langa Langa. Allen & Unwin, 1922 (188. net).

Nigeria : Handbook prepared under the direction of the Historical Section, Foreign Office. HV
Stationery Office, 1920 (23. net.)

Pamphlets on Kenya, Uganda and Nyasaland, by the Oversea Settlement Department of the Colonial Office, 3-4, Clement's Inn, W.C.2 (6d.)

Notes for Officers appointed to Tanganyika Territory. Waterlow & Sons, 1920. (Copies supplies free to officers on appointment.)

Kenya Annual and Directory, 1922. Nairobi, 1922 (1C8. net).
East African Red Book, 1922. Nairobi, 1922.

By the Waters of Africa, British East Africa, Uganda, and the Great Lakes, by M. Lorimer. 1921
Robert Scott, Paternoster Row (108. 6d, net).

Handbook of British East Africa, by H. F. Ward and J. W. Milligan. Crown Agents Store, 1 Millbank, S.W.1 (28. 6d. net). Out of Print.

British and German East Africa, by Dr. H. Brode. Edward Arnold, 1911 (88. 6d. net). Profit and Sport in British East Africa, by Lord Cranworth. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1913 (21s. net).

The Land of Zinj: being an account of British East Africa, by Capt. C. H. Stigand. Constab 1913 (158, net).

Farming and Planting in British East Africa, by T. J. O'Shea. 1917. Newland, Tarlton & Co., Lki

Kenya, Uganda and Zanzibar. Handbook prepared under the direction of the Historical Sectius Foreign Office. H.M. Stationery Office, 1920 (2s. 6d. net).

Kenya. Handbook prepared by the Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence Division, Vara Staff, Admiralty. H.M. Stationery Office, 1921 (78. 6d, net).

Twenty-five years in East Africa, by John Roscoe. Camb. Univ. Press, 1921 (258. net).

Notes for Officers appointed to Kenya and Uganda. Waterlow & Sons, 1921. (Copies supplied free to officers on appointinent.)

Report on Tanganyika Territory. (Cmd. 1428.) Published by H.M. Stationery Office, 18 (1s. 6d. net).

German East Africa, by A. F. Calvert. T. Werner Laurie, Ltd., 1917 (6s. net).
The Tanganyika Territory, by F. S. Joelson. T. Fisher Unwin, Ltd., 1920 (218, net).

Tanganyika. Handbook prepared under the direction of the Historical Section, Foreign Office
H.M. Stationery Office, 1920 (28. 6d, net).

Tanganyika. Handbook prepared by the Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence Division
Naval Staff, Admiralty. H.M. Stationery Office, 1920 (7s. 6d. net).

The Handbook of Uganda, compiled by H. R. Wallis, C.M.G., Chief Secretary to the Governmea: Published for the Government by the Crown Agents for the Colonies, 4, Millbank, S.W.1, 12 (18. 6d. net).

Planting in Uganda, by E. Brown and H. H. Hunter. Longmans, Green & Co., 1913 (103. 6d. Det!

Uganda. Handbook prepared by the Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence Division. Vaval Staff, Admiralty. H.M. Stationery Office, 120 (Ts. ed. net).

British Central Africa, by Sir H. H. Johnston. Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1906 (18s. net). : of print.

Nyasaland for the Hunter and Settler, by D. D. Lyell. Horace Cox “Field,” Office, 1912 (68. Det

Nyasaland. Handbook prepared under the direction of the Historical Section, Foreign Office H.M. Stationery Office, 1920 (23. net).

A Handbook of Zanzibar, published by the Zanzibar Government, 1912 (8 annas). Crown Agent for the Coloniey, 4, Millbank, S. W.1. Pemba, the Spice Island of Zanzibar, by Capt. J. E. Craster, R.E. T. Fisher Unwin, 1913 (12. 6.

9 net). (it of Print.

Zanzibar : The Island Metropolis of Eastern Africa, by Major F. B. Pearce, C.M.G. T. Fiske
Unwin, 1920 (303. net).

FIJI.
The Fiji of to-day, by J. W. Burton. 1910. Epworth Press, 25-35, City Road. Out of Print.
A Winter Holiday in Fiji, by Robert Brummitt, M.R.C.S. 1914. Epworth Press. Out of Pris
Colony of Fiji. A book of general information. Suva, 1914.
Colony of Fiji. Land and Products. Suva, 1917.
Fiji-İts Problems and Resources, by Major W. A. Chapple. 1921. Whitcombe & Tombs, Love

C. (58. net).

с
Fiji Constabulary. Rules and Regulations. Suva, 1921.
Fiji Constabulary. Annual Reports on. Suva.
Hill Tribes of Fiji, by A. B. Brewster, 1922. Seeley, Service & Co., Ltd.

Note.-Any of the publications mentioned in Appendix II can be consulted at the Colonial Ofis
Library.

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EXPLANATION OF CERTAIN ABBREVIATIONS.

Expedn.--Expedition.
F.A.M.P.-Frontier Armed

and Mounted Police. F.C.H.-Fellow of Cooper's

Hill College.
Fed. Coun.-Federal Council.
F.L.H.-Frontier Light

Horse.
F.M.S.-Federated Malay

States.
F.0.-Foreign Office.

Accts.-Accounts.

Col.—Colony.
Acctnt.-Accountant. Coll.—College.
Admstd. Administered. Collr. --Collector.
Admstn. Administration. Comdr.-Commander.
Admstr.-Administrator. Comdt.-Commandant.
Advoc.—Advocate.

Compet. exam.--Competi-
Ag.-Acting

tive examination.
Agt.-Agent.

Competn.-Competition.
A.D.C.--Aide-de-Camp. Coinsn.—Commission.
Apptd.-Appointed.

Comsnr.-Commissioner
Apptint.-Appointment. Comsry.-Commissary.
Arbitn. -Arbitration.

Comtee.-Committee.
Arbitr.- Arbitrator.

Confce.-Conference.
Assem.-Assembly.

Constaby.-Constabulary
Assoc.—Association.

Contrlr.-Controller.
Asst.-Assistant.

Corrpndg.-Corresponding.

Coun.-Council.
B-Born.

C.S.A.R.–Central South
Batt.-Battalion.

African Railways.
Bd.-Board.

C.S.I.-Companion of the
Bndry.-Boundary.

Order of the Star of India.
B.N.A.-British North C.V.0.—Commander of the
America,

Victorian Order.

Ct.-Court.
C.A.-Crown Agents.

D.-Died.
C. and A.G.-Comptroller

D.A.A.G.-Deputy Assistant
and Auditor-General,

Adjutant-General.
C.B.-Companion of the

D.A.Q.M.G.-Deputy As-
Order of the Bath.

sistant Quartermaster-
C.B.E.-Commander of the

General.
Order of the British Em-
pire.

Deleg.–Delegate.
Cent.-Central.

Dep.-Deputy.
Certif.-Certificated.

Dept.-Department.
Ch.B.

Dir.-Director.
Medical Degrees.
Ch.M.

Dist.—District.
Chmn.-Chairman.

D.O.T.-Department of

Overseas Trade.
C.I.E.-Companion of the
Indian Empire.

D.S.O.-Distinguished Ser-
Civ, Ser.-Civil Service.

vice Order.
Clk.-Clerk.

E.A.P.-East Africa Pro
C.M.G.–Companion of the tectorate.

Order of St. Michael and Ed.-Educated.
St. George.

Educn.-Education.
C.M.P.-Cape MountedPolice Emigrn.--Emigration.
C.M.S.—Church Missionary Emigrts.—Emigrants.
Society

Engnr.-Engineer.
C.0,--Colonial Office.

Estabmt.--Establishment.
C. of A.-Commonwealth of Exam.-Examination.
Australia.

Examr.-Examiner.
C. of G.H.-Cape of Good Exec.-Executive.
Hope.

Exhibn.-Exhibition.

G.B.E.-Grand Cross of the

Order of the British Em

pire. G.T.B.-Grand Cross of the

Order of the Bath, G.C.C.-Gold Coast Con

stabulary. G. Coast.-Gold Coast. G. C. I. E. Grand Com

mander of the Order of

the Indian Empire. G.C.M.G.-Grand Cross of

the Order of St. Michael

and St. George. G.C.S.I.-Grand Commander

of the Order of the Star of

India.
G.C.V.0.-Grand Cross of

the Victorian Order.
G.E.-General Election.
G.O.C.-General Officer Com.

manding
Govt.-Government.
Gram. Schl. – Grammar

School,

Harbmr.-Harbourmaster.
Headqrs.—Headquarters.
H. of R.-House of Repre-

sentatives.
Hosp.—Hospital.

1.C.C.-Inter-Colonial

Council.
Imigrts.-Immigrants.
Imigrn.-Immigration.
Impl.-Imperial
Ind.-India.
Inf.-Inferior

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