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believes that there is a general feeling against the island being replaced under Turkish rule.

The gravest issues depend on the solution of the question, and his Excellency hopes that no hurried decision, nor one taken in deference to the generous enthusiasm of a Parliamentary party, will be arrived at by Her Majesty's Government. Were it not for evident considerations of danger arising from the Balkans, the solution desired by every one would be easily adopted. But attention must be paid to the views, not only of the Great, but of the Minor Powers, namely, Servia and Bulgaria.

Some results have been obtained there for the moment by the action of the Powers. The outlook is cheering; it should not be endangered by over-haste.

In any case his Excellency considers that, before any decision is taken as to the eventual destiny of Crete, the reform project should first be generally accepted by the Powers, and presented by them to the Sultan.


The Marquess of Salisbury to Sir N. O'Conor.

Foreign Office, February 18, 1897. THE Russian Ambassador stated to-day that, at the request of the Ottoman Government, Admiral Andréeff, the Russian Naval Commander in Cretan waters, had been authorized to prevent Greek ships of war from interfering with the transport of Turkish troops between various points of the Cretan coast, and also to occupy by common accord certain other places on the coast, especially Candia, Rethymo, Sitia, Kissamo, and Selino.

The instructions given to the British Admiral will enable him to take part in any measures of this nature on which the Naval Commanders of the other Powers may agree.

Sir N. O'Conor.

I am, &c.,



The Marquess of Salisbury to Sir F. Lascelles.

Foreign Office, February 18, 1897. PRINCE HOHENLOHE called to-day on behalf of the German Ambassador, and said that his Excellency had received a telegram from his Government stating that the proceedings of the Greek Government in regard to Crete constituted in effect a state of war between Greece and Turkey. In order to prevent any expectation by the Greek Government of assistance from any of the Great Powers, and, on the other hand, to avoid the risk that Turkey

should take action in consequence of the provocation thus offered, or that some outburst of Mussulman fanaticism should take place in consequence of it, the German Government thought that some more effective measures should be taken by the Great Powers than those hitherto adopted. Of the various alternatives it seemed to them that a joint blockade of the Greek ports would be the most simple and the least violent. The large number of vessels of war assembled in Cretan waters would render it possible to take this measure, while still leaving sufficient force for any necessary action in Crete. I am, &c.,

Sir F. Lascelles.


Mr. Egerton to the Marquess of Salisbury.—(Received February 20.)


Athens, February 13, 1897.

On the announcement to-day of the dispatch of troops to Crete, the Representatives of the Great Powers presented the inclosed identic note and collective Memorandum to the Hellenic Minister for Foreign Affairs, who returned the answer which I have the honour to transmit herewith, stating the reasons of the Greek Government for the dispatch of troops to Crete.

The Marquess of Salisbury.

I have, &c.,


(Inclosure 1.)-Identic Pro-memoriâ.

APRÈS l'envoi des bâtiments de guerre Helléniques en Crète suivi de l'expédition des torpilleurs, nous n'avons pas dissimulé au Gouvernement Royal la désapprobation que rencontraient de la part des Puissances des actes aussi contraires à leur commun désir de maintenir la paix de l'Orient.

Nous apprenons aujourd'hui que les choses prennent une tournure autrement grave; que des troupes régulières de la Grèce se disposeraient à pénétrer à main armée sur un point du territoire Ottoman. Si cette nouvelle est fondée notre devoir dans de telles conjonctures, en attendant les instructions qui ne peuvent manquer de nous arriver à bref délai, est d'insister sur la désapprobation que des actes semblables rencontrent de la part de tous nos Gouvernements, et de déclarer au Gouvernement Hellénique que les Puissances ne peuvent que laisser peser sur lui les conséquences d'une action qui éveille à juste titre la vive anxiété des Cabinets Européens.

Athènes, le Février, 1897.

(Inclosure 2.)-Reply of M. Skousés.

LES événements qui ont eu lieu en Crète ont amené une anarchie dans laquelle les familles Chrétiennes ont été exposées, ainsi que leur fortune, à la merci et au pillage de la populace fanatique et sans frein.

Le Gouvernement Royal ne pouvait plus supporter cet état lamentable dans lequel se sont trouvés les habitants de l'île, auxquels nous sommes liés par la religion et par des liens sacrés.

Il a pris par conséquent la décision d'envoyer des troupes pour occuper l'île et ramener l'ordre et la paix là-bas.

Athènes, le


Février, 1897.

Mr. Egerton to the Marquess of Salisbury.-(Received February 20., Athens, February 16, 1897. THE anxiety of this impressionable public yesterday was very evident, and the joy and exultation with which it received the news which arrived in the evening of the landing of the Greek force at Plantania, in Crete, was correspondingly great. Enthusiastic crowds before the Palace.

I have the honour to inclose herewith copy and translation of the orders of Colonel Vassos to occupy Crete and restore order and peace there, driving the Turks from the fortresses and holding I have, &c.,


The Marquess of Salisbury.


(Inclosure.)-Instructions to Colonel Vassos.


The Ministry of War to the Commander of the Body of Occupation of Crete, Colonel of Infantry, Timoleon Vasso8.

WHAT has been perpetrated in Crete up to now has brought the unfortunate island into a state of anarchy, owing to which the families of the Christians and their property remained exposed to the unrestrained fanaticism and licence of the mob.

The Greek Government could no longer allow the continuance of the lamentable condition to which the population of our race on the island, with whom it is united by religion and sacred ties, has been reduced.

It therefore decided upon sending troops to occupy the island, and re-establish order and peace on it. The command of these troops is confided in you.

Landing with the troops under your command on Crete, and in a

proper locality, you will, in the name of the King of the Hellenes, George I, occupy the island, driving away the Turks from the forts, and taking possession of them. Every action that you will take you will base upon the established Greek laws in the name of the King and under the responsibility of the Greek Government.

As soon as you land, you will issue a Proclamation concerning the occupation.

At Athens, 1st February, 1897.


N. SMOLENITZ, Minister.

Memorandum communicated to the Foreign Office by the Turkish Ambassador, February 20, 1897.

LE courant 1,500 insurgés Crétois, portant six drapeaux Helléniques, ont assiégé le village Musulman d'Askalani et ouvert le feu. Les troupes Impériales qui s'y trouvaient et les habitants ayant riposté, un combat s'ensuivit, pendant lequel trois de ces derniers furent tués et dix blessés. D'autre part, les insurgés Crétois ont massacré 140 Musulmans-hommes, femmes, et enfants -des villages de Plakano, Sarakina, Kazros, Arghira, et Astratos, et cernent les habitants Musulmans des villages sis aux environs de Fedato, où des engagements ont lieu. La situation empirant de jour en jour et les Musulmans se trouvant sans cesse exposés à être massacrés, je vous prie d'y attirer de nouveau la plus sérieuse attention de M. le Ministre des Affaires Étrangères et de réitérer de la façon la plus instante vos démarches pour l'adoption de mesures efficaces propres à faire cesser au plus tôt cette situation.

Sir N. O'Conor to the Marquess of Salisbury.-(Received



February 21.)

St. Petersburgh, February 21, 1897.

I am informed that the Minister for Foreign Affairs has represented to the Greek Chargé d'Affaires in very energetic language that the situation of Greece would be a very dangerous one if she did not recall her troops from Crete, and did not cease from these aggressive acts. Count Mouravieff charged M. Jombazis to telegraph to his Government in the above sense.

By order of the Greek Government, M. Jombazis informed Count Mouravieff to-day that the Greeks did not intend to leave Crote.

Sir H. Rumbold to the Marquess of Salisbury.—(Received
February 22.)


Vienna, February 18, 1897.

I SAW Count Goluchowski, by appointment, this afternoon, and made him acquainted with your Lordship's views, as stated in your telegram of yesterday, with regard to the proposal made by the German Government for a blockade against Greece.

I said that, in your Lordship's opinion, before that proposal could be considered usefully, it was desirable that the Powers should come to some decision as to the future fate of the Island of Crete now occupied by them. Her Majesty's Government felt strongly that the island, even if continuing to form part of the Ottoman Empire, could not remain subject to direct Turkish administration, but should become a privileged province. I was charged to inquire whether the Imperial Government were prepared to express an opinion on this point.

Count Goluchowski thanked me for my communication, and replied that it seemed to him likewise very essential that the question of the future destinies of Crete should be examined as soon as possible. The constituting the island as a privileged province-under such conditions as obtained at Samos for instancemight afford a solution of existing difficulties. He considered it, however, indispensable, first, that the principle of the status quo should be carefully guarded; and, secondly, that Greece should not be permitted to derive any immediate advantage from her illconsidered action. On this last point, I should observe, his Excellency's language was very decided.

Finally, Count Goluchowski said he was unable to reply fully, off-hand, to your Lordship's inquiry, but would give it his best


Before leaving his Excellency I took upon myself to say that I felt sure that, in desiring to know his opinion on the point I had been told to submit to him, your Lordship was marking the value you attached to the agreement of views which generally existed between the two Governments in the affairs of the East.

The Marquess of Salisbury.

I have, &c.,


Sir F. Lascelles to the Marquess of Salisbury.-(Received


February 22.)

Berlin, February 18, 1897.

I HAVE the honour to inclose a copy and translation of an official announcement which was published in the "Reichsanzeiger" of the

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