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The Doctrine of Universal Redemption afferted
1 Tim. iv. 10.
—The living God; who is the Saviour of all men,
especially of those that believe.
THERE are two points of doctrine here plainly s ERM. afferted by St. Paul, which I shall endeavour to 111. explain, and to apply : one, a that God is the Sa- viour of all men, another, that he is peculiarly the Saviour of the faithful. For the first,
God in many respects may truly be conceived and called the Saviour of all men; for the word save doth in a large acceptation denote the conferring any kind of good; as implying a removal of need, or indigence. Whence God is the Saviour of all men, as the Psal. xxvi. universal preserver and upholder of all things in their jo
Told Trand. being and natural state, as it is in the Pfalm : Thou, and the Lord, savest man and beast, or, as the general benefac-b32
a LIX. rúrus,
or ráfus. tor, who is good to all, and whose mercies are over all Plal. cxlv. his works ; who maketh his fun to rise upon the goodMatt. v.
SER M.and bad, rains upon the just and unjust, is kind and be
III. nign even to the ungrateful and evil : or, as the comLuke vi. 5.
Tmon assistant, protector, and deliverer of all men, who 5. in need or distress have recourse unto him for succour
and relief, according to what is said in the Psalms ; Plal is. 9. The Lord is a refuge for the oppressed, a refuge in times cxlv. 18. calvi., &c. of trouble. The Lord is righ unto all them that call cvii. 13,&c. upon him. They cried unto the Lord in their trouble, 20. and he faved them out of their distresses.
In these kinds of senses especially respecting natural and temporal good, it is manifest that God is the Saviour of all men. But that he is in this place termed such in a higher sense, with regard to mercies and blessings of a more excellent kind, and greater consequence, (to mercies and blessings of a spiritual nature, and relating to the eternal state of men,) may from several considerations appear.
1. For that according to apostolical use the word Saviour, Save, Salvation, are wont to bear an evangelical sense, relating to the benefits by our Lord Jesus Christ procured, purchased, and dispensed, concerning the future state of men.
2. For that questionless St. Paul doth here intend God to be Saviour of the faithful in this higher sense, and consequently he means him in the same sense (although not in the same degree and measure, or not altogether to the same effects and purposes) a Saviour of all men.
3. Because it is plain, that in other places of Scripture, like and parallel to this, such a sense is designed.
As, where, in this very Epistle, we are enjoined to pray 1 Tim. ii. 4. for all men, for this reason; For (faith St. Paul) this
is good and acceptable before God our Saviour, who would have all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge (or acknowledgment) of the truth ; where owne hipwr, the Saviour of us, seems to denote the Saviour of us as men, (that interpretation best suiting with the argument St. Paul ufeth,) however it is expressed that God is, according to desire or intention, the Sa
viour of all men, in reference to their spiritual and S ERM. eternal advantage; as willing that all men should II. embrace the Gospel ; which is farther most evidently confirmed by the words immediately following; For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.
4. Because, according to the tenour of Scripture, and the analogy of Christian doctrine, St. Paul's afsertion thus interpreted is true, as our subsequent discourse may declare.
5. I might add, that the living God in our text 1 Tim. i. 1. may very well be understood and expounded to be more our Lord Jesus himself; not only as partaking of the 10. Tit. ii. divine nature, but as exhibited in the Gospel, the 103.13. 1. Word incarnate, who as such may seem commonly 1 Tim. iii. by St. Paul to be styled, God our Saviour; God mani- A fested in the flesh; God, that purchased the Church with 28.
Rom. ix. 5. his own blood; Chrift, who is over all, God blessed for evermore. However it from the premises is sufficiently apparent, that God's being the Saviour of all men doth relate unto our Saviour Jesus's undertakings and performances for the salvation of all men ; since God in a sense evangelical is no otherwise said to save, than in concurrence with what Jesus did undertake and perform ; than as designing, ordering, accepting, prosecuting, and accomplishing our Lord's performances; Jesus being the conduit through which all evangelical mercies and blessings are from God conveyed and dispensed to mankind. So that God being the Saviour of mankind, is either directly and Eph. i. 3, 6. immediately, or by equivalence and in consequence the same with Jesus being the Saviour of all men.
That our Lord Jesus is the Saviour of all men ; or that the most signal of his faving performances do in their nature and their design respect all men, as meant for, as conducing and tending to all men's salvation, yea and as in their own nature (supposing men's due and possible concurrence with them) effectually productive of their salvation ; that, I say, D 2
S ER M. this ancient catholick point of doctrine (the which III. we profess to believe, when with the Church we say
in the Nicene Creed—Who for us men, and for our falvation, came down from heaven, and the which particularly our Church in its Catechism, in the Ministration of Baptism, and in the Communion, doth most evidently and expressly declare itself to embrace) is very true, many full and clear testimonies of Scripture do Thew, many reasons grounded on Scripture do prove ; the which we shall first touch, and then further both illustrate and enforce the truth, by declaring upon what accounts, or in what respects our Lord is the Saviour of all men; as also by an application to practice, declarative of its usefulness and subserviency to the purposes of piety. For immediate testimonies :
1. Jesus is called the Saviour of the world; who was sent and came into the world to save the world ;
whose chief performances were designed and directed John iv. 42. to the salvation of the world; We have heard und
John iv. known (said the men of Samaria) that this is truly the John i. 10. Saviour of the world, the Christ. We have seen and tefxii. 47.
• 17. tified (saith St. John) that the Father fent the Son to be John v. 22. the Saviour of the world, (that world, of which it is Acts :42. said, He was in the world, and the world was made Rom. xiv. by him, and the world knew him not.) And, God fent or. v. 10. his Son into the world, not to judge (or not to condemn)
the world, but that the world by hini Mould be saved, (that world, whereof a great part he in effect would 'both judge and condemn for unbelief and disobe
dience, he did come primarily upon intent to save.) John vi. 51. And, The bread which I shall give, is (faith he) my 2.Cor.v.19. flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. And, Coloff.i.20. Behold (faith the Baptist) the Lanıb of God, which tak. 1 John ii. 2.
Joho v.“ eth away the fins of the world. And, God was in Chrift, 19. reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their of
fences (faith St. Paul) to the world, which otherwise he expresseth by rů nívta, by him to reconcile all things unto himself. And, He is a propitiation not only for our
fins, but for the sins of the whole world, (the whole world, s ERM. in contradiction from all Christians, to whom St. III. John speaketh in that place of his Catholick Epistle ; that xóopos ónos, of which he faith in that same Epittle, κόσμος όλος έν τω πονηρα κείται, the whole world lieth in wickedness.) In all which places that the world according to its ordinary acceptation (and as every man would take it at first hearing) doth signify the whole community of mankind, comprehending men of all sorts and qualities, good and bad, believers and infidels, (not in a new, unusual sense, any special restrained world of some persons, particularly regarded, or qualified,) will, I suppose, easily appear to him, who Thall without prejudice or partiality attend to the common use thereof in Scripture, especially in St. John, who most frequently applieth it as to this, so to other cases, or matters.
2. The object of our Saviour's undertakings and intentions is described by qualities and circumstances agreeing unto all men. All the sons of Adam are by disobedience in a lost condition, (lost in error and fin, loft in guilt and condemnation, lost in trouble and misery ;) and, The Son of man (faith He himself) Matt. xviii. came to fave, tó atonwiós, that which was lot, (or what-". ever was lost.) All men have finned, (faith St. Paul,) Rom. iii. and are fallen short of the glory of God; and, It is a sim. i. faithful saying, (faith the same Apostle,) and worthy of 15. all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to fave finners. God commended his love to us, that we being Rom. v. 8.
Ephef, ii. 1, yet finners Christ died for us. All men naturally are weak, and wicked; are in a state of alienation and enmity toward God: and, Even when we were without Rom. v. 6, strength, in due time Chrift died for the ungodly: When.. we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son: Christ once fuffered for fins, the righteous for: Pet. iii. the unrighteous. All men have souls, and lives exposed to to misery and ruin: and, The Son of man (so he as- Luke is. 56. sures us) came not to destroy, but to save the fouls (or lives) of men. Those propositions in form, respecting