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Volume 141

September 23, 1925

Number 4

N does in reporting the survival of the gal. The greatest city in America is choos


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Hurrah ! We Were Wrong! added luster to a name which has meant adequately at the present time. These much in American history.

three cities all have new construction EVER in its entire history has

under way and Milwaukee expects to The Outlook retracted a state- Government by Bumps

have an efficient system by 1930. ment with greater joy than it

If the city in which you live has over

ing on the day this is written its 100,000 inhabitants and is not on this lant crew of the PN-9 No. 1. As last

candidates for the Mayoralty. On the list, it is dumping its sewage into public week's issue of The Outlook went to

morning of the primary election a news- waters without treatment. Dr. Field press almost the entire country had

paper presents as one of its strongest does not include in this list those cities abandoned hope of the rescue of Com

arguments for the man it supports a which merely screen out the large floatmander Rodgers and his men. To the phrenological chart showing the bumps ing articles. He says that this is merely Pacific coast, which had witnessed the

and depressions in the skull of the two eye service and that its sanitary and departure of the aviators for their dis

leading candidates of its party. Why it economic value is nothing. tant goal, the news of the survival of

does not also publish their horoscopes we There are cities with a total populathe crew of the PN-9 No. 1 brought a

do not know. Horoscopes would cer- tion of over 19,000,000 people which particularly intimate relief, but the rest

tainly have as much bearing upon the make little or no attempt to obey the of the country was not far behind in the

issues of the election as the statement fundamental law, that users of water expression of its jubilation.

that one candidate's nose "shows desire shall pass it on to other users unimpaired An editorial correspondent in San for the good things of life" and the other in quantity and quality. Francisco sends us by air mail word of

candidate's nose "indicates executive the celebration which took place in San

power and ability to manage men.” It is The Cave Man in the Francisco, now so busy with its Diamond

fortunate for America that such argu- Holy Land Jubilee. He writes: ments are not really typical of our politi

ARDLY a month passes nowadays The holiday crowds thronging the cal campaigns, even if they do happen H streets, theaters, and motion-picture

without its report of some fossil to be characteristic of such leaders as houses forgot all else for the moment.

find of prehistoric man. The most reHearst and Hylan. Audiences leaped to their feet when

cent comes from Palestine. A skull-cap,

At that, the worship of the great god announcement of the fact was made “Bunk” is not solely an American relig- perhaps 20,000 or 40,000 odd years ago

more than half complete, that belonged upon the screen or from the stage, and in many places crowds stood bare- ion.

to a peculiar type of Neanderthal cave headed while they sang “The Star

A Roll of Honor More or Less Spangled Banner.

man was recently found in a cave high Throughout the city and country

Hat have we accomplished to

up in the rocky walls of a valley near side the first news came to many

wards freeing our waters of pol

the Sea of Galilee. homes through the radio. Jazz bands lution? There has been prepared for the

In this cave the British School of and more orthodox performances were National Conference on Outdoor Recrea

Archäology in Jerusalem found a deep ruthlessly interrupted by the radio announcers who gave out the welcome tion a summary of the needs of the situ

accumulation of compacted deposits of news, and repeated it at intervals for ation. It was compiled by Dr. George rock fallen at various periods from its the benefit of those who had not been

Wilton Field, a biologist of high stand- roof, together with fragments of ancient listening in at first. Special editions ing. In this report he classes the cities

stone, bronze, and iron implements and of all the papers were quickly on the above 100,000 inhabitants upon a per

the charred remains of fires which had streets, and, although no news was available until the following morning

centage basis according to the efficiency been used for cooking by many generabeyond the laconic announcement of of their sewage treatment in relation to

tions of prehistoric man. By making a the fliers' safety, every detail of flight the population served. The role of sani

vertical cross-section of these deposits and the nine days of searching and tary honor runs as follows:

and carefully hand picking every spadewaiting, hastily written up and thrown

ful of them for evidence it was quite into type, was eagerly read.

Columbus, Ohio ...

95% Baltimore, Maryland

70% easy to reconstruct the story of the The country rejoices in the lives that

Houston, Texas..

68% whole past occupancy of the cave. Startwere saved, and it also rejoices in the Atlanta, Georgia.


ing at the top, then, the excavators were fact that the crew of the giant seaplane Reading, Pennsylvania.. 50% able to delineate layers of recent date; lived up to the highest traditions for

Cleveland, Ohio ..


next, mediæval and Arab; lower, Byzancourage and seamanship in their service. Worcester, Chicago, and Milwaukee tine and Roman; then iron age; bronze The Commander of the PN-9 No. 1 has each treat ten per cent of their sewage age; and, finally, at the bottom, stone



casian ancestors with their superior culture, absorbing the Cro-Magnon man. Shall a still better species of man some time brush us aside, just as our species treated the lowly, primitive Neanderthal kind?

Mosul and Mespot”

CLEAR and complete account of the

controversy over Mosul (which is or is not part of Irak, once Mesopotamia, according to the way one looks at it) is presented on another page by Mr. Baldwin, The Outlook's editorial correspondent abroad.

Since that article was written the boldness of Turkey's attitude has gone to extreme lengths. From Geneva it is reported that Turkey is insistent upon an immediate settlement of the whole problem without further debate of the report of the League of Nations' Commission. More than this, Turkey has, despatches say, amassed an army of about seventy

thousand men on the frontier between International

the Mosul district and the rest of MesoThe cave, north of Tiberias, in Palestine, where the skull was discovered

potamia. This is probably a gesture age. In the last they found the “Galli- extinct long ago. It now begins to look rather than an indication of actual war. lee skull," perfectly fossilized, so that it as if he even had his own different races, Turkey was so successful in bluffing the rang like porcelain. just as homo sapiens has to-day.

Powers into complying with her proHow came this individual of a species The Galilee fossil has peculiar inter- gramme at the Lausanne Conference that of man already known from fifteen est because it seems to represent one of

she seems to think now that any auskeletons previously found in Europe, to these races differing from the European dacity in the way of demands will have be living also in western Asia? How race of the Neanderthal species. The the same success. does he fit in with what we already know skull—that of a man of under thirty

In London there has sprung up what is of man's prehistoric past? Was he our (the age judged by openness of suture or

described by one newspaper corresponancestor, this thick-skulled, beetling- jointing lines)-is higher, a little more dent as "a chorus of general opposition" browed, short-necked, bent, shambling like our own than the European Nean- to the proposal that a British mandate savage?

derthal race, which is the true prototypal over Irak should be extended indefi

“low-brow.” Does this prove that the nitely, with Mosul included in Irak, as Another Race of Another

Galilee man was in process of evolving is proposed by the League of Nations. Species of Man

into our own species? Few think so. Mr. Garvin, of the "Observer," who is First, we must realize that so far our That process went on elsewhere we do normally a supporter of the Prime Mindiscoveries have enabled us to see not yet know where.

ister, says of this plan "it is a dull madprehistory but dimly, as through a mist. Tentatively, some such hypothesis as ness.” The opposition to the idea proFrom comparatively small evidence we this is accepted by most anthropologists: ceeds apparently from all parties, and it must try to piece together some sort of Man originated and most of his species is largely based on the financial aspect, account, keeping always in mind that it differentiated in Asia-possibly in Africa. that is, according to this view, England is tentative, and that some of its parts From time to time "progress samples” of thinks it is already spending too much are poorly authenticated, while others this continuing evolution were thrust out money and insists that the present adseem as sure as Julius Cæsar.

in different directions, a whole welter of ministration is pledged to economy in Of the latter sort is Neanderthal man, forms, only five species of which have foreign expenditure. The last thing that of whose fossils we have no mere tan

been found so far. Neanderthal man the average Englishman wants is to see talizing handful of fragments, but at was thus in Europe at least 100,000 his income tax go up several pennies in least sixteen well-preserved, easily stud- years ago, and he lived there until about the pound in order to carry on a small ied specimens. Thus we know pretty 25,000 years ago. But as the last of the war with Turkey over Irak or Mosul. well what this man who dwelt in the ice age passed a race of our species of This embarrasses the diplomats, who becaves of Europe was like, and, with few man, the Cro-Magnons, came into Eu- lieve that they can preserve England's exceptions, anthropologists agree that he rope, exterminating (a few still believe, interests without any actual war. was not our direct ancestor, but a sepa- absorbing) Neanderthal man. Fifteen All the parties to this dispute disavow rate branch of the tree, one that became thousand years later came our own Cau- the theory that the trouble would be

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less of the temptation to pursue the W

soon over if it were not that Mosul is
exceedingly rich in oil. Turkey and
England both assert that oil concessions
might be so managed as to be fair and
just to everybody concerned.
Closing in on the Riff
The clever device of the pincers

in the map published herewith was not intended, we are sure, by the artist, Mr. Walrath, to present the actual situation as it is to-day, but the general purpose and outcome hoped for in the combined French and Spanish forward movement. The pincers will not close this season, but points will be seized from which the closing-in movement will proceed if Abdel-Krim does not offer peace terms much more reasonable than those he has heretofore put forward rather as a gesture than as a basis of peace.

In a sense the Riffians are already between two enemy forces. The Spanish troops landed in Alhucemas Bay on September 8 under the cover of fire from Spanish warships. Their advance from the landing point was not carried on without severe fighting, and they have not yet (September 16) occupied Ajdir, the chief place in the territory claimed by Abd-el-Krim. The tribesmen have in

turn attacked the Spaniards in the vicin- lished rights of the two Western nations
ity of Tetuan.

The French advance was on a large
scale-a pushing forward of solid blocks

Work is Better
of troops toward definite objects, regard-

than Doles

HEN the fact is mentioned that a Riffians in other directions. In this way

million and a quarter of workers were regained several of what were orig- and their families in Great Britain are inally French outposts which fell in Abd- living in whole or in part on money furel-Krim's early raids. The result is said nished by the taxpayers without services to have impressed those tribesmen who rendered, the question is often asked, have been hesitating between desire to Why does not the British Government support the war for Riffian independence provide construction work on a large and fear of the large-scale operations of scale? This is what it is now underFrance.

taking to do. The London “Times" of For a small war the operations going recent date outlines a really stupendous on in the Riff are complicated and ex- scheme of road-making and road-mendtensive. It is probable that neither side ing, undertaken for the express purpose has yet exerted full strength, and it of giving work to the unemployed. seems almost certain that the preponder- The political economists hold that ance of French and Spanish forces, such attempts are doubtful from the prowhich must be something like four to one ductive point of view. The classical in numbers, will in the end make the ap- analogy was that to "make work” where plication of the pincers plan feasible. the demand was not spontaneous was too

It has been said that this is a war of much like paying a laborer to move a pile Moslem against Christian, but it seems of bricks back and forth without any obquite as much to be an attempt by a ject. Relief work, they say, is deadening small, partly nomadic Eastern people to to the worker, is apt to be mixed up with assert its independence not only from political jobbery, and usually puts men foreign rule but from such foreign control on jobs to which they are not suited. It as is necessary to protect the well-estab- may be admissible in an emergency, but

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Courtesy of the New York Times”

Walrath Pincers " operations against the Riffians started by the French and Spanish armies

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Courtesy of the “Christian Advocate"


it may also prolong the emergency con

mind convicts not only one preacher and dition.

one editor but the whole Church. “Such The reply is that the emergency ac

doctrine ... has driven the Holy Ghost tually exists and is cogent. This also is

from the Methodist Church" (charge the only defense for the Baldwin Min

22). We are not surprised to be told istry in offering what is practically a sub

that last year's General Conference residy to the coal industry.

ceived from this guardian of true religion Road-making is as little objectionable

a telegram saying: "If you lift the ban as any form of relief work; almost any

on amusements, hell will rejoice, heaven laborer can be made useful; the results,

will shed blood. May God have mercy even if not immediately imperative, are

on a decadent Church and Conference. of permanent public value. It has been

Rev. Levi Bird, Ph.D." tried locally in Great Britain; now it is

The Michigan Annual Methodist Conto be done on a national scale.

ference, soberly (more or less) listened The proposal is to spend about $15,

to a report on the charges against Dr. 000,000 more for road-building and im

Phelps—for printing the sermon and provement in the next year than ever

praising it—heard a committee report before and to appropriate over $30,000,

that the charges be dismissed, and so 000 for bettering some two thousand

ordered by a vote of 300 to 0. As we miles of trunk roads, and to move bodies

write the Detroit Conference, of which of unemployed labor to the points where

Dr. Hough is a member, is in session. construction is going on. The occasion

We are not given either to betting or - will be taken to make these great high

Dr. Lynn Harold Hough

to prophecy, but we think we see the end ways noble and beautiful.

of “a great heresy case.” This is certainly an interesting at

the end of the world might come within tempt to stem industrial trouble, but no

five years “if the Dr. Houghs did not such temporary adjustment goes to the

Rebels or Revolutionists? actual root of England's present depres

repent of their evolutionary views."

Now Lynn Hough is widely known as HERE are those who think that sion, the loss of her export trade in ima man of culture, a writer as moderate in

military and naval discipline is portant commodities. language as his accuser is violent, a

an absolutely inelastic code. preacher listened to by large American They believe that the practice and policy “A Great Heresy Case” and English audiences of taste and intel- of superiors must control to the minutest

lectual attainments, a former President degree the policy and action of subordiHEN those newspaper readers of Northwestern University, and as one nates. Those who hold this opinion are

who are at all well informed who would have been welcomed to the supporters of a theory which has not

about church matters read Methodist Board of Bishops if he had been proved in practice. the other day despatches stating that for- not quietly said, “Nolo episcopari.

Gallant Captain Broke, who commal charges of heresy had been presented We have read with pleasure and in- manded the Shannon in its overwhelming to Methodist conferences in Michigan struction the sermon that led to Dr. defeat of the Chesapeake, was an examagainst Dr. Lynn Harold Hough, of the Bird's onslaught. It has deep religious ple of the type of man who rises superior Central Methodist Church in Detroit, feeling; it carries no attempt to make to the practice and policy of his suand Dr. William H. Phelps, editor of the men evolutionists; although it shows that periors. In the control of his fire, in the Michigan “Christian Advocate,” they the writer believes in the broad and training of his men, he was greatly in could hardly believe that the statement universal idea of evolution, it expresses advance of the service which he honored was to be taken seriously. Well, it is not no opinion as to processes; it says: “You by his accomplishments. to be taken seriously. There will be no can so interpret evolution as to make it During Roosevelt's Administration a convulsion in the Methodist Church, no anti-Christian. You can so interpret young lieutenant appealed directly to the heresy baiting, no attempt to suppress evolution as to make it express the very President because he was thoroughly disfreedom of thought.

genius of Christianity. ... Can we make satisfied with the gunnery practice of our Every Church has its fanatics, as Christianity commanding in terms of Navy. Tests were made, and the opinevery political party has its lunatic scientific thought? Yes, more command- ion of the lieutenant was vindicated to fringe. With all respect to the honestying than ever before.” In short, the the immense advantage of the American and fervor of the Rev. Levi Bird, Ph.D., sermon is one that must command the Navy. That lieutenant lived to comwho thus signs himself to the twenty- assent of moderate thinkers and the sin- mand the American naval forces in the seven charges against Dr. Hough, he cere tribute of the spiritually minded. World War with the rank of a full ad"sees things.” He claims indeed to see This is what Mr. Bird calls in his miral. His advance was due to his courvisions. According to a correspondent of charge “the foamings of the Anti-Christ,” age and initiative and to the fact that, the Detroit "Times" he has described an "the last assault of the devil on the there was in the White House a man who experience which led him to feel that divinity of Jesus Christ," "utterances recognized such qualities and honored God had directed him through a vision to that beget crime and lawlessness," and them. fight the teachers of evolution and that the like. And the accuser in his own Successful rebels against official in


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