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clerical functions) and his benefice.” “The Bishop suspended him for five years ab officio et beneficio." Ab origine. Lat.-“From the very

first.” Ab ovo usque ad mala. Lat. HORACE.—N.B. “ Ab 000," which is often used to signify “at or from the beginning," is the former portion of the expression “ 45 000 usque ad mala,” which literally means, From the egg to the apples, in allusion to the custom among the Romans of beginning their dinner or supper with eggs, and finishing with apples. . WE use the expression to signify, From the beginning to the end of anything.

Ab uno disce omnes. Lat. VIRGIL.—“From this, or a single, instance you may learn the nature of the whole, may form an estimate of the whole.

Ab urbe condita. Lat.-“ From the building of the city.”—In general thus abridged : A. U. C., in the chronology of the Romans.

Abad. Hindostanee.—“Built by." In the names of Indian towns, the concluding syllable usually affords some clue to their past history thus, “ Abad" signifies“ built by," as, Ahmed-abad, a city built by AHMED Suah; Aurung-abad, Hyder-abad, &c.

Abbé. Fr.-"An abbot, a ruler of an abbey."' N.B. The word Abbéproperly means Father; it is the title or designation of every French clergyman of the Roman Catholic Church.

Aberrare a scopo, or, non attingere scopum. Lat. prov.—"To miss one's mark." Abietibus juvenes patriis et montibus aequi. Lat. VIRGIL.-

Youths, of height and size
Like firs, that on their mother-mountain rise."
May be applied to the Life-guards and Grenadiers.

Abnormis sapiens. Lat. HORACE.—“A person whose wisdom is not derived either from instruction or merely from books; one who is intuitively knowing." HORACE uses the expression to denote one who was a follower of no sect, and derived his doctrines and precepts from no rules of philosophising, as laid down by others; but who drew them all from his own breast, and was guided by his own convictions respecting the fitness or unfitness of things.

Aborigines. Lat.-The original inhabitants of a country, equivalent to the Greek Autocthones.

Absens heres non erit. Lat. prov.-" The absent one has little chance of being the heir." Out of sight, out of mind.

Absentem laedit, cum ebrio qui litigat. Lat. PUBLIUS SYRUS. “He who quarrels with a drunken man, hurts, injures, the absent.”... You should consider your adversary as absent, when his senses have left him.

Absit invidia. Lat.-* All envy apart.”. Without being supposed to speak invidiously, enviously. N.B. The full expression, which occurs in Livy, is, Absit verbo invidia,” that is, Take it not ill, amiss. Without disparagement to anybody, any one.

Abstineas igitur damnandis; hujus enim vel

Una potens ratio est, ne crimina nostra sequantur
Ex nobis geniti, quoniam dociles imitandis
Turpibus ac pravis omnes sumus.


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“Refrain from all that merits reprobation. One powerful motive, at least, there is to this, lest our children copy our crimes. For we are all of us too quick at learning to imitate base and depraved examples.”

O fatal guides ! this reason should suffice
To win you from the slippery route of vice,
This powerful reason ; lest your sons pursue
The guilty track, thus plainly marked by you !
For youth is facile, and its yielding will

Receives, with fatal ease, the imprint of ill.” Abundans cautela non nocet. Lat. prov.-"Plenty of caution can do no hurt, harm." We cannot be too cautious. “Take heed is a good reed.”

“Sure bind, sure find." Abundat dulcibus vitiis. Lat. QUINTILIAN.-"He abounds with luscious faults.” Spoken of an author even in whose errors something pleasing is to be found. “Modern ears are absolutely debauched by such poetry as DARWIN's, which marks the decline of simplicity and true taste in this country. It is to England what SENECA's prose was to Rome, Abundat dulcibus vitiis."

Ac etiam. Law Lat." And also.” A clause added by recent custom to a complaint of trespass

in the Court of King's Bench, which adds “and also " a plea of debt. The plea of trespass, by fiction, gives cognizance to the court, and the plea of debt authorizes the arrest.

Ac veluti MAGNO in populo quum saepe coorta est

Seditio, saevitque animis ignobile vulgus,
Jamque faces et saxa volant, furor arma ministrat;
Tum PIETATE gravem ac meritis si forte virum quem
Conspexere, silent, arrectisque auribus adstant,

Ille regit dictis animos, et pectora mulcet. Lat. VIRGIL.—

“And as when a sedition has perchance arisen among a mighty multitude, and the minds of the ignoble vulgar rage, now firebrands, now stones fly, fury supplies them with arms ; if then, by chance, they espy a man revered in piety and worth, they are hushed, and stand with ears erect; he, by eloquence, rules their passions, and calms their breasts.”

“As when sedition fires the ignoble crowd,
And the wild rabble storms, and thirsts for blood,
Of stones and brands a mingled tempest flies,
And all those arms, that sudden rage supplies ;
If some grave sire appears amid the strife,
In morals strict and sanctity of life,
All stand attentive, while the sage controls

Their wrath, and calms the tumult of their souls."
Accedas ad curiam. Law Lat.—“ You may approach the court.”
This name is given to a writ, by which proceedings may be removed from an
inferior to a superior court.

Acceptissima semper munera sunt, auctor quæ pretiosa facit. Lat. OVID.—. Those gifts are ever the most acceptable which the giver has made precious." They frequently derive their value from our estimation of the donor. It may also allude to the manner of giving, as in SHAKSPERE


“You gave, with words of so sweet breath composed,

As made the things more rich.”
Accipe, per longos tibi qui deserviat annos :

Accipe, qui pura norit amare fide.
Est nulli cessura fides: sine crimine mores :

Nudaque simplicitas, purpureusque pudor.
Non mihi mille placent: non sum desultor amoris :

Tu mihi si qua fides cura perennis eris. Lat. OVID.-
“Scorn me not, Chloe: me, whose faith well tried

Long years approve, and honest passions guide :
My hopeless soul no foul affections move,
But chaste simplicity and modest love :
Nor I, like shallow fops, from fair to fair
Roving at random, faithless passion swear,
But thou alone shalt be


constant care. Accusare nemo se debet nisi coram Deo. Lat. Law maxim.“No man is bound to accuse himself, unless it be before God.” No oath is to be administered, whereby any person may be compelled to confess a crime, or accuse himself. The law will not force any man to say or show that which is against him.

Acerrima proximorum odia. Lat. TACITUS. “ The hatred of those, who are near to us, is most violent.” A contest between relatives is generally conducted with more acrimony than a dispute between strangers. The phrase may also be applied to that violence of rage which generally belongs to a civil war.

Acme. Gr.-" The highest point, the highest degree.” “His fame was now supposed to have reached its acme.

Acquérir méchamment et dépenser sottement. Fr. prov.“. "To acquire wickedly and spend foolishly." Ill got, ill spent.

Acribus initiis, incurioso fine. Lat. TACITUS.—"Alert in the beginning, but negligent in the end.". Applied to a business vigorously conducted in the first instance, but where the exertion falls off as the affair draws nearer to a conclusion.

Acta exteriora indicant interiora secreta. Lat. Law maxim.“By the outward acts we are to judge of the inward secrets." We can only decide on men's intentions from their conduct.

Actio personalis moritur cum persona. Lat. Law maxim.-—"A personal action dies with the person.” In case of a trespass or battery, the death of one or other of the parties puts an end to the action.

Actis aevum implet, non segnibus annis. Lat. Ovid.-"He fills his space with deeds, and not with lingering years.” Applied to a character distinguished for a number of brilliant actions accomplished in the course of a short life.

Actum est de Republica. Lat.—"It is all over with the Republic.” A phrase used to intimate that the constitution is in extreme danger.

Actum ne agas. Lat. TERENCE.—“Do not overdo what has been already done.” The work which is finished may be endangered by the touches of a superfluous anxiety.

Actus Dei nemini facit injuriam. Lat. Law maxim.—“No one





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shall be injured through the act of God.” As, if a house be set on fire by lightning, the tenant shall not be responsible for the damage.

Actus legis nulli facit injuriam. Lat. Law maxim.-" The act of the law does injury to no man.” If land, for instance, out of which a rentcharge is granted, be recovered by elder title, the grantee shall have a writ of annuity, because the rent-charge is made void by course of law.

Actus me invito factus, non est meus actus. Lat. Law maxim.“An act done against my will is not my act.” If a person be compelled, for instance, through fear or duress imprisonment), to give a bond, or other writing, the deed is rendered void by the compulsion.

Actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea. Lat. Law maxim.“The act does not make a man guilty, unless the mind be also guilty.” Unless the intent be criminal, the deed cannot be attainted of criminality.

Acumen. Lat.-“ The point or edge of anything :” but metaphori. cally used to signify "sharpness, shrewdness, smartness, subtilty, cunning, sharpness of intellect, skill, accuracy of discrimination."

"Ad absurdum. Lat.-—"To an absurdity.” “ This is certainly reducing Protestantism ad absurdum.

Åd aperturam libri. Lat.—“At the opening of the book, or opening the book at random.”

Ad calamitatem quilibet rumor valet. Lat.-"Any rumour is sufficient against calamity.” When a man is distressed, a breath may complete his ruin.

Ad arca aperta il giusto pecca. Ital. prov.-"The just man may sin with an open chest of gold before him.” Opportunity makes the thief.

Ad captandum vulgus. Lat.—“To insnare the vulgar, to cap. tivate the masses.”—A lure thrown out to captivate the mobility.

N.B. Often used in an abridged form, thus, Ad captandum.

Ad eundem. Lat.-" To the same. In passing from one university or law society to another, it is said that he was admitted ad eundem, to the same precise rank which he held in the association or corporation of which he was previously a member.

Ad finem. "Lat.—“At, or towards, the end, conclusion." “ See the 3rd chapter, ad finem.

Ad Graecas Kalendas. Lat.--"At the Greek Kalends." The Kalends formed a division of the Roman month, which had no place in the Greek reckoning of time. The phrase was therefore used by the former to denote that the thing could never happen.

Ad humum moerore gravi deducit et angit. Lat. HORACE.— “ Nature oft sinks us under a load of woe.”

“Deep grief dejects, and wrings the tortured soul.” Or:

[She] "wrings the sad soul, and bends it down to earth.” Ad hoc. Lat.-" For this purpose, thing, matter, object.”

Ad infinitum. Lat.-“Without end." “Errors in reasoning on morals and on mind go on multiplying each other ad infinitum."

Ad interim. Lat.-“For the mean time." “They hold their own opinions as ad interim truths."

Ad internecionem. Lat.-"To universal slaughter-e'en to the


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death.” “The Ministers proposed to tax Cape wine ad internecionem,” that is, to an extent amounting to an absolute prohibition.

Ad invidiam. Lat.—" Invidiously; enviously; spitefully; maliciously.”

Åd libitum. Lat.—“At one's pleasure, at pleasure." In music it is used to signify those ornamental graces which are left to the taste of the performer.

Ad nauseam. Lat.-" Enough to make one sick.”—"The same ideas reäppear ad nauseam,” that is, till they are absolutely sickening or nauseating.

Ad ogni cosa è rimedio fuora ch'alla morte. Ital. prov.-"For everything there's a remedy but death." There's a salve for every sore.

Ad ogni uccello il suo nido è bello. Ital. prov.—“With every bird its own nest is charming." This may mean either “ the natural affection for home," or the preference bestowed on the place of our nativity.”

Ad omnia alia aetate sapimus rectius:

Solum unum hoc vitium senectus adfert hominibus
Attentiores sumus ad rem omnes, quam sat est.

Lat. TERENCE. “In everything else we are made wiser by age: but this one vice is inseparable from it, that we are all apt to be more worldly, more fond of moneymaking, more close-fisted, more grasping, than is either needful or becoming."

Ad perditam securim manubrium adjicere. Lat. prov.-"To throw the helve after the hatchet.” Over shoes, over boots. To be in despair.

Ad populum phaleras. Ego te intus et in cute novi. Lat. PERSIUS.—" Away with those trappings to the vulgar; I know thee both inwardly and outwardly." I know the man too well to be deceived by appearances.

* Away! these trappings to the rabble show:
Me they deceive not; for thy soul I know,

Within, without.” Ad poenitendum properat, cito qui judicat. Lat."He who comes too speedily to a decision [and acts on the impulse of the moment], is not long ere he repents of it."

Ad quaestionem juris respondeant judices, ad quaestionem facti respondeant juratores. Lat. Law maxim.-—“Let the judges answer to the question of law, and the jurors to the matter of fact."

Ad quod damnum. Lat.--"To what damage.” A writ, which ought to be issued before the king grants certain liberties, such as a fair or market, ordering the sheriff to inquire what damage the county is liable to suffer by such grant. The same writ is also issued for a similar inquiry with respect to lands granted to religious houses or corporations, for turn. ing highways, &c.

Ad referendum. Lat.-—"To be left for future consideration, to be further considered.” « The French and English Ministers took notice of the request, ad referendum.N.B.“ Ad referendumis a phrase that was

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