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The Organ of Vuin-glory or Vanity, Lies on the parietal bone backwards. It appears double on each side of the organ of Loftiness, (hereafter to be described) with which it is so nearly allied, that G. seems to have subjected himself imprudently to unnecessary objections and reproaches, by asserting a distinction so little capable of being made even plausible. He is able to assert in support of it, nothing but certain observations which he says have been made not only in common life, but also in mad-houses, where he' has at once by this sign discov red those who evinced a vain madness, thinking themselves kings, queens, &c.

It appears double, from the intervention of the organ of lofti

Persons having this organ have often the habit, so characteristic of an haughty man, of carrying their head aloft, inclined rather backwards. The Germans say of a proud man, “ He carries his nose high.”



The Organ of Constancy or Firmness,

Lics also in the middle of the skull, behind the organ of theosophy, and before that of loftiness, in that part where the anguli frontales ossium bregmatis meet. The adjacency of this organ to that of theosophy, according to Gall's peculiar train of thought, serves to account, as well as moral causes, for that spirit of firmness and endurance which distinguishes the heroes of religion so much more than those of philosophy. That this organ, put into action beyond its due proportion, máy produce the diseases of incurable obstinacy, &c. follows from all that has been said; hence pathological phænomena, as well as that firmness and constancy which G. asserts he has found in conjunction with this organ, which might therefore be stiled the organ of character.


II. We proceed to the organs (according to Gall's not very correct or significant classification) by which we are enabled to acquire a more familiar acquaintance with objects which are known to us by means of the external senses,

Before Gall had arrived at the conclusion, that memory is a quality common to all powers, he considered the organs which are now to be enumerated, as so many various organs of memory, as it is by means of these

organs that man is enabled to arrange and fix the

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impressions of the external world in various relations. But now he prefers representing them as organs of a particular sense, which sense, when it rises to a certain degree of force and vividness, may becoine active and pro ductive. The organs therefore that immediately follow are termed in German, Organ of the Sense of things, Sense of place, Sense of person, &c. a phraseology which deviates too much from our ordinary language to be adopted here.


Organ of Aptness to learn and retain Things, This organ

lies immediately over the root of the nose, betwixt the two eye-brows, upon and above the glabella assis frontis, and appears simple on the skull, because the organs meet in the centre and coalesce into one. In the earlier classication which G. employed, he termed this organ that of the memory of things, as opposed to words ; the import of which appellation will be at once intelligible to those who recollect in what sense the philologists distinguish between a Lericon verbale and a Lexicon reale.

Gall has collected various observations con



cerning the forination of the forehead on the part pointed out, both in quadrupeds and

First, he has found that those animals which are, to a certain degree, susceptible of education by man, are marked by a protuberance of the lower part of the forehead, nearly in the proportion of their capacity of being taught; and he illustrated this by the production of various skulls exhibiting this gradation; in the water otter, the fax, the greyhound, the spaniel, &c. In the elephant, the forehead is much raised; still more in the Qurang outang, but most of all in man. Further, G. has minutely compared the skulls of wild and tame animals of the same kind; and uniformly found that the tame, or tameable species, are marked with this organ, above the wild species. This he has particularly noticed in the wild and tame duck and goose, the tame hog, the wild boar, &c. &c, This observation induced G. for a time to call this organ—the abrichtung organ; a word which is not in our language, used to exa press the training of animals, an art which G, thinks will never make any great or ma. terial progress, nature having fixed its limits; In men, Gall has observed this organ, particularly among that class of persons who are commonly called matter-of-fact people, men Į 4


of information and business. It denotes the facility of receiving and retaining the impresa sions of outward things.


Organ of Aptness to learn and retain Places. This

organ lies on each side of the organ last mentioned, and hence appears double on the skull. It fills that half of each of the eye-brows which is next thc nosc (arcus superciliaris.)

The function which this organ is destined to fill in the inferior animals, is, that it gives the power of seeking out distant places, and of finding then again, when long deserted and left, at a great distance. Birds of passage, such as syallows, storks, &c.&c. are all marked by this organ; and it is known of such birds that they have a perfect recollection of their ancient places of residence. Swallows will return, year after year, to the same nest. Pigeons, which are used as letter-carriers, have also this organ. The capacity which animals, dogs for instance, have, of following their masters, as well as of returning to their home, has generally been attributed, and often truly, to the acuteness of their scent; but


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