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doubtless afford American enterprise additional facilities and new fields, of which it will not be slow to take advantage.

In my Message to Congress of the 5th December, 1898, I urged that the recommendation which had been made to the Speaker of the House of Representatives by the Secretary of the Treasury on the 14th June, 1898, for an appropriation for a Commission to study the commercial and industrial conditions in the Chinese Empire and report as to the opportunities for, and obstacles to, the enlargement of markets in China for the raw products and manufactures of the United States, should receive at your hands the consideration which its importance and timeliness merited, but the Congress failed to take action.

I now renew this recommendation, as the importance of the subject kas steadily grown since it was first submitted to you, and no time should be lost in studying for ourselves the resources of this great field for American trade and enterprise.

The death of President Faure in February last called forth those sincere expressions of sympathy which befit the relations of two Republics as closely allied by unbroken bistoric ties as are the United States and France.

Preparations for the representation of the industries, arts, and products of the United States at the World's Exposition to be held in Paris next year continue on an elaborate and comprehensive scale, thanks to the generous appropriation provided by Congress and to the friendly interest the French Government bas shown in furthering a typical exhibit of American progress.

There has been allotted to the United States a considerable addition of space, which, while placing our country in the first rank among exhibitors, does not suffice to meet the increasingly urgent demands of our manufacturers. The efforts of the CommissionerGeneral are ably directed towards a strictly representative display of all that most characteristically marks American achievement in the inventive arts, and most adequately shows the excellence of our natural productions.

In this age of keen rivalry among nations for mastery in commerce, the doctrine of evolution and the rule of the survival of the fittest must be as inexorable in their operation as they are positive in the results they bring about. The place won in the struggle by an industrial people can only be held by unrelaxed endelvour and constant advance in achievement. extraordinary impetus in every line of American exportation and the astounding increase in the volume and value of our share in the world's markets may not be attributed to accidental conditions.

The reasons are not far to seek. They lie deep in our national character, and find expression year by year in every branch of handi

The present craft, in every new device whereby the materials we go abundantly produce are subdued to the artisan's will and made to yielu the largest, most practical, and most beneficial return. The American exbibit at Paris should, and I am confident will, be an open volume, whose lessons of skilfully directed endeavour, unfaltering energy, and consummate performance may be read by all on every page, thus spreading abroad a clearer knowledge of the worth of our productions and the justice of our claim to an important place in the marts of the world. To accomplish this by judicious selection, by recognition of paramount merit in whatever walk of trade or manufacture it may appear, and by orderly classification and attractive installation, is the task of our Commission.

The United States' Government building is approaching completion, and no effort will be spared to make it worthy, in beauty of architectural plan and in completeness of display, to represent our nation. It has been suggested that a permanent building of similar or appropriate design be erected on a convenient site, already given by the Municipality, near the Exposition grounds, to serve in commemoration of the part taken by this country in this great enterprise, as an American National Institute, for our countrymen resorting to Paris for study.

I am informed by our Commissioner-General that we shall have in the American sections at Paris over 7,000 exhibitors, from every State in our country—a pumber ten times as great as those which were represented at Vienna in 1873, six times as many as those in Paris in 1878, and four times as many as those who exhibited in Paris in 1889. This statement does not include the exbibits from either Cuba, Porto Rico, or Hawaii, for which arrangements have been made.

A number of important international Congresses on special topics affecting public interests are proposed to be held in Paris next summer in connection with the Exposition. Efforts will be made to have the several technical branches of our Administration efficiently represented at those Conferences, ench in its special line, and to procure the largest possible concourse of State Representatives, particularly at the Congresses of Public Charity and of Medicine.

Our relations with Germany continue to be most cordial. The increasing intimacy of direct association has been marked during the year by the granting permission in April for the landing on our shores of a cable from Borkum-Einden, on the North Sea, by way of the Azores, and also by the conclusion on the 2nd September of a Parcels Post Convention with the German Empire. In all that promises closer relations of intercourse and commerce and a better understanding between the two races baving so many traits in common, Germany can be assured of the most cordial co-operation

[1898-99. XCI.]

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of this Government and people. We may be rivals in many material paths, but our rivalry should be generous and open, ever aiming towards the attainment of larger results and the mutually beneficial advancement of each in the line of its especial adaptabilities.

The several Governments of the Empire seem reluctant to admit the natural excellence of our food productions and to accept the evidence we constantly tender of the care with which their purity is guarded by rigid inspection from the farm, through the slaughterhouse and the packing establishments, to the port of shipment. Our system of control over exported food staples invites examination from any quarter and challenges respect by its efficient thoroughness.

It is to be hoped that in time the two Governments will act in common accord towards the realization of their common purpose to safeguard the public health and to insure the purity and wholesomeness of all food products imported by either country from the ot'er. Were the Congress to authorize an invitation to Germany, in connection with the pending reciprocity negotiations, for the constitution of a Joint Commission of scientific experts and practical men of affairs to conduct a searching investigation of food production and exportation in both countries and report to their respective Legislatures for the adoption of such remedial measures as they might recommend for either, the way might be opened for the desirable result indicated.

Efforts to obtain for American Life Insuranee Companies a full hearing as to their business operations in Prussia have, after several years of patient representation, bappily succeeded, and one of the most important American Companies has been granted a concession to continue business in that Kingdom.

I am also glad to announce that the German Insurance Companies have been readmitted by the Superintendent of Insurance to do business in the State of New York.

Subsequent to the exchange of our Peace Treaty with Spain, Germany acquired the Caroline Islands by purchase, paying therefor 5,000,000 dollars. Assurances have been received from the German Government that the rights of American missionaries and traders there will be considerately observed.

In my last Annual Message I referred to the pending negotia. tions with Great Britain in respect to the Dominion of Canada. By means of an Executive Agreement a Joint High Commission had been created for the purpose of adjusting all unsettled questions between the United States and Canada, embracing twelve subjects, among which were the questions of the fur-seals, the fisheries of the coast and contiguous inland waters, the Alaskan boundary, the transit of merchandize in bond, the alien labour law, mining rights, reciprocity in trade, revision of the agreement respecting naval

vessels in the Great Lakes, a more complete marking of parts of the boundary, provision for the conveyance of criminals, and for wreckage and salvage.

Much progress bad been made by the Commission towards the adjustment of many of these questions, when it became apparent that an irreconcilable difference of views was entertained respecting the delimitation of the Alaskan boundary. In the failure of an agreement as to the meaning of Articles III and IV of the Treaty of 1825 between Russia and Great Britain, which defined the boundary between Alaska and Canada, the American Commissioners proposed that the subject of the boundary be laid aside, and that the remaining questions of difference be proceeded with, some of which were so far advanced as to assure the probability of a settlement. This being declined by the British Commissioners, an adjournment was taken until the boundary should be adjusted by the two Governments. The subject has been receiving the careful attention which its importance demands, with the result that a modus vivendi for provisional demarcations in the regions about the head of Lynn Canal bas been agreed upon;* and it is hoped that the negotiations now in progress between the two Governments will end in an Agreement for the establishment and delimitation of a permanent boundary.

Apart from these questions growing out of our relationship with our northern neighbour, the most friendly disposition and ready agreement have marked the discussion of numerous matters arising in the past and intimate intercourse of the United States with Great Britain.

This Government has maintained an attitude of neutrality in the unfortunate contest between Great Britain and the Boer States of Africa. We have remained faithful to the precept of avoiding entangling alliances as to affairs not of our direct concern. Had circumstances suggested that the parties to the quarrel would have welcomed any kindly expression of the hope of the American people that war might be averted, good offices woulả have been gladly tendered. The United States' Representative at Pretoria was early instructed to see that all neutral American interests be respected by the combatants. This has been an easy task in view of the positive declarations of both British and Boer authorities that the personal and property rights of our citizens should be observed.

Upon the withdrawal of the British Agent from Pretoria the United States' Consul was authorized, upon the request of the British Government, and with the assent of the South African and Orange Free State Governments, to exercise the customary good offices of a neutral for the care of British interests. In the discharge of this function I am happy to say that abundant opportunity has been afforded to show the impartiality of this Government towards both the combatants.

* See page 116.

For the fourth time in the present decade question has arisen with the Government of Italy in regard to the lynching of Italian subjects. The latest of these deplorable events occurred at Tallulah, Louisiana, whereby five unfortunates of Italian origin were taken from jail and hanged.

The authorities of the State and a Representative of the Italian Embassy having separately investigated the occurrence, with discrepant results, particularly as to the alleged citizenship of the victims, and it not appearing that the State had been able to discover and punish the violators of the law, an independent investigation has been set on foot, through the agency of the Department of State, and is still in progress. The result will enable the Executive to treat the question with the Government of Italy in a spirit of fairness and justice. A satisfactory solution will doubtless be reached.

The recurrence of these distressing manifestations of blind mob fury directed at dependents or natives of a foreign country suggests that the contingency has arisen for action by Congress in the direction of conferring upon the Federal Courts jurisdiction in this class of international cases where the ultimate responsibility of the Federal Government may be involved. The suggestion is not dew.

. In bis Annual Message of the 9th December, 1891, my predecessor, President Harrison, said :

" It would, I believe, be entirely competent for Congress to make offences against the Treaty rights of foreigners doiniciled in the United States cognizable in the Federal Courts. This bas not, however, been done, and the Federal officers and Courts have no power in such cases to intervene either for the protection of a foreign citizen or for the punishment of his slayers. It seems to me to follow, in this state of the law, that the officers of the State charged with police and judicial powers in such cases must, in the consideration of international questions growing out of such incidents, be regarded in such sense as Federal Agents as to make this Government answerable for their acts in cases where it would be answerable if the United States had used its constitutional power to define and punish crimes against Treaty rights."

A Bill to provide for the punishment of violations of Treaty rights of aliens was introduced in the Senate 1st March, 1892, and reported favourably 30th March. Having doubtless in view the language of that part of Article III of the Treaty of the 26th February, 1871, between the United States and Italy, which stipulates that "the citizens of each of the High Contracting Parties shall receive, in the States and territoring of the other, most constant protection and

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