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EARERS not necessarily listeners-illustrated

by anecdote. Why attention is best ar-
rested by extempore speaking. Archbishop

Whateley's analogy. Objections to extem-
pore speaking. Want of fluency in conversation not
necessarily a disqualification for public speaking. Fail-
ure of subject-matter arises from want of preparation.
A clear view of a subject to be gained only by writing
upon it. Objection arising from abuse of extempore

CHAPTER II. On gaining a command of words. Private

practice for speaking. Difficulties to be overcome. De-

tails of plan for practice. Vindication of plan
CHAPTER III. Nervousness inseparable from first attempts

at public speaking_illustrated by anecdote. Timidity
should be overcome by early training. Schools not yet
available. Unions and debating societies at the Uni-

versities should be made more available
CHAPTER IV. Plan to be pursued by those already engaged

in active life. The cause to which a celebrated orator
ascribed his power. Lord Chesterfield's maxims. Cor-
rectness in conversation. Indulgence extended to most
young speakers not accorded to the clergy. A clergy-
man would speak first in his schools. Difficulty of keep-
ing the attention of children. The modern story-teller,
his materials, and the use of his art. Lectures adapted
to school-children. MS. not to be dispensed with at
once in preaching. Difficulty of combining written with




extempore matter. Advantages of concluding a written

sermon with extempore address. The first labour ex-

pended in acquiring the power of extempore speaking,

repaid in after years


CHAPTER V. Plan proposed requires labour. But not greater

than should be bestowed upon a MS. previous to read-
ing. Extempore speaking contrasted in its effects with
reading from a MS. Archbishop Whateley's analogy
capable of different application. Extempore speaking
influences the speaker before the hearer. Speaking and
reading orators. Dr. Chalmers an instance of the latter.
His reasons for not speaking extempore. Earnestness
the real secret of success in all cases. Rant not earnest-

Time required in the study of MS. previous to

reading or speaking. Evening generally devoted to read-

ing. Early rising—its advantages. Dr. Cumming's

opinion as to the labour required for extempore speak.

ing. Practice will lessen the labour of preparation.

Preaching not to be compared with ordinary speaking . 34

CHAPTER VI. Details of preparatory study. The necessity

of settling the exact point to be aimed at in speak-

ing. Some speakers neglect this—hence they indulge in

high nonsense. Mr. Addison's definition of such speak-

ing. Principle applied to preaching. Advantage of a

short text. Incident illustrating the necessity of speak-

ing to the point. Sidney Smith's method of discovering

whether a sermon was understood. Sermons forgotten

in a few hours-probable cause of this. Keeping close

to one subject difficult. How the difficulty may pro-

bably be lessened. Superfluous matter to be avoided,

however good in itself. A length which no speech

should exceed


CHAPTER VII. Anecdote showing tendency to repetition

in extempore speaking. This avoided by the subject

being well arranged. Advantage of arrangement to

speaker and hearer


CHAPTER VIII. Anecdote showing how a speaker may be

misunderstood-especially by agricultural poor. Con-





sequent necessity of plain speaking. Colloquial style

incidental to speaking, an ornate style to writing. One

counteracts the other in proposed plan of preparation.

Perspicuity” and “sublimity” not incompatible. Why

common-place expressions should be avoided. Aristotle's

remarks on the use of foreign words, and the length of

sentences. Newman's description of the style of writing

in vogue at the present day-well suited as preparatory

for extempore speaking, but generally dangerous .

CHAPTER IX. Extreme accuracy often desirable in speak-

ing. Memoriter speaking less difficult than supposed.

Prejudice against it unfounded. Probable meaning of

Cicero's phrase, “ mandare memoriæ.” Disadvantages

incidental to memoriter speaking. Failure of memory

while speaking. How to be met. Advantages of com-

bining extempore with memoriter speaking. Nature and

extent of preparation for speaking-illustrated by ex-

ample of Mr. Robertson of Brighton

CHAPTER X. Modesty essential in an orator. Timidity

gives way before real feeling. Anecdote of a Vice-Chan-

cellor of Oxford. Feeling more effective than studied

eloquence. The true source of confidence

CHAPTER XI. A Scylla or Charybdis. Definition, origin,

and remedy of spouting. Deliberation and self-posses-

sion, indispensable to a speaker. Advantages of a dis-

tinct pronunciation. The management of the voice.

The bass voice most difficult to control. M. Bautain's

definition of a sympathetic voice. Its cause, origin, and


CHAPTER XII. Absence of action arises from modesty of

English character. Difference of the Italian orators.

The effect of action. The action of Cicero and Demos-

thenes compared with that seen at the English bar-

anecdote illustrative of. Origin of appropriate gesture.

Why difficult to be used in reading, or in memoriter speak-

ing. Forced action like rouge on the cheek

CHAPTER XIII. Lecturing a means of supporting many

useful societies. Lecturing a preparation for public

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speaking. Lecturers in country parishes. A winter's

experience of a weekly lecture. Assistance derived from

village choir. Nature of subjects chosen. Readings

from Shakespeare popular. Advantages of combining

speaking with reading


CHAPTER XIV. Anecdote of Corregio. The orator must

study in a kindred spirit. Industry versus genius.
Vanity often claims for genius the results of industry.

Lord Brougham's opinion as to the acquisition of ora-

torical power. The danger of fluent speaking. Fluency

no evidence of power. Plato's preparation for speaking.

Early training of Demosthenes. His difficulty in speak-

ing. Progressive workmanship of his finest passages.

His aim to gain strength rather than beauty. Cicero a

warning as well as an example. Mr. Pitt's early train-

ing. His first speech impromptu. His manner and

style. His faults. Sheridan's early failure and ulti-

mate success in oratory. Burke's description of his

eloquence, and Lord Brougham's account of the means

by which he attained his power. His faults. Nothing

impromptu. The reading-oratory of Dr. Chalmers. His

power-incident to illustrate. Probable reason of his

Greatest orators have not commanded a uni-

formly attentive hearing. Anecdote of Burke


CHAPTER XV. First principles of reading. Suspension of

the voice distinct from a pause. Punctuation insufficient

guide to the reader. Subordinate members of a sentence

to be marked by suspension of voice. Archbishop

Whateley's criticism upon Mr. Sheridan's method of

punctuation. The proper suspension of the voice gives

variety of tone, and relief to hearer and reader, and gives

force to particular words. Reading poetry. Grouping

words in reading. Difference between a slow reader

and a drawling reader. Extract from Morell's grammar

showing the grammatical grouping of words


CHAPTER XVI. Punch's opinion of an emphatic reader.

Definition of emphasis. Illustrated by ordinary conver-
sation. Meaning varied by the tone of voice. A good

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