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changes in the conditions of reproduction; the suggestive factors vary. The influence on imagery of general ideas, of emotion, and of the general setting of mental life at the time of reproduction, is very great. Whether a point is reached at which reproduction is impossible, it is difficult to prove. We might expect complete decay here as with other forms of life, that a function might, after lapse of time, having fallen into disuse, be incapable of being continued ; an item of knowledge would then be forgotten beyond possibility of recall.

In the end all questions as to the nature of a memoryimage must be tested by experiment. This essay only purports to be a discussion of theories. It will have served its turn, if it has shown how far reaching in its consequences may be this question which lies in the heart of the memory problem, the nature of a memory-image.

1 Cf. A Qualitative Analysis of the Process of Forgetting, H. R. Crosland, Psychological Monographs, vol. xxix, No. 1, Psychological Review ; An Experimental Study of some Problems of Perceiving and Imaging,' F. C. Bartlett, British Journal of Psychology, vol. viii, pt. 2.

INDEX

Acquired characteristics, inheri-

tance of, 6, 7, 114, 115.
Adaptation and regulation in

animal behaviour, 23 ff.
Alexander, Prof. S., on enjoy-

ment, 94.
on enjoyment of past experi-

ences, 98 ff.
on the mark of the past, 95 ff.
on the nature of images, 95.
referred to, 46, 92, 108, 138,

150, 152.
Assimilation, 21, 79, 139, 165.
Association, doctrine of, 63, 65,

66, 68, 69, 74, 75, 78, 79, 81,

87, 127, 150.
dependent on continuity of

function, 145 ff.
of ideas, Locke's use of the ex-

pression, 60.
Bain, Prof. A., on memory and

association, 72 ff.
Ballard, Dr. P. B., experiments on

reminiscence, 168.
Bartlett, F. C., referred to, 169 n.
Behaviourism, classification of re-

sponses in, 28, 29.
differentiation of psychology

and physiology in, 28.
Belief, nature of, 62, 63, 70, 76,

104, 107, 161 ff.
Bergson, M. Henri, on instinct

and intelligence, 128.
on life, 122.
on the nature of duration, 119,

I 20.
on the nature of causation and

freedom, 120.
on two kinds of memory, 123.
on laws of association, 127.
on perception and recognition,

124, 125.
on pure memory, 126.
on relation of habit memory to

the memory which imagines,
126, 127.

Bergson, M. Henri (continued)
theories of, compared with

those of Butler, 127 ff.
referred to, 22, 84, 133.
Berkeley, Bishop G., on imagery

and association, 61, 62.
referred to, 118.
Biology, influence of, on psycho-

logy, 5, 73, 76, 134.
Broad, C. D., referred to, 93, 96.
Brown, Dr. T., on memory and

suggestion, 80 ff.
Butler, Samuel, on assimilation, 21.
on Hering's theory of memory,

19, 20.
on the nature of change, 115,

116.
on relation of organic to in.

organic, 19, 20.
on substance, 117.
on unconscious memory, 7, 8,

19 ff., 118, 119.
theories of, compared with

those of Bergson, 127 ff.
referred to, 66, 77 n.
Cannon and Davenport, referred

to, II.
Causation, see Bergson, Russell,

Semon.
Change, see Butler.
Conation, role of, in representa-

tion, 140 ff.
role of, in intellectual processes,
Conditioned reflex, nature of, 29,

30.
Consciousness, nature of, see Holt.
Continuity of function, 137 ff.
Crosland, H. R., referred to, 169 n.

154 ff.

Davenport and Cannon, referred

to, II.
Darwin, Erasmus, referred to, 66.
Dunlap, Prof. K., referred to,

135 n.
Duration, see Bergson.

son.

Imagination, difference between

memory and, 56, 62, 63, 69,
70, 71, 75, 76, 82, 107, 110,

III, 162, 163.
Instinct and intelligence, see Berg-
Intellectual processes, 154 ff.
Introspection, 154 ff.

and infinite regress, 159 ff.

relation of, to memory, 153 ff.
James, Prof. W., quoted, 31.
Jennings, Prof. H. S., on beha-

viour, 22 ff.
on learning by experience, 25,

26.
Law of Readier Resolution,

formulated by, 23, 24.
referred to, 30, 31, 35, 38, 47.
Jost, A., referred to, 168, 168 n.
Knowing, the function of cognitive

processes, 139.
La Marck, Monet de, quoted, 20 n.
Lange-James, theory of emotion,

31, 100.
Lankester, Prof. K., referred to, 7.
Law of Readier Resolution, see

Jennings.
Law of Redintegration, 87.
Learning by experience, 25, 26, 47,

Ecphory, see Semon.
Elliot, Prof. H., referred to, 20.
Emergent Evolution, see Morgan,

C. Ll.
Engram, nature of, see Semon.
Enjoyment, distinction between

contemplation and, 94.
use of term by Ll. Morgan, 46.
Ephrussi, Miss P., referred to,

168 n.
Epistemology and psychology, 61,

65, 68, 73, 79.
Forgetfulness, the problem of, 85,

148, 169.
Function, continuity of, 137 ff.

nature of, 136, 139, 143.

Grant, Sir A., referred to, 119.

Habit memory, see Bergson.
Habits, acquisition of, see Watson.
Hamilton, Sir W., on conscious-

ness, 83, 88.
on forgetting, 85.
on memory and association,

83 ff.
Hartley, D., on memory and asso-

ciation, 65 ff.
referred to, 82.
Herbert, J. F., referred to, 83.
Historical explanation, 22, 80.
Hobbes, T., on memory, 53 ff.

referred to, 88.
Holt, Prof. E. B., on difference

between memory and imagi-

nation, 110, 111.
on knowledge of the past, 111 ff.
on nature of consciousness, 108.

referred to, 92, 152.
Hume, D., on memory and asso-

ciation, 62 ff.
on nature of belief, 62, 63.
referred to, 72, 90.

48.
Life, see Bergson.
Locke, J., on memory, 56 ff.

referred to, 69.
Loeb, Prof. Jacques, on forced

movements and tropisms, 12 ff.
referred to, 48.
Mechanism, doctrine of, referred

to, 12 ff., 27.
Meinong, Prof. A., referred to,

107.
Memory, as the after-effect of

stimulation, 8.
as the decay of sense, 53.
as the general function of or-

ganized matter, 5.
as knowledge of the past, 18, 42,

43, 49, 60, 64, 68, 69, 72, 82,
89, 95, 98, IOI, 104, 109, III,
112, 113, 126, 152, 158.

Idea, description of, as being no-

where, 58.
Idea, use of word by Hume, 62.
Idea, use of word by Locke, 56.

synonymous with image, 89.
Image, nature of, 47, 53, 55, 68,

95, 103, 135 ff.

105, 106.

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Memory (continued)

Pavlow's experiment, referred to,
as mneme, 8, 17.

75.
difference between imagination Philosophical psychology, influ-

and, 56, 62, 63, 69, 70, 71, 75, ence of, on modern psycho-

76, 82, 107, IIO, III, 162, 163. logy, 89, 90.
difference between sense know- Pieron, Prof. H., referred to, 8.
ledge and, 53, 59, 61, 62, 69, Psychology and epistemology, 61,
71, 72, 74, 80.

65, 68, 73, 79.
pure, see Bergson.

Psychology, influence of biology
of a past state of mind, 98, 112, on, 5, 73, 76, 134.

158.
two kinds of, see Bergson. Recognition, see Bergson.
Mental life, conception of, 135, Readier Resolution, Law of, see
136.

Jennings.
Mill, James, on memory, and asso- Redintegration, Law of, 87.
ciation, 67 ff.

Reid, T., on memory, 71, 72.
referred to, 72, 75, 79, 80, 82, on distinction between object

and operation of mind, 72.
Mill, J. S., on the nature of belief, referred to, 79, 80, 83, 89, 90.
70.

Representation, 139, 140.
referred to, 106.

Ribot, M. Th., referred to, 125.
Mneme, meaning of, 8, 17.

Russell, Hon. B., on memory,
a gratuitous hypothesis, 18.
Mnemic and physical causation on mnemic causation, 103, 104.
compared, 13, 103, 104.

on nature of belief, 105 ff.
Mnemic causation as characteristic on nature of images, 103.
of mental phenomena, 103,

on nature of sensations, 102,
104

103.
Morgan, Prof. C. Lloyd, on emer-

referred to, 92.
gent evolution, 44 ff.

Schmid, H., quoted, 86.
on the nature of instinct, 45. referred to, 86 n.
on memory images, 47.

Semon, Prof. R., on ecphory, 9.
on representation, 48, 49.

on engram, 9.
Gifford Lectures, 50.

on mneme, 8 ff.
referred to, II, 93.

on mnemic causation, 13, 15 ff.

referred to, 103.
New Realism, principles of, 91, 92. Sensations as data for physics and
schools of, 92.

psychology, 103.

Sense impressions mental
Order of ideas, 55, 60, 61, 63, 64, events, 139.
67, 68, 74, 78, 81, 86, 87, 150, Sense knowledge, difference be-

as

tween memory and, 53, 59,
Over-produced movements, 23, 27. 61, 62, 69, 71, 72, 74, 80.

Spencer, H., on memory, 76 ff.
Paley, W., referred to, 116.

on assimilation, 79.
Pampsychism and the mnemic

referred to, 23.
theory, 22.

Stewart Dugald, referred to, 87.
Past, knowledge of the, 18, 42, 43, Stout, Prof. G. F., on Ll. Morgan's

49, 60, 64, 68, 69, 72, 82, 89, view of instinct, 47.
95, 98, 101, 104, 109, III, 112,

referred to, 83 n., 135, 147.
113, 126, 152, 158.

Subconsciousness, use of the term
Past state of mind, memory of, 98, by Ward, 148, 149.
112, 158.

Substance, see Butler.

164 ff.

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