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sorrowful. In 1598 the Irish rising took place, his castle was burnt, and he and his family fled for their lives to England. Broken-hearted, poor, but not forgotten, the poet died in a London tavern. All his fellows went with his body to the grave where, close by Chaucer, he lies in Westminster Abbey. London, his most kindly nurse,' takes care also of his dust, and England keeps him in her love."
BIBLIOGRAPHY. SPENSER.-G. L. Craik's Spenser and his Poetry ; Eng. Men of Letters Series; Ward's Anthology ; Disraeli's Amen. of Lit.; Howitt's Homes of the Brit. Poets, vol. 1; Lowell's Among my Books, 2d ser.; Whipple's Lit. of the age of Eliz.; Clar. Press Ed. of Faerie Queen; Minto's Char. of Eng. Poets; Atlantic, v.2, 1858; West. Rev., v. 87, 1867; Allibon", v. 2.
From Spenser's Faerie Queen.
Did decke her, and too lavishly adorne,
Thereto the hevens alwayes joviall
Gently attempred, and disposed so well
More sweet and holesome thenthe pleasaunt hill
3 Than. 4 On the frontier of Thrace.
5 A long, deep defile.
Or Ida? where the gods lov'd to repaire,
Or sweet Parnasse,the haunt of muses faire;
Much wondred Guyon at the faire aspect
With boughes and braunches, which did broad dilate Their clasping armes in wanton wreathings intricate.
There the most daintie paradise on ground
And that, which all faire workes doth most aggrace,3 The art which all that wrought appeared in no place.
One would have thought, so cunningly the rude
So all agreed, through sweete diversitie,
And in the midst of all a fountaine stood
3 Lend favor to.
i Hill of Phrygia. 4 Followed after.
2 Hill sacred to the Muses.
Was over-wrought, and shapes of naked boyes,
To fly about, playing their wanton toyes,'
And over all of purest gold was spred
Their fleecy flowres they fearfully did steepe,
Infinit streames continually did well
All pav'd beneath with jasper shining bright,
Eftsoones' they heard a most melodious sound,
Was there consorted in one harmonee;
The joyous birdes, shrouded in chearefull shade,
Poetry-Love, Patriotic, and Philosophical. 115
The silver sounding instruments did meet
Now soft, now loud, unto the wind did call;
FURTHER READINGS-IN BOOK I.-Opening stanzas of Canto I.; some stanzas of Canto II., beginning with the seventh; opening stanzas of Canto III., and of Canto IV.; some stanzas of Canto V., beginning with the eighteenth; some stanzas of Canto X., beginning with the twelfth, and also some beginning with the fifty-first; and concluding stanzas of Canto XII., beginning at the twentieth.
LESSON 22. THE FOUR PHASES OF THE LATER ELIZABETHAN POETRY.“Spenser reflected in his poems the spirit of the English Renaissance. The other poetry of Elizabeth's reign reflected the whole of English Life. The best way to arrange it-omitting as yet the Drama-is in an order parallel to the growth of the national life, and the proof that it is the best way is that on the whole such an order is a true chronological order.
First, then, if we compare England after 1580, as writers have often done, to an ardent youth, we shall find, in the poetry of the first years that followed that date, all the elements of youth. It is a poetry of love and romance and fancy. Secondly, and later on, when Englishmen grew older in feeling, their unsettled enthusiasm, which had flitted here and there in action and literature over all kinds of subjects, settled down into a steady enthusiasm for England itself. The country entered on its early manhood, and parallel with this there is the great outburst of historical plays, and a set of poets whom I will call the patriotic poets. Thirdly, and later still, all enthusiasm died down into a graver and more thoughtful national life, and parallel with this are the tragedies of Shakespeare and the poets whom I will call philosophical. These three classes of Poets overlapped one another, and grew up gradually, but on the whole their succession represents a real succession of national thought and emotion.
A fourth and separate phase does not represent, as these do, a new national life, a new religion, and new politics, but the despairing struggle of the old faith against the new. There were numbers of men such as Wordsworth has finely sketched in old Norton in the Doe of Rylstone, who vainly strove in sorrow against all the new national elements. ROBERT SOUTHWELL, of Norfolk, a Jesuit priest, was the poet of Roman Catholic England. Imprisoned for three years, racked ten times, and finally executed, he wrote during his prison time his two longest poems, St. Peter's Complaint, and Mary Magdalene's Funeral Tears, and it marks not only the large Roman Catholic element in the country but also the strange contrasts of the time that eleven editions of poems with these titles were published between 1593 and 1600, at a time when the Venus and Adonis of Shakespeare led the way for a multitude of poems that sang of love and delight and England's glory. To the first three we now turn.
THE LOVE POETRY.—I have called it by this name, because in all its best work (to be found in the first book of Mr. Palgrave's ‘Golden Treasury') it is almost limited to that subject—the subject of youth. It is chiefly composed in the form of songs and sonnets, and was published in miscellanies in and after 1600. The most famous of these, in which men like Nicholas Breton, Henry Constable, Rd. Barnefield, and others wrote, are England's Helicon and Davison's Rhapsody and the Passionate Pilgrim. The latter contained some poems of Shakespeare, and he is by virtue of these, and the songs in his Dramas, the best of these lyric writers. The songs themselves are old and plain, and dallying with the innocence of love.' They have natural sweetness, great simplicity of speech, and directness of statement. Some, as Shakespeare's, possess a 'passionate reality;' others a quaint pastoralism like shepherd life in porcelain, such as Marlowe’s well known song, Come live with