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KNACK, v. To knack with one's fingers. KNACK, n. Ger. Mit den fingers knacken, KNACKING, n. digitis crepitare, to make a noise with the fingers; formed from the sound; (Skinner.) From A. S. Chuc-ian, to knock, (Wachter.) From the verb to knock, (Minshew.)
As this knack of the fingers required considerable dexterity, the word probably became applied to a dexterous, ready, or adroit manner of doing any thing; also to any thing cleverly, nicely made; or any thing knock'd or hit off nicely. Knick-knack, i. e. knack-knack.
If there be any suspicion of sorcerie, witchcraft, or enchantment practised for to hurt young babes, the great horns of beetles, such especially as be knagged as it were with small teeth, are as good as a countre charm and preservative, if they be hanged about their necks.
Holland. Plinie, b. xiii. c. 15.
To break any thing with a snapping noise; to nothing, neither goods nor good qualities. For strike so as to make such noise.
nequam, servum, non malum, sed inutilem significat. Or, according to Festus, "Qui ne tanti quidem est, quam quod habetur minimi." It may have been applied to the mere destitution, nakedness, the helplessness of childhood;—as Infant, from the speechlessness. Helvigius derives from Gr. Nnios, infans: (ve, neg. and exos, sermo.) See Wachter; also the quotation from Chaucer. Knave is now, and has long been, applied not to one who hath neither goods nor good qualities, but to
KNAP, v. Dut. Knappen, crepitare, to make KNAPPISH. a noise; Sw. Knappa, resonare, ferire, to sound, to hit or strike.
Knappish, i. e. snappish, (qv.)
He hath broken the bowe, he hathe knapped the speare in sonder, and brente the charettes in the fyre.-Bible, 1551. At the length he made such struggling, putting back one thigh, and setting forward another, that he knapped the staff of the dart asunder.-North. Plutarch, p. 306.
Take a vessel of water, and knap a pair of tongs some depth within the water, and you shall hear the sound of the tongs well.-Bacon. Naturall Historie, § 133.
plaisters, that were always knapping and kicking at such
KNAPSACK. Fr. Canapsa; Dut. Knapsack; viatoria pera, (Kilian,) a sack for provisions on a journey, or a march. Also written, as in the example from South, snapsack, (qv.); Sw. Snappsack, a bag for clothes. Ihre, from knap, or snap, (qv.) Perhaps originally applied to.
A sack or bag for broken victuals; (frustulos, Lye;) then more generally for provisions and other articles.
Out of rich suits the noblest French they strip,
With some rare thing that on the field is found.
They [cartridges] are to be delivered out at the rate of
Swinburne. Spain, Let. 5.
First on the wall was peinted a forest,
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 1980.
Turbervile. The Louer to Cupid for Mercie.
A. S. Crapa, cnaf-a; Dut.
And this is the reason, men say, that nature hath set upon the head of an hart for his defence, the most heartless and beast that is, wonderful horns
knags.-Id. Plutarch, p. 1039.
most dangerous by reason of their sharp and branching Chafa, was probably nafath, i. e. ne-hafath, genafath; qui nihil habet; the third person singular of nabban, i. e. ne-habban. So ge-næf, ge-nafd, næfig, næfga, are in the A. S. Mendicus, egens. In the same manner nequam is held by the Latin etymologists to mean ne-quicquam, i. e. one who hath
One who may or may not have goods, but has many bad qualities; (e.g.) roguery, trickery, deceit, dishonesty, mischief; and, consequentially, a knave is
A rogue, a trickster, a deceiving, dishonest, mischievous fellow :-also, playfully, as rogue also is.
And bit his knave knele, that shall his coppe holde,
himsele somewhat too insolently and knaviskly against him.
Whist the knave-fool, which well himself doth know
The lord-treasurer said, a separate peace was so base, so knavis, and so villainous a thing, that every one who servedthe queen knew they must answer it with their heads to the nation.-Burnet. Own Time, an. 1712.
He xposes the knavery, of powerful churchmen, and the folly & profound divines; and then pretends, or believes, that he hath discredited revelation itself.
Warburton. Ld. Bolingbroke's Philosophy.
Cowper. To an afflicted Protestant Lady in France.
KNAW. Commonly written Graw. A. S. Gna-an; Ger. Nag-en; Dut. Knag-hen, knauwen; Sw. Gnag-a, rodere.
Topress and tear off or asunder, (by the teeth;) to corrode, to eat or fret into, to prey upon
I w not saie how that it is the chaine
a wonderful soure angrye countenaunce, knitting the browes,
Ras also having known some jewels of gold in a church
the sextons set a trap for them.-North. Plutarch, p. 390.
KNEAD. A. S. Cnad-an, nid-ian, ge-niddion; Dut Kned-en; Ger. Knetten, kneten; Sw. Kareda; depsire, subigere, to beat down; to drive, press, force together.
Anon go get us fast into this in
A knedyng trough, or elles a kemelyn,
For eche of us; but loke that they ben large,
But whan thou hast for hire, and thee and me
& [the woman] toke floure and kneed it, & did bake him swete kakes, & brought the before Saul, & before his seruantes.-Bible, 1551. 1 Sam. c. 28.
Now adaies the order of our huswives is, to make levains [fermenta] of the very same meale which is kneaded and wrought into dough, before salt be put thereto, which they seeth to the consistence of a pulpe or thicke batter, and so let it lie untill it become sowre. Holland. Plinie, b. xviii. c. 11.
The enemies, therefore, hauing welnigh knedded the dough that should haue beene baked for the Giraldines bane, deuised that secret rumors should sprinkle to and fro, that the Earle of Kildare his execution was intended in England. Holinshed. Ireland, an. 1532.
There shall we find, that when the world began,
Smith, cobler, joiner, he that plies the shears,
KNEE, n. KNEE, v.
KNE'ELER. KNEELING, n.
! A. S. Hnig-an, incurvare, inclinare, to bow, to
bend, to incline. Serenius refers to the same Goth. verb; adding, that the Icelandic Hnie, hna, is a very ancient word. Junius, Skinner, and others, derive from the Gr. Tovu. The knee is
Goth. Kniu; A. S. Cneow; Dut. Knie; Ger. Knieuw; Sw. Knæ. Tooke conjectures knee to be the past tense of the Goth. Hnauyan, hneigan, and
This mayde out of chambre com, tho thei hadden y gete,
Piers Plouhman, p. 45. But what seith Goddis answer to him? I haue left to me seuene thousandis of men that han not bowid her knees bifore Baal.-Wiclif. Romaynes, c. 11.
Then wil neither merites nor yet soul masses helpe,
neyther blessinges nor knelynges, sacrifices nor, &c.
Bale. Image, pt. ii. His cousin Henry would, he there assur'd, On humble knees before his grace be glad To ask him pardon, to be well secur'd, And have his right and grace restor'd again. Daniel. Civil Wars, b. ii.
Go you that banish'd him A mile before his tent, fall downe and knee The way into his mercy.
Shakespeare. Coriolanus, Act v. sc. 1.
Return with her?
Why the hot-bloodied France, that dowerlesse tooke
We see how the shipwright doth make use of knee-timber, and other cross-grain'd pieces, as well as of streight and even, for framing a goodly vessel to ride on Neptune's back. Howell, b. iv. Let. 4. Who now being come in presence of his king, (Whether the sight of majesty did breed Remorse of what he was encompassing,
Or whether but to formalize his deed) He kneels him down with some astonishing; Rose-kneels again. Daniel. Civil Wars, b. ii.
When they withdrew, Cromwell fell down on his knees, and made a solemn prayer to God, attesting his innocence, and his zeal for the service of the House; he submitted himself to the providence of God, who, it seems, thought fit to exercise him with calumny and slander, but he committed his cause to him: this he did with great vehemence, and with many tears.-Burnet. Own Time, vol. i.
We may understand why the knees should be most weary in ascending, and the thighs in descending; which is, because the weight of the body doth bear most upon the kneejoints in raising itself up.
Wilkins. Archimedes; or, Mechanical Powers.
But he [Cranmer] looked after them with great tenderness, and, kneeling down, prayed earnestly that God would strengthen their faith and patience in that their last but painful passage.-Burnet. Hist. of the Reformation, an.1555.
Can the fond mother from herself depart,
Our ancestry, a gallant, christian race,
It is not, indeed, the least of a thousand contradictions which attend you, that a man, marked to the world by the grossest violation of all ceremony and decorum, should be
the first servant of a Court, in which prayers are morality and kneeling is religion.-Junius, Let. 15.
KNELL, v. A. S. Cnyllan, pulsare, camKnell, n. panam pulsare, to beat or strike KNOLL, v. (a bell.) To beat or strike (a bell at a funeral.) Knoll, as in the second quotation from Beaumont and Fletcher, consequentially, to resound.
Me thinkes I heare the clarke,
That knowles the careful knell, And bids me leave my woful warke, Ere nature me compell.
Vncertaine Auctors. The Aged Louer renounceth Loue.
The doleful bell that still doth ring,
The woful knell of all my ioyes,
The wretched hart doth perce and wring,
Wyatt. The Louer showing of the continual paines. Not worth a blessing, nor a bell to knell for thee.
Beaum. & Fletch. The Spanish Curate, Act iv. sc. 1. Let streaming floods their hastie courses stay, And parching drouth dry vp the crystall wells; Let th' earth be barren, and bring forth no flowres, And the ayre be fil'd with noyse of dolefull knells, And wand'ring spirits walke vntimely howres. Spenser. Daphnaida. The image of my grave, each foot we move, Goes to it still: each hour we leave behind us, Knolls sadly toward it.
Beaum. & Fleich. Knight of Malta, Act ii. sc. 2. Remember that your fame Knowls in the ear o' th' world.
Id. Two Noble Kinsmen, Acti. sc. 1. Through rows of warriors, and through walks of kings, What awe did the slow, solemn knell inspire; The pealing organ, and the pausing choir.
Tickell. On the Death of Mr. Addison.
He drow ys knyf, & slow the kyng, that no man yt y
Gower. Con. A. b. ii.
His cruell stepdame, seeing what was done, Her wicked dayes with wretched knife did end, In death avowing th' innocence of her sonne. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 5. For this she oft him counsel'd to forbeare The bloudy battell, and to stirre vp strife, But after all his warre, to rest his weary knife. Id. Ib. b. iii. c. 3. The twenty lines of the Lord Wentworth's proviso were not put out; but the Lord Chancellor took a knife, and cut them out of the parchment, and said, Now I do truly the office of a Chancellor; the word being ignorantly derived by some from cancelling.
Burnet. History of the Reformation, an. 1554. He from the stack carves out th' accustom'd load, Deep plunging, and again deep plunging oft, His broad, keen knife into the solid mass. Cowper. Task, b. 7. KNIGHT, n. A.S. Cnyht, cniht-hade; Dut. KNIGHT, V. and Ger. Knecht; Sw. Kneckt. KNIGHTHOOD. Somner says, 66 Cniht, a boy, KNIGHT-LESS. a little boy or child, a young KNIGHTLY. youth or stripling, also a serKNIGHTLINESS. vant, a household servant, a servitor, a man-servant. Indeed, the word properly interpreted, besides that of a boy or youth, signifies no more than a servant; witnesse that use of it yet remaining in our knights of the shire; which although no knights by dignity or place, as indeed few of them either are or need to be; yet are so called: but why? under favour, in regard of that service which is required and performed of them in parliament for their several counties, whose servant for the time they are. We now, casting off the old signification of the word, ordinarily understand by it eques auratus, or as we vulgarly term it, miles. But in that sense I never find it used by the English-Saxons: after whose supplanting by the Normans, it succeeded in the place of their theg-en, or thane." In A. S. we find cniht-cild, a boy, which discountenances the idea of Somner, that boy was the original meaning of the word. In Matt. x. 24, 25, leorning-cniht, (a learning knight,) is, a disciple, discipulus. And Spelman asserts the more common usage of the word to be minister. Verstegan also observes, This title of right worshipfull dignity was heretofore by our ancestors written cniht, and both in the high and low Germany by the name of knight, (which a little they vary in the orthography,) is understood a servant: and I finde that leorningcniht was in our ancient language a disciple, and in the Netherlands a lear-kneght is the same that an apprentice is in French, that is to say, a learner. It may seeme strange (he adds) how our name of knight, being with us of such esteeme of worship, should in the etymology thereof appeare no more than it doth. To resolve which difficulty I can judge no other, having no proofe or pregnant reason otherwise to enduce me, but that the name of knight must have begun to be a name of honour among our ancestors, in such as were admitted for their merits to be knights to the king, that is, to be his owne servants, or in some sort his officers or
Cym. Bow your knees; Arise my knights o' th' battell, I create you Companions to our person, and will fit you With dignities becomming your estates.
Shakespeare. Cymbeline, Act v. sc. 5. This drone yet never brave attempt that dar'd, Yet dares be knighted, and from thence dares grow To any title empire can bestow.
Drayton. To Mr. Wm. Brown. Of the Evil Time. And said, Arise thou cursed miscreant, That hast with knightlesse guile and trecherous traine, Faire knighthood fouly shamed, and doost vaunt That good knight of the red crosse to haue slaine. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 6. Lest the nobility of others should by secret sympathy suffer in his disgracefull death, the earl was first parted from the man, and his honour severed from his person, by a solemn degradation, having his knightly spurs hewed off from his heels; which done, he was hanged, drawn, and quartered.-Fuller. Worthies. Cumberland.
Yet weend by secret signs of manlinesse,
That he whylome some gentle swaine had beene, Train'd vp in feates of armes and knightlinesse. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 7. Now were they leigemen to this lady free, And her knight's-seruice ought, to hold of her in fee. Id. Ib. b. iii. c. 1. That day the Lord Protector knighted the king, being authorized so to do by letters-patent. So it seems, that the laws of chivalry required that the king should receive knighthood from the hand of some other knight; so it was judged too great a presumption for his own subject to give it, without a warrant under the great seal.
Burnet. History of the Reformation, an. 1547. And as great a prince as he [the devil] is, he never knights any one, but he expects more than knights-service from him in return.-South, vol. vi. Ser. 6.
Of all the men respected and admir'd,
By him with knightly deeds, and open love profess'd. Dryden. Theodore & Honoria. Whatever effect the ridicule of knight-errantry might have had upon that monarchy, I believe that of pedantry has had a very ill one upon the commonwealth of learning. Sir W. Temple. Of Ancient and Modern Learning.
Knights are called in Latin equites aurati: aurati from the gilt spurs they wore; and equites, because they always served on horseback, for it is observable, that almost all nations call their knights by some appellation derived from an horse.-Blackstone. Commentaries, b. i. c. 12.
We may plainly discover the footsteps of a similar custom in what Tacitus relates of the Germans, who, in order to qualify their young men to bear arms, presented them in a full assembly with a shield and lance; which ceremony, as was formerly hinted, is supposed to have been the original of the fœdal knighthood.-Id. Ib. b. ii. c. 5.
This was the very first origin of civil, or rather military government amongst the ancient people of Europe and it arose from the connexion that necessarily was created between the person who gave the arms, or knighted the young man, and him that received them; which implied, that they were to be occupied in his service who originally gave them. Burke. Abridgement of English History.
KNIT, V. KNIT, n. KNITTER. KNITTING, n. KNITTLE. KNOT, v. KNOT, n. KNO'TLESS.
A. S. Cnyttan, cnotta; Dut. Knoopen, knoop; Ger. Knutten, knot; Sw. Knyta, knut. And hence (Tooke) the Lat. Nod-us.
To tie, or fasten, by an involution of the material; by infolding or inwrapping it; generally to connect or unite, to draw together, to contract.
KNOTTY. KNOTTINESS. A knot (met.) of persons; a number of persons connected, united, collected, or gathered together. Any thing complicate, intricate, or entangled.
A knot in wood, in which the fibres are tightly complicated, and thence rendered hard.
Knot,-in Chaucer, in the sense of Naud, Fr.for the chief point or head of the matter, (Tyrwhitt.)
Knotless, without difficulty or hinderance.
This Palamon gan knit his browes twey.
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 1131.
Ne shal I never ben an untrewe wif,
Id. The Frankeleines Tale, v. 11,299. Euery hart that hath caught full loue, is tied with queint knittings. Id. The Testament of Loue, b. ii.
The knotte, why that every tale is tolde, If it be taried til the lust be colde
Of hem, that han it herkened after yore,
Id. The Squieres Tale, v. 10,715.
Gower. Con. A. b. v. And after diuers of such these be these, he cōcludeth & knytteth vp the matter with his accustomed vehemêce fet out of Luther's volumes.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 305. And betwene the knyttynges flowers of golde. Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 14. Her quyuer hung hehind her back, her tresse Knotted in gold, her purple vesture eke Butned with gold. Surrey. Virgile. Eneis, b. iv. In hir right hand, (which to and fro did shake) She bare a skourge, with many a knottie string. Gascoigne. The Complaynt of Philomene.
When time shall turn those amber locks to gray,
Drayton. The Earl of Surrey to Lady Geraldine.
Cato not content to have defended the graft with clay or past aforesaid, yea and to preserve it with turfe and mosse against the injurie of rain and cold, bound it about also with little knitches of soft osier twigs slived in twaine. Id. Plinie, b. xvii. c. 14. But taking it to the heart, that he was not immediately admitted to the presence of Sextus Pompeius, but debarred the use of his knitches of rods to bee borne afore him, hee crossed the seas into Achaia, and went to M. Antonius. Id. Suetonius, p. 90. When the said stems are slit and cloven, they must be laid abroad to dry in the sun when they be dried, they ought to be made up into knitchets or handfuls. Id. Plinie, b. xx. c. 17.
The more effectually they will worke, in case there be salt mingled with their ashes, and togither with knopped marjoram or savorie and oile, be incorporat into a liniment. Holland. Plinie, b. xxxii. c. 10.
His knobby head, and a fair pair of horns.
More. Preexistence of the Soul, s. 33.
Nor rather thank your gentler fate,
That for a bruis'd or broken pate
Has freed you from those knobs that grow
This [a throwing stick] is a plain smooth piece of hard reddish wood, very highly polished, about two inches broad, half an inch thick, and three feet long, with a small knob, or hook at one end, and a cross-piece about three or four inches long at the other.-Cook. First Voyage, b. iii. c. 6.
When no more Round knobby spots deform, but the disease Seems at a pause: then let the learned leach Give, in due dose, live silver from the mine; Till copious spitting the whole taint exhaust. Grainger. The Sugar Cane, b. iv.
KNOCK, v. KNOCK, n. KNOCKER. KNOCKING, n. To beat or strike, to give a blow; to hit, to smite.
A. S. Cnuc-ian; Ger. Knocken; Sw. Knacka, pulsare, ferire, to beat or strike.
And cam ther conscience was. and knockede atte gates.
Id. p. 84. For ech that axith, takith, and he that sekith, fyndith: and it schal be openid to him that knockith. Wiclif. Matthew, c. 7. For whosoeuer asketh receyueth, & he yt seketh findeth: & to him that knocketh, it shalbe opened.-Bible, 1551. Ib.
Go up (quod he unto his knave) anon;
Chaucer. The Milleres Tale.
Of nightly stelths. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 3.
Hector shall haue a great catch, if he knocke out either of your braines, he were as good cracke a fustie nut with no kernell.-Shakespeare. Troyl. & Cress. Act ii. sc. 1.
Whereupon presently hee giveth a signe either by a loud crie or some great knocke that the pioneers underneath may have warning thereby to get them speedily out of the mines, and runneth himselfe apace downe from the hill as fast as his legs will give him leave.-Holland. Plinie, b. xxxiii. c. 4.
With this farewel I leave my refuter, either to the acting of his unbloudy executions of the Son of God, or the plotting of the bloudie executions of the deputies of God, or (as it were his best) to the knocking of his beads.
Bp. Hall. The Honour of the Maried Clergie, b. iii. Concl.
For he was of that noble trade,
If not, go on; if yes, we enter in.-Dodsley. The Footman.
KNOLL, or A. S. Cnolle; Dut. Knolle; KNOWL. Ger. Knoll; Sw. Knula, a head or top. Ray calls it
A little round hill; the top or cop of a hill or
mountain. Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 262. The same juice incorporat with the cerot of roses, healeth the clifts and swelling knubs in the fundament.
Holland. Plinie, b. xxiv. c. 13.
It stands on a knowle, which tho insensibly rising, gives it a prospect over the keepe of Windsor, about three miles N. E. of it. Evelyn. Memoirs, Oct. 23, 1686.
That ground of your moulding is certainly fine,
Know, from A. S. Cnaw-an, Goth. ge-cnawan, cennan; Kunnan ; Ger. and Dut. Kennen; Sw. Kanna, scire,
KNOW, v. KNO'WABLE, adj. KNOWABLE, n. KNO'WER. KNOWING, n. KNOWINGLY. Knowledge, cnaw-an, and KNOWLEDGE, v. lecgan, to lay, to put or KNOWLEDGE, n. place. See ACKNOWLEDGE. (Met.) to see, to feel, to be sensible of, to perceive, to conceive, to understand, to be well informed of, or instructed in, learned or well taught, to be well assured of. See the quotation from Locke.
Knowing,-possessing or having knowledge, science, skill, intelligence; skilful, intelligent.
To knowledge, now written to acknowledge, (qv.) to own, to confess, to admit, that we know; gencrally, to own, confess, or admit.
Ech thogte he was Gode next, that mygte abbe ys grace,
R. Brunne, p. 22.
§2. Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our ideas. In this alone it consists. Where this perception is, there is knowledge; and where it is not, there, though we may fancie, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of knowledge. For when we know that white is not black, what do we else but perceive that these two ideas do not agree?
Locke. Hum. Underst. b. iv. c. 1. s. 2.
And as to the being or not being of particular essences, as that God might, if he pleased, have willed that there should be no such thing as a triangle or circle, and therefore nothing
demonstrable or knowable of either of them; which is likewise asserted by Cartesius, and those that make the essences of things dependent upon an arbitrary will in God; this is all one as if one should say, that God would have willed, if he had pleased, that neither his own power nor knowledge
should be infinite.-Cudworth. Morality, b. i. c. 3.
And yet the great knower of hearts ascribes men's resolution to sin to such reasonings as these.
South, vol. iv. Ser. 4.
I make a distinction between these two, taking knowledge to be properly meant of things that are generally agreed to be true by consent of those that first found them out, or have been since instructed in them; but learning is the knowledge of the different and contested opinions of men in former ages, and about which they have perhaps never agreed in any; and this makes so much of one, and so little of the other, in the world.
Sir W. Temple. Of Ancient and Modern Learning.
But Clark and Baxter went deeper. They drew their conclusion, not on the presumption that they knew all the knowable qualities of matter, and that between these and thought there was no perceivable connexion; but from this clear and solid truth, that from the little we do know of body, we see a contradiction in supposing intelligence to be a quality of matter.-Warburton. Bolingbroke's Philosophy.
Though a man may be unconscious of his power when he does not exert it, he must have both the conception and the
END OF VOL. I.
LONDON-R. CLAY, PRINTER, BREAD-STREET-HILL.