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hoc monumentum heredes non sequitur. In accordance with this custom, the poet here mentions the cippus, and what was inscribed on it. — 15. Aggere. The agger, or rampart of Tarquinius Superbus, between the Esquiline gate and the Colline. It was fifty feet broad, and there fore well adapted to promenading; and sixty feet high, whence the epithet aprico. Juvenal, Sat. viii., 43, describes it by the epithet ventosus. 17. Tantum-quantum ;= tam-quam. - 23. Nigra palla. The palla had the same place in the dress of Roman women, as the toga in the dress of the men. It was always worn out of doors. It was very full like the toga, and had many folds (sinus) in it, which here Canidia would use to put the herbs in.See Becker's Gallus,, Exc. to Sc. 6. - - 25. Utrasque. We might expect utramque, as the plural strictly is used of two parties, consisting each of several individuals ; but even in prose, some instances occur, like the present, where the plural is used in speaking of only two per

See Z. V 141. 30. Lanea. Two images; the one, and the larger, made of wool, represented Canidia; the other, and smaller, made of wax, represented the victim of the sorceries. 36. Magna sepulchra, the mounds that covered the dead : some of these probably still remained, as the gardens were not yet finished.- Dillenburger. 39. The persons here named were notoriously immoral. To the second Horace gives a woman's name on account of his effeminacy. - 42. Lapi barbam. As a counter-charm against other witches.”— Osborne,

-50. Vincula. These were threads of different colors, love-knots : Virgil's Veneris vincula, see Ecl. 8, 74, seq.

sons.

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SATIRE IX.

This Satire is directed against a class of persons, who were doubtless extremely aunoying to Horace and his literary friends. These were empty pretenders to the name and honors of a literary man; persons who, without any real merit, fancied themselves men of taste and wit, posts and scholars; and who, bent upon getting into notice, fastened themselves upon all who cad any influence, and, with the im vortunity of vulgar natures, basought an introduction to the society of the great. Puffed up with a sense of their own importance, and inflamed with the success of a Virgil and a Horace, whoin they regarded only as favorites of fortune, they imagined that they themselves needed only a little friendly aid, a mere lucky start, to secure them for ever an established place in the circle of Maecenas and his friends.

In writing this fine piece of satire, which professes to be a description of a casual ad venture with one of these importunate pretenders, it was doubtless the ajm and hope of Horn.cc to rid himself once for all of the whole odious tribe.

1. Ibam forte. I happened to be going.- Via Sacra. This street has been described in note on Epod 4, 7. It is ordinarily written Sacra

Via.-Sicut-mos. Join these words with the clause Vescio--nugarum. 3. Accurrit. Runs up; much better than occurrit, as it expresses the rude eagerness of the fellow; as does, in like manner, in next line, the word arrepta.

-4. Dulcissime rerum. A familiar expression; my dearest fellow. Quid agis is our How do you do, like the Greek ri apátters; and the German Was machst du? 6. Num quid vis ? A polite form of expression, in taking leave of a person; any thing you wish? Observe here the force of the verb occupare, which means to get the start of one, to do a thing before some one else; I anticipate him with the question. -7. Noris, depends upon the preceding vis; velim (ut) noris nos.

-8. Misere. Colloquial for vehementer ; as we cometimes say wretchedly. 10. Ad imos talos. To my very heels. - 11. Cerebri Felicem. Happy in your angry temper. Bolanus was probably some hot-headed fellow, cerebrosus, who would, by some very summary method, have rid himself of the intruder. - 14. Misere cupis. In this, and the next line, Horace makes the man affect the facetiousness of a familiar friend, and, like all vulgar people, carry the thing too far.

18. Cubat. Lies ill.-Caesaris hortos. Bequeathed by Julius Caesar to the Roman people. They were on the Janiculum ; at least an hour's walk from the Sacra Via. -20. Iniquae-asellus. A stubborn little ass. - - 21. Dorso, dative, depending upon gravius ; onus, acc.

- 22. Viscum. In Sat. i., 10, 33, Horace speaks of two persons of this name. Nothing is known of them; but from the connection, it may be inferred that they were poets. On Varium, see n. 0. i., 6, 1. - - 25. Lermogenes. See n. Sat. i., 3, 129. 27. Quis te salvo est opns. A satirically formal expression, implying that of course in the welfare of a person of so much merit many must cherish an anxious internst. —Quis in the dat. and te in the abl., depend upon opus. 28. Composui. Literally, have laid by ; i. e. buried. What is included in the following lines as far as the 35th, we must imagine the poet uttering to himself; humorously inferring from the word composui, that, a: this fellow had been the death of all his kindred, so too he would now be the death of him. 30. Divina mota. Both in adl., and agreeing with urna. The a in mota is elided, although long in quantity. Diller b. gives other instances, as follows: Sat. i., 1, 101 ; ii., 3, 16; Epist. i., 2, 29; i., 7, 24; i., 14, 37; Virg. Aen. 2, 182. 35. Ad Vestae ; sc. aedem. On its situation, see n. 0. i., 2, 16. 85. Quarta parte diei; i. e. one-fourth of the day, or three hours, or 9 o'clock. The court probably opened at nine, and it was now past nine.

36. Vadato; i. e. ei, qui eum vadatus erat. - Dillenb. As dare cades was used of the defendant in a suit (see n. Sat. i., 1, 11), so vadari, to require one to give bail, was used of the plaintiff. - 37. Per dere litem. If the defendant came to court at the appointed time, he was said to respondere, to answer, --i. e. to appear; if he failed to come

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he was said deserere vadimonium, not to appear, and lost the case, of forfeited the sum named in the bail. 38. Me. The long vowel before amas is not elided, but shortened. See Z. V 9. Ades. Adesse, and, in next line, stare, or udstare, are legal expressions, equivalent to esse advocatus. An advocatus was an assistant in the conduct of a cause; not to be confounded with our word advocate, whic in Latin, is patronus. See Dict. Antiqq., under Advocatus. - 43. Maecenas, DÉC. These words, as far as omnes in 1. 48, as Dillenburger explains, must be ascribed to the troublesome companion of the poet, and the whole is in admirable keeping with the vanity of the man's character.

44. Pancorum hominum; sc. est, belongs to few persons; i. e. keeps company with few persons ; is very select in his company. - 45. Dexterius ; i. e. of course than Maecenas, of whom he is talking. If the comparison applied to Horace, as some think, the pronoun would certainly be expressed. - 46. Secundas; sc. partes. The expression is borrowed from the stage. - 48. Summosses. On the meaning of the word, see n. O. ii., 16, 10. The pluperfect expresses the certainty of the act, as if already done. His potent aid once secured, the fancied rivals are all cleared out of the way. -54. Quae tua virtas; =ea virtute, qua, etc. ; such is your morit. See Harkness, Lat. Gram., 463, 4. The irony is very caustic, but quite too fine for the man's coarse spirit. He takes the poet at just his words, both here, and in the pleasant description that follows, of Maecenas, as a man who can be won over.- -55, Possit. For the subjunctive, see Hark. Lat. Gram. 500, 503, I. The same rule applies to nosset below, 1. 62. 64. Lentissima. Here means insensible ; they hung down quiet and straight, as if they had no feeling. Dispos to have a little sport, Aristius doe not take these hints, and affects not to understand.—The adjective has a similar meaning in Ovid, Her. 15, 169, lentissima pectora ; Tac. Ann. 1, 65, lentae aures ; and Tibull. 4, 11, 6, lento-pectore. In Epod. 15, 6, the meaning is different. - 65. Male salsus. With a mischievous humor. 69. Tricesima sabbata. As no Jewish festival was ever distinguished by the name of the thirtieth sabbath, we may well believe, with Bretschneider, after all the ingenious explanations of commentators, that Horace did not have any particular feast in mind, but only made his friend use, in sport, an expression pointing indefinitely to some Jewish holiday; as if, of course, on such a solemn day, a right-minded man would not stop in the street to talk orer a matter of business! The expression has been Itonght to refer to the passover, which took place about the thirtieth week after the beginning of the civil year; to the feast of tabernacles, which was in the thirtieth week of the Jewish ecclesiastical year; and also to a supposed festival on the thirtieth day of the lunar month. But probably neither Horace nor his friend was so familiar with Jewish weremonies as to use an expression for a feast, which can be understood

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only after much reflection and nice calculation. The Jews, and their rites, as is manifest from this whole passage, and from others in Horace, were objects of derision with the Romans. Comp. n. Sat. i., 5, 100. 73. Surrexe, cont. for surrexisse ; for the construction, see n. Sat. ii., 8, 67. - 75. Adversarius, the same as the vadatus above, 1. 36. In case the defendant did not appear, see above, n. 1. 37, and, when found, still persisted in not keeping to his obligation, the plaintiff was allowed the same right as at the commencement of an action, namely, the right to carry him to court by force. In such case, “the plaintiff called on any by-stander to witness (antestari) that he (the defendant) had been duly summoned, touched the ear of the witness, and dragged the defendant into court." See Dict. Antiqq., under Actio. - –76. Et; sc. mihi. Will you be a witness ? See preceding note. -77. Auriculam. Pliny says, 11, 103, Est in aure ima memoriae locus, quem tangentes antesta

78. Servavit Apollo. Apollo, as the guardian deity of poets. A very happy turn, with which to conclude the satire.

mur.

SATIRE X

In this Satire Horace defends and establishes the criticism passed by him upon Lu. cilius in the Fourth of this Book; a criticism which appears to have given offence to the üdmirers of that poet.

He renews against Lucilius the charge of clumsy versification; and, while he con. cedes again his wit, proceeds to show that not wit alone, but wit in unison with other qualities, forms the merit of true satire (1-19). He then censures another fault of Lu. cilius, the large introduction of Greek words, the allusion to which leads to a mention of his own earlier efforts at writing Greek verse, and his subsequent resolution to write only in Latin, and to write satire (20–49). He removes the objection, that he had disparaged Lucilius and exalted hirrself, by declaring that even Homer may be criticised, and that Lucilius criticised other poets; and, after declaring that Lucilius would have written with more care, if he had lived at a later age, he goes on to insist that nothing but fre. quent correcting and the utmost pains in composing can entitle one's poetry to a second reading, or to the favorable judgment of the “fit audience, thongh sew," of trae critics (50-74). Finally, he deprecates for himself the applause of the vulgar, and expressce the hope that his poetry may win favor with his brother poets and with literary mon 174-end).

The eight lines preceding the Satire are generally considered spurious. They are therefore printed in italics, and numbered apart from the Satire.

1. Incomposito dixi. It was said in Sat. 1, 4, 8. - 3. Sale defricuit. The metaphor is taken from the smart occasioned by rub bing a wound with salt. — 4. Charta-eadem. See n. above on l. 1.hD. Laberius, a Roman knight, who wrote Mimes, & species of farce

- 11

and acted in them himself at the games of Julius Cæsar. Tristi-jocoso :

“ From grave to gay, from lively to severe."

12, 13. Rhetoris atque poetae-urbani. The first two illustrate the sermone tristi, the third sermone jocoso. The satirist must combine the dignity of the rhetorician and poet with the gayety of the man of polished wit. 16. Illi-viris ; to illi viri, quibus, etc.

- 17. Hoc; i.e. the use of ridicule. Stare is a common expression for the success of a play, opposed to cadere, failure. 18. Hermogenes. Sne n. Sat. 1, 3, 129. The person referred to in simius iste is thought to be the same as Demetrius, mentioned 1. 90. 19. Calvus was an orator, but also wrote sportive verse. Catullus, the celebrated lyric poet; his poems have much the same place in Roman, as Thomas Moore's, in English, Literature. - 20. See Introd. for the course of thought.21. Seri studiorum. Literally, late in your studies, ye who study too late in life. Such persons are wont to be superficial in their tastes and knowledge; pedantic ignoramuses. — The Greeks called such ouagers.

- 21. Quine putatis. Two constructions united, putatisne, and qui putetis; that you can think ! - See Z. 352, at the end. - - 22. Pitholeonti. Probably Pitholaus, an indifferent poet, who wrote some satirical verses about Julius Cæsar. 23. At, etc. So some one says, in defence of the introduction of Greek words. - 24. Nota. See n. O. ii., 3, 8. The Chian was the best of the Greek wines. 25. Cum versum, etc. The sentence is manifestly elliptical. Supply e. g. ut hoc concedam. Granting you this when you make verses, I ask you yourself whether it is also to be conceded when, &c. He allows, for argument's sake, the practice of introducing Greek words in poetry, but asks if it can ever be tolerated in arguing a case in court. 26. Petilli. See n. Sat. i., 4, 94. 29. M. Valerius Poplicola Messala Corvinus; see Introd. O. iii., 21. Messala and his brother Pedius, the adopted son of Q. Pedius, nephew of Julius Cæsar, were good speakers, and distin. guished for the purity of their diction. - 30. Foris ; qualifies petita.

30. Canusini. The people of Canusium spoke a Latin that was largely intermixed with Greek. 34. In silvam feras; proverbial; like the English, carry coals to Newcastle. 36. Alpinus. M. Furius Bibaculus, of Cremona, who wrote a work on the legends of Ethiopia, descriptive, among other things, of the death of Memnon ; also a poem on the exploits of Julius Cæsar, the first line of which Horace parodies in Sat. ii., 5, 41: the line was — Jupiter hibernas cana nive conspuit Alpes; whence the nick-name of Alpinus. 37. Defingit, etc. Literally, forms the muddy source of the Rhine ; i. e. manufactures (in bad verse) a muddy source of the Rhine. 38. Aede; i:e. Musarum. See Epist il. 2, 94. —Tarpa. Spurius Maecius Tarpa, a celebrated critic:

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