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175

exieras, ne nunc. hic hic, quod quaerimus, hic est, non in festuca, lictor quam iactat ineptus.

* Ius habet ille sui palpo, quem ducit hiantem cretata Ambitio ? vigila et cicer ingere large rixanti populo, nostra ut Floralia possint aprici meminisse senes. quid pulchrius ? at cum Herodis venere dies, unctaque fenestra dispositae pinguem nebulam vomuere lucernae portantes violas, rubrumque amplexa catinum 174. Exieris nunc nữ.

177. uigilia.

179. actum. 180. uenire.

180

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174. hic is an adverb, not a pronoun, as in festuca’ shows. Quod petis, hic est' Hor. 1 Ep. 11. 29, · Hic est aut nusquam, quod quaerimus' ib. 17. 39.

175. festuca, generally explained as a synonyme for 'vindicta here and in Plaut. Mil. 4. 1. 15 (quoted by Delph. ed.) • quid ? ' ean’ ingenua an festuca iacta serva a libera est ?' The Scholiast has non in ea virga qua a lictore percutitur.' Jahn refers to Stephens' Glossary, p. 96, * Festuca, káppos, paßsos.' On the other hand, Plutarch, De S. N. Vind. p. 550, says that one of the lictors threw stubble on the manumitted slave, which would accord sufficiently well with the ordinary use of 'festuca,' as in Varro L. L. 5. 31. 38 'qui homo in pratis per fenisecta festucas corradit.' • Vis festucaria' in Gell. 20. 10. 10.

At any rate the word appears to be technical, not used rhetorically in a contemptuous sense. Casaubon says that exfestucare' occurs in the laws of the Alemanni and Saxons, and elsewhere in mediaeval Latinity.

• No symbol was of such universal application among ancient nations as the

stipula,” the “ festuca,” the “culm,” the “hawm.” Thrice was the hawm to be cast when the Teuton bequeathed his land to the stranger in blood. Thrice was the hawm to be flung down before the sovereign when the lieges refused their assent to the doom; and once was the hawm to be cast up in the air before that Senior whom his lieges rejected and spurned away. To this usage, therefore, the sternly indignant Frankish Proceres resorted, proclaiming that they cast off their faith, and with one act in the open field—the field of council-did they cast

the hawm — they no longer Charles's lieges-Charles no longer their Senior or King.' (Palgrave, Hist. of Normandy and England, vol. 2.)

ineptus, because the ceremony does not convey real freedom.

176-188. • Is freedom compatible with the vanity of the political aspirant, who courts the mob and desires to be remembered for the splendour of his official shows? Or take the superstitious man, who observes Jewish ceremonies and seeks to propitiate the wrath of Isis-his bondage speaks for itself.' The instances are rather awkwardly introduced, as we might have expected that Persius, having at last found real freedom, would dwell upon it, rather than speak of other kinds of slavery. But there is spirit in the abruptness, which, at any rate, avoids the faults of formality and sameness.

176. palpo, 1. 112, equiv. to “am. bitor.'

ducit hiantem, imitated from Hor. S. 2. 88 emptorem inducat hiantem,' and perhaps from Virg. G. 2. 508 foll. hunc plausus hiantem Corripuit,' where hiantem '='avidum.'

The man follows with his mouth open, expecting to receive something. The sense of the passage appears to be, 'Is the political aspirant free ? if so, take all the necessary steps to gratify your ambition — these being described in such a manner as to show that they are really the badges of servitude. Persius is probably imitating the way in which Horace (1 Ep. 6) puts the question round about the true end of life (e. g. v. 31 foll.) Virtutem verba putas, ut Lucum ligna: cave ne portus occupet alter : ' campare also vv. 56 foll.

not even then.' Here, here is the man we're looking for. No connexion with the straw which the stupid lictor tosses about.

But perhaps the maker of smooth speeches, whom the whitewashed goddess of canvassing carries along with his mouth always open, is master of himself? Oh, then, be astir early and late; overwhelm the squabbling populace with showers of vetches, that the old gentlemen of the next generation, as they prose in the sun, may have stories to tell of our feast of Flowers. Can anything be finer? But when Herod's day is come, and the lamps arranged in the greasy. windows with violets to support send

up

their unctuous clouds, and a tunny's tail expatiates in a curled state round a red cauda natat thynni, tumet alba fidelia vino: labra moves tacitus recutitaque sabbata palles. tum nigri lemures ovoque pericula rupto, tum grandes galli et cum sistro lusca sacerdos incussere deos inflantis corpora, si non praedictum ter mane caput gustaveris alli.'

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177. cretata = • candidata :' the gown being rubbed with chalk to make it whiter. See Isidore 19. 24.

ambitio, 'the goddess of canvassing,' not to be rendered ambition, though elsewhere the Latin word is nearly equivalent to the English.

vigila seems to be like 'lucet, ea

Hor. 1 Ep. 6. 56. •Be on the move early and late,' the requirements of a canvass being apparently as exacting as those of dependence on the great and wealthy. Juv. 3. 127 foll., 5. 19 foll.

cicer. • In cicere atque faba bona tu perdasque lupinis’ Hor. 2 S. 3. 182. A plebeian article of food. Hor. A. P. 249 • fricti ciceris ... et nucis emtor.' Tickets for shows, money, etc. used to be scrambled for. Mart. 8. 78, Suet. Dom. 4.

178. rixanti, 'squabbling for a thing,' multo cum sanguine saepe Rixantes' Lucr. 6. 1286, of those who struggled for funeral piles during the plague.

nostra, like eamus ' Hor. 1 Ep. 6. 56, the poet identifying himself with the person addressed 'celebrated in our aedileship.'

Floralia, Dict. Antiq. 179. aprici =' apricantes,' like. apricis mergis ’ Virg. Aen. 5. 128. The old men delight in basking, like the old women, 4. 18, 19.

at. Jahn supposes the meaning to be that the successful political aspirant, apparently free, is really a slave to superstition ; but it is evident that Persius means to mark two kinds of slavery, not one only. Whether he intends that the same person is a slave in several respects is not clear : the second person is used here, as in various other places in the Satire, but we need only suppose that he

means to touch his auditor's conscience in one part, if he fails to do so in others. So the end of Satires 3 and 4. At the same time there is nothing incongruous in representing men of worldly eminence as slaves to superstition. Horace, in his various mentions of Judaism, evidently implies that it was spreading, talked of among the higher orders, if not favoured by them. The account in the latter part of Juv. Sat. 6 looks the same way. [Comp. an often-quoted fragment of Seneca ap. Augustin. Civ. D.6. I I.Cum interim usque eo sceleratissimae gentis' (Judaeorum) 'consuetudo convaluit, ut per omnes iam terras recepta sit: victi victoribus leges dederunt.' A case of a noble Roman lady converted to Judaism in the reign of Tiberius is mentioned by Josephus Ant. 18. 3 (4).]

180. Herodis .. dies seems to be Herod's birthday, which would naturally be celebrated by the Herodians.

fenestra. Lights were set up on doors and windows on festivals. Juv. 12. 91 foll., and Mayor's note. Jahn refers to Jos. Ant. 12. II, Sen. Ep. 95-compared by Casaubon to show that it was a Jewish custom. Comp. Tertull. Apol. 35' cur die laeto non.. lucernis diem infringimus ?'

181. pinguem nebulam vomuere is illustrated by Tertull. l. c. 'clarissimis lucernis vestibula nebulabant' (where however another reading is 'enubilabant,' which would agree better with clarissimis '), Sen. 1. c. ' nec lumine di egent et ne homines quidem delectantur fuligine.'

182. violas, another mark of rejoicing. Juv. 12. 90.omnes violae iactabo colores.'

amplexa catinum, “coiled round the dish, indicating the size of the I

185

Dixeris haec inter varicosos centuriones, continuo crassum ridet Pulfennius ingens, et centum Graecos curto centusse licetur.

190

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tunny's tail. “Angustoque vagos pisces urgere catino' Hor. 2 S. 4. 77.

183. The tunny was frequently used in sacrifices, being eaten at the temple, according to the Scholiast, who however may only be reasoning from the present passage. The tail of the tunny is large. Persius probably refers to the whole fish, not to the tail merely.

natat seems to be like · vagos' in Hor. l. c., referring to the nature of the fish in its native element, so that there is a contrast between 'amplexa' and * natat,' as between 'vagos' and 'angusto urgere.' Compare Ov. A. A. 1. 516 Nec vagus in laxa pes tibi pelle natet.'

tumet, probably referring to the bulging shape of the jar, which seemed to expand with the wine. The expressions in this and the preceding lines appear to be intentionally contemptuous; but Persius is apt to paint rather coarsely, even where he does not mean to ridicule.

184. 'Labra movet, metuens audiri' Hor. i Ep. 16. 60, of muttered prayer.

sabbata palles. Metuentem sabbata patrem ' Juv. 14. 96, and Mayor's note. Persius seems to mix up feasts and fasts rather strangely, apparently with the notion that all the Jewish observances were gloomy.

palles, as in Hor. 3 Od. 27. 28. 185. Having begun to speak of super

stition, Persius proceeds to enumerate other kinds.

tum, next,' as if the same person indulged each kind in order. Note on v. 179.

nigri, not strictly equivalent to ' nocturni,' though the association of night with images of terror doubtless gives occasion to the conception.

lemures. Hor, 2 Ep. 2. 208 Somnia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, Nocturnos lemures, portentaque Thessala rides?'

185. lemures and pericula are apparently constructed with incussere,' though in that case we must suppose a zeugma. ovo pericula rupto.

The Scholiast says priests used to put eggs on the fire and observe whether the moisture came out from the side or the top, the bursting of the egg being considered a very dangerous sign. This observation was called WOO KOTIK. Jahn.

186. Two kinds of superstition—the old one of Cybele and the later one of Isis imported from Egypt.

grandes galli, like Juvenal's • ingens Semivir' (6. 512). Compare also the following lines, where he speaks of the worshippers of Isis.

sistro. *Isis et irato feriat mea lumina sistro' Juv. 13. 93, Mayor's note, where Ov. ex Ponto 1. 1. 51, foll. is quoted

dish, and the white jar is bulging with wine, you move your lips in silence and turn pale at the circumcised sabbath. Then there are black hobgoblins and the perils of the broken eggshell; there are the big orders of Cybele, and the one-eyed priestess with her timbrel, hammering into you gods who make your body swell all over, unless you have taken the prescribed morning dose, three mouthfuls of a head of garlic.'

Talk in this way among the military gentlemen with the large calves, that great overgrown Pulfennius breaks into a horse-laugh in your face, and offers a clipped hundred-as piece for a lot of a hundred Greeks.

to show that blindness was a special visitation from Isis. Hence the priestess is supposed to be called lusca, as having herself felt the wrath of the goddess. Visconti (Mus. Pio. Cl. 3. p. 60 foll.) ap. Jahn speaks of two seals which represent Egyptian priests as one-eyed.

187. • Incutere metum, terrorem, formidinem, religionem,' are all found. See Freund. Persius, as is his wont, strengthens the expression. Compare Virg. Aen. 5. 679 'excussaque pectore Iuno est;' id. 6. 78 'magnum si pectore possit Excussisse deum.'

inflantis, seemingly of the swelling of the whole body by disease, as in 2. 14., 3. 95, rather than of ulcers. sent participle seems to express the habit, so that inflantis si non gustaveris' · qui infabunt si non gustaveris.'

188. praedictum, ' prescribed.' 'Praedictaque dona ferebat' Stat. Achill. 2. 145.

caput .. alli. Col. 6. 34. 1. So caput porri, ulpici.' The custom appears to be mentioned nowhere else.

189-191. 'Talk in this way to the soldiers, and they will set you down as a fool.' So much is clear, that Persius wishes to give a parting kick to his old enemies the soldiers ; but whether he speaks indignantly, .And yet all this

The pre

precious truth is laughed down,' or defi-
antly, “All this is true, though, or even
because the soldiers laugh at it,' is not
easy to see.
189. See 3. 77 note.

varicosos. • Varicosus fiet haruspex' Juv. 6. 397, from being always on his legs. So here the soldiers, from being always on the move. • Grandes magna ad subsellia

surae

Juv. 16. 14, of the military. Compare ib. 24., 3. 248.

190. crassum ridet, like 'subrisit molle' 3. ITO. Horace's 'dulce ridere,' ridere decorum.'

ridet, as in 3. 89.

Pulfennius, one of a number of varieties presented by the MSS., is preferred by Jahn on the authority of an inscription in Murat. p. 816, 7.

ingens, like torosa iuventus' 3. 89, caloni alto' v. 95. 191. Compare 3. 79.

Graecos, like doctores Graios' 6. 38, contemptuously, philosophy being hated not only for its own sake but as a foreign importation.

curto, he will not even bid a whole centussis, but only a clipped coin. The abl. of price. Compare Plaut. Capt. 2. 2. 24 • Eugepae! Thalem talento non emam Milesium.'

SATURA VI.

ADMOVIT iam bruma foco te, Basse, Sabino? iamne lyra et tetrico vivunt tibi pectine chordae ? mire opifex numeris veterum primordia vocum atque marem strepitum fidis intendisse Latinae, mox iuvenes agitare iocos et pollice honesto egregius lusisse senes. mihi nunc Ligus ora intepet hibernatque meum mare, qua latus ingens

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A vindication of his right to spend his income in moderate enjoyment. To. Caesius Bassus, mentioned in Persius' life as one of his intimate friends, deputed (by Cornutus) to edit his Satires after his death, classed with Horace as a lyric poet by Quintilian (10. 1. 96), who however thinks him inferior to some of his own contemporaries; killed, according to the Scholiast, in the famous eruption of Vesuviusprobably the same with the author of a treatise on Metres, which is referred to by Maximus Victorinus, Terentianus Maurus, Diomedes, and Rufinus, and still exists in an interpolated epitomebut different from Gabius or Gavius Bassus, who wrote works on the origin and signification of words, and on the gods. Jahn.

I-II. Are you wintering in your Sabine retreat and writing verses there? I am living in my retirement on the Ligurian coast, at Ennius' favourite port of Luna.'

1. Compare Hor. I Ep. 7. 10 ' Quod si bruma nives Albanis illinet agris, Ad mare descendet vates tuus,' etc., also 2 S.

winter.'

foco .. Sabino, as Jahn thinks, suggests the notion of primitive life (Virg. G. 2. 532, etc.) which would be in keeping with what follows about Bassus' tastes.

2. tetrico. • Tetrica ac tristis disciplina Sabinorum 'Livy 1. 18.

vivunt here='vigent,' with which it is sometimes coupled.

3. mire, adv. or adj., if the latter, compare Hor. 2 S. 4. 7. Sive est naturae hoc sive artis, mirus utroque.'

opifex .. intendisse, Prol. 11.

primordia vocum, from Lucr. 4. 531, where it signifies the beginnings of articulate sound. Here it is apparently to be explained by ‘tetrico pectine' and 'marem strepitum,' of the simple and manly versification of antiquity, which Bassus doubtless affected. Persius probably thought of Virg. Aen. 6. 646 * Obloquitur numeris

septem discrimina vocum.'

numeris .. intendisse. ference to the stringing of the lyre, Virg. Aen. 9. 776, speaks of stringing the numbers on the chords ; and Persius goes

With re

3. 5 foll.

bruma=' brevissuma,''the depth of

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