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In this odle, the poet, after a ' mplimentary mention of Augustus as entitled by hie victories to the appellation of a present deity, draws a striking contrast between the dis. graceful conduct of the soldiers of Crassus, and the noble patriotism of Regulus. The former, on being taken captive by the Parthians, were so lost to a sense of what was due to themselves and to the Roman name, that they could live and intermarry in an enemy's and, and even bear arms against their own country; while Regulus, who had suffered a: the hand of the Carthaginians the same fate of defeat and capture, deemed himself for ever unworthy of the rights and immunities of a Roman citizen, and eloquently dissuad ing the senate from the proposal of Carthage for an exchange of prisoners, persisted in returning to his wretched captivity.
By the allusion to Augustus, the poet seems to imply that from him may be hoped the estoration of the ancient discipline and sentiments so admirably illustrated in the exam. ple of Regulus.
The ode was probably written B. C. 24.
2. Praesens divas. Opposed by strong contrast to coelo regnare. "The sentiment is: As thunder is the symbol of the divine government in heaven, so the terror of his arms proclaims August a present deity' on earth.” Osborne. Comp. note, O. iii., 3, 11. 3. Britannis. In reality no permanent conquest was made in Britain till the reign of Claudius. See n. 0. i., 35, 29. As Dillenb. suggests, the poet speaks in reference to the future, adjectis being equivalent to cum adjecerit. His language here, in regard to the Britons and the Parthians, is that of confident expectation. - -4. Persis. What was really gained by Augustus from the Parthians was the restoration of the standards lost by Crassus; this occurred B. c. 20.- -6. Turpis. Because the marriage of a Roman citizen with a foreigner was deemed disgraceful and was illegal In Livy, 43, 3, the offspring of Roman soldiers by Spanish wives were made citizens by a vote of the senate. Comp. Virg. Aen. 8. 688, sequiturque, nefas ! Aegyptia conjux. 8. Consenuit. The defeat of the legions of Crassus occurred B.c. 53; thirty years had now elapsed. - Armis. The reading of all the MSS., with a single exception. That one has arvis. Dillenb. refers to the instance of Labienus, who, after the defeat of Brutus and Cassius, was invested with an important military command by the Parthians, and fought against his countrymen. The fact is recorded by Velleius Paterc. 2, 78. – 10. Anciliorum. Gen. pl. of sec. declension, though the nominative is ancie lia ; like names of festivals ending in alia. See A. & S. 583, Rem. 2; 2.5 67. Horace here mentions objects regarded with sacred affection by a Roman, and associated in his mind with the greatness of the state; the ancilia, twelve shields carried by the Salian priests; one of which, the model for the remaining eleven, was said to have dropped from beaten; their preservation was deemed essential to the safety of
Rome; the toga, the dress of a citizen, which a foreigner inight not wear; and Vesta, whose perpetual flame was emblematic of the duration of the empire.- - 12. Jove; i. e. Jove Capitolino, or Capitolio. Comp. O. iii., 30, 8. 14. Conditionibus. Dat., depending upon dissentientis. See Harkness, Lat. Gram. 385, 2.-15. Trahentis. This is the reading of all the MSS., and the participle is equivalent to qui trahebat ; literally: drawing from the precedent ruin, etc., i. e. who inferred fronn ire precedent, that ruin would ensue, etc. The 'conjectural reading tra henti is explained as=quod traheret, or as Grysar explains it, p, 24, quod tracturum fuisset. 17. Periret. The last syllable lengthened by the caesura; the only instance of the kind in Horace. - 18. Signa ego. The words of Regulus. The poet represents the senate in deliberation, and Regulus urging them with eloquent earnestness to reject the proposals of Carthage. - 19. Affixa. Within the temples, or on the gato-posts, as trophies; a common custom with ancient nations. Comp. 0. iv., 15, 6; Epist. i., 18, 56; also Virg. Aen. 7, 183. - 22. Retorta. Most humiliating to a free-born Roman. In like manner are the captive kings described, that are brought to Rome, to swell the triumphal procession; in Epist. ii. 1, 191. 23. Non clausas. Indicative of a state of perfect security. Comp. A. P. 199, apertis otia portis. - 25. Scilicet. In strong irony. Forsooth! 27. Damnum. Injury. The injury of a bad precedent to the disgrace of defeat and capture. 30. Reponi deterioribus. Be restored to degenerate breasts. Deterioribus is dative, reponi being equal to restitui, reddi. “ Deteriores fiunt ex bonis, pejores ex malis." Scholiast. 32. Cerva. Comp. 0. i., 15, 29, where Paris is compared to the stag. The stag is at once swift and timid. - Plagis. See 0. i., 1, 28. -37. Hic. Language of strong indignation; such a soldier as this. A passage, illustrating the ser timents here ascribed to Regulus, occurs in Seneca, Controv. 5, 7, whero he is speaking of the events recorded in Livy, 22, 58–61; Populus Romanus Cannensi praelio in summas redactus angustias, cum servorum desideraret ruxilia, captivorum contempsit, et credidit eos libertatem magis tueri posse, qui nunquam habuissent, quam qui perdidissent. - 38. Duello. Old form for bello ; so in 0. iii., 14, 18; iv., 15, 8; Epist. i., 2, 7; ii., 1, 254; ii., 2, 98. 41. Fertur A fine picture of the heroic conduct of Regulus. Silius Italicus, 6, 403, seqq., describes at length the scene here suggested by Horace. - 42. Capitis minor. Caput is a comprehensive word for all the rights and immunities of a Roman citi
See Dict. Antiqq. This is poetic for the regular expression copite Jeminutus. 44. Torvus. Sternly. So Ovid, Met. 5, 92, Nle tuens oculis--torvis. Virg. Georg. 3, 51, has torrac Forma bovis. Compare the Greek tavonddv únoßrébas, Plato, Phoedon, 152. 49. Sciebat. Cic. says, de Offic. 3, 27: neque vero tum ignorabat se ad crudelissimum hostem et ad e.cquisita supplicia proficisci. Similar notices occur in other
writers; as Valerius Max. 9, 2; 1,1; Gellius, 6, 4; Silius Att. 6, 342. On the historical character of the story, Regulus's cruel treatment, see Niebuhr's Hist. vol. 3, p. 598; Arnold's Hist. ch. xl. ; Schmitz, ch, xv, It is fortunate for us that Horace, like a true poet, takes the story as he finds it. 52. Reditus. The plural graphically expresses the frequency of his efforts to return, while the crowd about him continually kept him back. -55. Venafranos. See n. 0. ii., 6, 16. 56. Tarentum. See n. 0. ii., 6, 11.
The poet condemns the prevailing domestic immorality and contempt of the irstitu. lions of religion, and earnestly urges a thorough reformation, and a speedy return to the simpler and purer manners of ancient times.
The ode was written B. c. 27, when Augustus began to give attention to the repairing of ruined temples, and to the improvement of the public morals.
Mention of these efforts of Augustus is made by Suetonius, Octav. 29, 30; and Valeri. us Maximus, 2, 89.
1. Delicta. Committed during the civil wars. See n. 0. i., 35, 33.
- Immeritas. Because not personally guilty. The poet designs a contrast between delicta majorum and immeritus. The sentiment is not unfrequently found in ancient writers. Compare the often quoted passage of Euripides, Frag. 133: τα των τεχόντων σφάλματ' εις τους εκγόνους Οι θεοί τρέπουσιν. -2. Templa. Templum, the temple together with the consecrated environs; aedes the building only.-Doederlein. -4. Foeda-fumo. From conflagration as well as from general neglect. Suetonius says, Octav. 30, acdes sacras vetustate collapsas, aut incendio cbsumptas refecit. -5. Te geris. The same form of expression occurs in Sat. ii., 5, 19.- -6. Hinc-principium, sc. est or oritur, as principium is in the nom. case. A noble sentiment, and deeply implanted in the Roman heart. So Cic. de Nat. D.; nostra civitas, quae nunquam profecto sine summa placatione deorum immortalium tanta esse potuissct ; and De Harusp. resp. 9, pietate ac religione atque hac una sapientia, qua deorum immortalium numine omnia regi gubernarique perspeximus, omnes gentes superavimus. And Liv. 45, 39; majores vestri omnia magnarum rerum et principia exorsi ab diis sunt, et finem statuerunt. - -9. Jam bis. The poet alludes to two occasions, when the Romans were defeated by the Parthians; once, when Monaeses conquered Crassus (comp. introd. to O. iii., 5), B.C. 53; and once, when Pacorus, the son of Orodes, conquerod Decidius Saxa, the lieutenant of Antony, B.c. 40. Four years ater, Antony himself was defeated by the Parthians, and lost his whole army. - - 12. Renidet. The Parthian smiles with contempt as he robs the fallen Roman of his more massive chains of gold and silver. 14. Dacus et Aethiops. The auxiliaries of Antony at the battle of Actium. - - 17. Culpae. Genitive. See H. 399, 3. - Nuptias. The poet mentions as a fruitful source of corruption the violation of the marriage covenant, whose evils extended to the children (genus) and all the relations of family (domos).
21. Motus Ionicos. Ionian dances; proverbial, like the Ionians themselves, for their voluptuous and lascivious character. 22. Artibus. Ablative case. 33. From no such pe. rentage as this, the heroes of former time; Curius, the conqueror of Pyrrhus, B.c. 274; Scipio, of Hannibal, at the battle of Zama, B.c. 202; and Glabrio, of Antiochus, B.C. 189. 38. Sabellis. The Sabines, who, by the unanimous testimony of ancient writers, best illustrated the hardy virtues of the ancient Roman character. Comp. Epod. 2, 41; Virg. Georg. 2, 531; Aen. 9, 603; Cic. pro Ligario, 11; Ovid, Am. ii., 4, 15.- 41. Sol ubi. A charming sketch of the close of day, with which comp. Epod. 2, 60, seqq.; and Virg. Ecl. 2, 66.
The poet consoles Asterie for the absence of her lover Gyges, and at the same time warns her not to be unfaithful to her own vows.
3. Thyna. With Horace and other poets the same as Bithyna. The Thyni emigrited from Thrace. Pliny says, Hist. Nat. v. 32, Tenent omnem oram Thyni, interiora Bithyni. - -4. Fide. An old form of the genitive and dative. For the dative, it occurs in Sat. i., 3, 95. Comp. Ov. Met. 3, 341; Virg. Georg. 1, 208. 5. Oricum. A town of Epi rus, now Orso or Erikho.
6. Post; i. e. after the rising. The Caprae sidera (the Capra cum Hoedis, and hence the plural sidera) means the goat Amalthea, who nursed the infant Jupiter, and according to the mythology was translated to the skies. The epithet insana has reference to the storms which prevailed at its rising, which was on the 29th of September. - 11. Ignibus. Exactly like our word flame for the object of love. 13. Proetum. King of Argos, induced by the false charges of the offended Antaea, to attempt the death of Bellerophon. Homer tells the story in Il. 6, 155. - 14. Impulerit-maturare. The usual construction of impellere is with ut and the subjunctive. Tacitus, however, uses the infinitive, in Ann. 11, 54, and 14, 60. – 18. Magnes
Of Magnesia, a town in Thessaly. - - 26. Martio. Of the Cam. pus Martius.
See n. 0. i., 8, 4. 28. Alveo. Of the Tiber. Com pare the expression in 0. i., 2, 14.
Jlorace invites Maecenas to celebrate with him the festival of the Calends of March, abich was also the anniversary of his narrow escape from sudden death by the falling of I tree. See introduction to 0. ii., 13.
1. Calendis. A festive day with the Roman matrons, called the Mau onalia. Maccenas might well wonder why his bachelor friend was so punctilious in its observance. - 2. Quid velint. What mean. Flores. Garlands, with which the altars were crowned; used also as offerings. -5. Doete. The poet sportively intimates, that even one 80 well versed as Maecenas in the literature of Greece and of Rome, and of course in all that pertained to sacred rites, might be surprised at his celebrating the Matronalia. 7. Funeratus. Funerare ordinarily means to bury; here used in the sense of necare, exstinguere. 9. Anno redeunte. In (every) returning year. So Lübker rightly translates it. As the year returns, or, as we say, comes round. The same expression in Sat. ii., 2, 83; and Virg. Aen. 8, 47.- - 10. Corticem. See n. 0. i., 20, 3.- - 11. Fumum. In the room, called fumarium, smoke-room, in the upper part of the house, where the wine in amphorae was exposed to the heat and smoke from the bath furnaces. This was done to ripen and mellow the wine. The general word for such a storeroom is horreum or apotheca. See Dict. Antiqq., and Rich's Companion.
- 12. Tullo. L. Volcatius Tullus, who was consul B. C. 65; so that the wine was forty-two years old, as this ode was written B.C. 23. The namos of the consuls of the year were put upon the amphorae, as a date. Comp. O. iii., 21, 1; also Juvenal Sat. 5, 30:
Ipse cupıllato diffusum consule potat,
13. Cyathos. Tho cyathus was not a drinking-cup, but a measure, holding the twelfth part of a sectarius, which was equal to about a pint. They used the cyathus as a ladle, in conveying the unmixed wine from the crater to the drinking-cups.-See Dict. Antiqq.-Centum is used here in the language of exaggeration. Comp. n. O. iii., 19, 11; and see Becker's Gallus, n. 10 to 10th Scene; also Dict. Antiqq. Cyathus. 18. Cotisonis. Cotiso was king of the Dacians, a people who lived on the northern bank of the Danube, from whom Lentulus suffered a severe defeat, B.c. 19. - - 19. Medns. The Parthians ; see n. O. i., 2, 22; sibi dissidet refers to the quarrel between Phraates and Teridates. 23. Scythae. The Geloni, referred to, O. iii., 4, 35; and 0. ii., 9, 23
- 26. Privatus ; i. e. cum privatus sis.” Dillenb.