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In spite of hospitalities so of the people. The significant fact is that Imperial

numerous and so exhaust-. the new Parliament is vigorously at work. Organization

ing that several Premiers It has indefinitely postponed the prowere compelled temporarily to seek re- posed loan from England guaranteed by tirement, the Conference has organized Russia--a proposition regarded as the the movement of which it is an expres- first fruit of the new understanding besion, so as to consolidate and perpetuate tween those two Powers—and has subit. The general trend of the organiza- stituted the establishment of its own tion is perhaps indicated by the change native bank, which will issue an internal of title from the Colonial to the Im- loan. The present Shah has been fairly perial Conference. The meeting of well educated in the ideas of representathe Prime Ministers of the Colonies tive government. While heir apparent he with the Prime Minister of the Home resided in Tabriz, the second city of Government is to be held every four Persia, where the people forced him to years; it is to be presided over by grant a local anjuman or provincial counthe British Prime Minister, who is to be cil. Even before the death of his father ex-officio President of the Conference ; he was forced to sign the new national the Premiers of self-governing colonies Constitution and to guarantee the rights and the British Colonial Secretary are of a national Parliament. It is not surto be ex-officio members; and other prising, then, to learn that the influence members are to be appointed by the of the Tabriz council and of the national respective Governments. Each Gov- anjuman has now caused a local council ernment is to have one vote, and every to be formed in almost every Persian discussion is to be conducted by not province. Thus a new patriotism has more than two representatives of each taken the place of the old cynicism. Government. In order to keep the vari- While criticism of existing customs is ous Governments well informed of one sharper than ever, the motive is different. another's movements during the inter- This is seen in the establishment of new vals of the Conferences, a permanent schools and the strengthening of the secretarial staff is to be established existing mosque schools (in which the under the direction of the Colonial Sec- rudiments of reading and writing are retary, the duty of which shall be to taught), and the increase of Mohammedan obtain information for the use of the pupils in the missionary schools. It is Conference, conduct its correspondence, especially seen in the sudden increase in and attend to the carrying out of its the number and quality of newspapers ; resolutions. Subsidiary conferences are free publication of papers and books to be held between the representatives being, for the first time, allowed. It is of the different Governments when mat- interesting to note the confidence of ters of importance cannot be postponed the leaders of the new movement in the until the next general Conference. This authority to govern given to them by the is a long step toward binding the colonies law of Mohammedanism itself.

It comin closer relations with the Home Gov- prises civil and criminal law as well as reernment, and bringing into co-operation ligious, and these leaders include many the different parts of the British Empire. of the clergy. This seems at first surpris

ing, for the fiercest extreme of fanaticism

is found in that class; but, contrary to the The outside world general supposition, so is the extreme of The New Movement

is not yet as con- liberalism. The Mohammedan clergy in Persia

scious as it should in Persia do not constitute an organized be of the profound change which has body; they are a large body of men of taken place in Persia. It is not that a every shade and opinion, coming directly new Shah is ruling, for the most im- from the people and never out of touch portant changes took place before the with them. Thus the liberal clergy death of his predecessor and had become the natural leaders of any popualready resulted in the calling of an lar movement. In this Persian demoanjuman, or Parliament, representative cratization of old governmental forms, as

also in certain movements in India, we against this modern infamy. The debate detect the influence of the example of has become very outspoken. At a genJapan. If the Japanese now lead the eral council of the Workmen's party Far East, so the Persians may in time speeches were made urging the establishlead the Near East.

ment of a republic, and the King was

denounced as the chief obstacle to the King Leopold, of whom it bettering of the condition of the working A Crisis in has been said that he has

classes. A general strike may be one Belgium

the best manners and the of the weapons used if the King proves worst morals of any European ruler, has obdurate; but the possibilities of the been under a heavy fire from a large situation are manifold. part of the civilized world for months past, and has probably been very indif

While American farm

The Hudson Bay ferent to it. The things he has done or

ers in the West are

Route permitted to be done in the Congo, with

complaining of car his general attitude in face of an out- shortage, and railway companies are raged world, seem to indicate that he studying how to solve the problem of would have flourished in Italy in the transportation in such a way that facilidays of the Renaissance, when the strong ties may always be equal to an everman often succeeded by virtue of a growing demand, it is interesting to powerful intellect, a resolute will, and note that Canada likewise is confronted an entire absence of moral scruples. with a similar problem. As regards its But the King of the Belgians is now Northwest probably an even more urgent getting a kind of criticism which may situation presents itself than that which bring him to terms; it has brought him confronts shippers in the United States. home from his vacation on the Mediter- In many cases the wheat-growers of ranean to face a growing discontent in Manitoba and Canada's new provinces Belgium and an acute Cabinet crisis. find themselves unable to ship one crop The Smet de Nayer Ministry, which of wheat before another is harvested. went into power in August, 1899, has As settlers are usually not prepared to been compelled to resign. It was de- hold their crops a year before marketfeated on the question of the law ing, the lack of railway transportation fixing the hours of labor in mines, not only works a hardship upon the which was adopted by a vote of 94 to farmer, but acts directly as a stay upon 32. The Government party has been the development of the new lands now divided for some time on questions of awaiting settlement. It is not surprislabor legislation; some of its members ing, therefore, in view of such a situation, taking a liberal stand in these matters, that the Dominion Parliament has disand others favoring liberal legislation as cussed the need for an early realizathe only way of keeping in touch with tion of the long-talked-of and longthe Socialists and the laboring classes. planned railway to Hudson Bay to proBut the Government would probably not vide an outlet for the new provinces have fallen on this issue alone. It was which are settling up so rapidly. The the occasion rather than the cause of its contingency now presented has long defeat. The cause was the failure to been foreseen. As a matter of fact, as deal radically with the situation in the Premier Laurier said in his speech upon Congo. M. Smet de Nayer found him- the subject, there has been upon the self in the position of having to choose statute-book for the last twenty or twentybetween two masters, the King and the five years a subsidy provision proposing people, with no compromise possible; to give in aid of the construction of such and he chose the easiest way out of the a railway 12,000 acres of land per mile. dilemma. The outrages committed, or This offer, so liberal in its provisions, permitted to be committed, in the Congo has not, however, tempted any railway by the King of the Belgians have at last company to enter upon the work of concome to the knowledge of the Belgian struction. In the natural sequence of people, and they are rising in protest the settlement of new lands railways follow rather than precede populations, and among railways. We have become accusit requires extraordinary inducements, tomed to roads that climb mountains, dive such as Canada has always shown her- under rivers, and spanchasms of abysmal self willing to offer, to induce railway depth, but it has remained for Mr. Henry companies to depart from this rule. The M. Flagler to construct the first seatime now is ripe, even from the view of going railway in extending his Florida railway promoters, for this venture north- East Coast system. The line runs from ward, as there is now a considerable Miami on the mainland to Key West, a population in part of the region to be distance of approximately one hundred traversed and the tide of migration is and fifty miles, and on account of the setting that way. There are, moreover, difficulties of construction it is estimated no special engineering difficulties in the that its cost will be about $15,000,000, way, though the climate is hard upon or upward of $100,000 a mile. Less the roadbed and rails. It is true that than half the new road will be built on the value of the sea route by way of natural foundation. Skirting along the Hudson Bay, open for only a few months curve of the eastern coast of the State in the year, is another factor that cannot for twenty-eight miles below Miami, it be said to be definitely ascertained. The then crosses to Key Largo, the longest Hudson's Bay Company for hundreds of the small coral islands that are strung of years brought in its supplies by that out in a curved line off the Florida shore, route, but the dimensions of this trade terminating with Key West. In its would bear but an insignificant ratio to course between these two points the road that for which Canada is now seeking touches nearly thirty of these diminutive an outlet by rail and water. The feasi- islets. Between these specks of land bility of the sea route via Hudson Bay rock embankments will be built wherever for at least three or four months of the the water is sufficiently shallow to peryear has been settled by recent Govern- mit. Across the deeper portions and ment surveys, and the tone of the discus- those exposed to storms the line will be sion in Parliament, and especially of the carried by concrete arch viaducts. These utterances of Premier Laurier, shows that viaducts vary from one to two miles in unless the railway companies soon de- length, and in places the traveler on the cide to accept the long-offered subsidy, new road will have the unusual sensation the Government may come forward and of voyaging over ocean waves in a luxuriconstruct the road itself. Canada is no ous railway coach. The construction of the longer, as it was formerly regarded, merely road presents many unusual engineering a narrow strip of territory along the problems, though none, it is declared, American border. Prospering provinces that have not been solved successfully. have been organized in the far North- The materials of construction, including west, and Manitoba is no longer seen to not only the rails, but also the timbers be the limit of Canadian progress. The for ties and piling, the concrete and country north of the Laurentian Moun- rock for filling, and even the drinkingtains is now being opened up; excellent water consumed by the laborers who are wheat, barley, and potatoes have been building the road, are transported long grown in the valley of the Yukon, and distances. Although the water along the time is evidently at hand when the the line of the road is in few places new great transcontinental railway now more than thirty feet in depth, a vast in process of construction should be sup- quantity of piling is used on account of plemented, as originally planned, by a the exposure of the line to violent storms,


, railway route to Hudson Bay.

and the concrete piers of the foundation will be firmly anchored to the bed rock.

One of the minor problems to be met The running of the first has been that of feeding and housing the A Railway that

train from the Florida laborers. This has been solved by the Goes to Sea

mainland to Key Largo establishment of camps on several of the marked the beginning of the operation of keys, and by the construction of numerwhat may fairly be designated as a novelty ous house-boats or floating dormitories,


in which the men live and which are Theuriet defeated Zola at an Academy moved forward along with the dredges, election. To Theuriet life was no sea of pile-drivers, and other machinery, keep- corruption with but one or two strong ing pace with the progress of the road swimmers able to withstand the maelto the south ward. In connection with strom. While his emotionalism, it must the construction of the new road exten- be owned, is rarely intense, it is patently sive docks and terminals are being built sincere. His note, never shrill, seldom at Key West. Although this is to be thrilling, rings true, for it suggests the the end of the rail line, the real terminus autobiographic. Theuriet wrote many of the road is to be Havana, for huge novels, but his characteristic aspects are car-ferries are to be built to convey trains perhaps best revealed in “Le Mariage de direct to the Cuban capital. It is ex- Gérard,"

"“Sous Bois,' “ · L'Abbé Daniel,” pected that the road will be completed “Raymonde." In developing the plots within three years, and at the end of that and characters of these romances, such time it will be possible to enter a through contemporaries as MM. Coppée, Bourget, train in New York, Chicago, or other Anatole France, all happily still living, Northern cities, and to proceed without would have been at once more realistic change direct to Cuba. The economic and more minutely psychological. But importance of the road, in addition to in matter they would very likely have extending the territory which Mr. Flag- been less wholesome and in manner ler's operations have opened heretofore less gentle, graceful, harmonious, light to sportsmen and pleasure-seekers for in touch, unaffected, yet sensitive to the their winter holidays, will be consid- “ mood of words." These qualities, too, erable. By uniting Key West to the are all evident in what to some mainland it will relieve the isolation of stitutes Theuriet's chief claim to fame, that island city, and upon the completion his exquisite descriptions of nature, faithof the Panama Canal will probably result ful, not flamboyant, in making it a port of considerable importance. The line will provide quick passenger and express-freight service to

It is proposed to mark

Calvin's Quadri. Cuba.

the four hundredth year Centennial

since Calvin's birth in

1509 by erecting at Geneva a memorial The poems, novels, and of the Reformation. It is an internaAndré Theuriet

dramas of André Theu- tional undertaking to commemorate the riet, who died last week, belong to the wide influence of the Reformation as mildly romantic order. While this seen in a broad historical view. Not Frenchman was notable in these three only the great Genevan, but the great literary fields, he has been probably men of other lands who have carried on most widely known as a novelist. He his liberating and uplifting work, will was simple and straightforward both in have place in the proposed memorial.

. conception of life and in grasp of char- A strong committee in Geneva, repreacter. His records of the bourgeoisie senting all varieties of opinion, has and of provincial existence are thus un- already raised a subscription averaging commonplace. But they are so in a a franc from every Protestant in the city. special sense. The subject of illicit love Co operative efforts are being made in seems almost commonplace in French France, Germany, Great Britain, and literature; one is grateful to that writer Holland. America will do her share. whose main work is not to elaborate and This was evinced by a meeting recently over-emphasize this feature of life. Not at Union Theological Seminary. Harevery Theuriet romance, it is true, is to vard, Yale, Columbia, Dartmouth, Johns be recommended for general reading Hopkins, Princeton, were represented but, as a whole, they are distinguished in there, and stirring addresses in advocacy being distasteful to those naturalists who of the enterprise were made both by would have in all novels the crass and Calvinists and anti-Calvinists, as those ugly virility of a Zola. Ten years ago terms are popularly understood. Presi.



dent Patton emphasized Calvin's “Insti- of Chicago it is obviously impossible to tutes of Theology.” President Eliot laid use any ground for growing Aowers, stress on the fact that democracy and although at the downtown as well as outliberty were "by-products” of Calvin- lying exchanges window-boxes of flowers ism. Mr. Edwin D. Mead, another well- are numerous and are solicitously watched known and honored Unitarian, honored by young women employees. They have Calvin's insistence on the sovereignty of had help for all the heavy work, but God. “ The modern world,” said he, the inherent love of women for fowers “damns weakness, Calvin damned sin, has now an opportunity to grow and to and sin is the best thing to be damned.” strengthen. The improved equipment and A committee of seven was appointed to the various comforts the company has secure generous co-operation with the furnished to make the operators more Genevan Monument Association, which alert and cheerful have resulted in reduchopes to raise not less than $200,000. ing the average time of handling calls to The fact that the Pan-Presbyterian Alli- four seconds. This began in furnishing ance is to meet in New York in 1909 rest rooms at exchanges—comfortable gives assurance that the great anniver- rooms full of easy chairs and couches sary will be adequately commernorated for the rest periods of operators. in this country, with an accentuation of Later bookshelves were furnished, and that emphasis which Calvin laid so books from the Chicago Public Library. strongly on social righteousness.

It was found that the young women were in better condition to work because of

these provisions for their hours of leiFlower gardens are a

Then came the lunches, pictures Flower-Beds and


means which for the rest Telephone Service

room walls, and lastly the Chicago Tele- the flower gardens. The expenditure of phone Company has tried for increasing money in this direction is an interestthe efficiency of its operators. In such ing recognition of the tangible value exchanges as had a plot of ground the to the public of a telephone operator's young women were offered individual contentment. patches of ground for flower-beds, and rivalry helped to make the experiment a success. and vied with another who chose verbena seeds; a third kept a clump

bration of sweet-peas as weedless as her neighbors who had geraniums. The com- President Roosevelt opened the Jamespany furnished the seeds and the ground town Tercentennial Exposition on Friday all spaded and ready for planting. A real of last week amid the roar of guns, the garden was new to many of the girls. At music of bands, and tumultuous cheers first they made many mistakes, pulling from a vast gathering of people. Off up plants and carefully leaving sturdy shore could be seen the fleets of Gerweeds instead. They got down on their many, England, France, Austria, and the knees and dug in the dirt until they United States; and the President in his grew to be quite proficient gardeners, voyage across Hampton Roads moved in enjoying it all meanwhile more than had a cloud of smoke and amid the thunder been expected. Some of the operators. of salutes. The Presidential party was of a thrifty bent, grew lettuce, radishes. met at the Government pier by Mr. and strawberries. Their crops more than Harry St. George Tucker, President of once were proudly picked by their own the Exposition, accompanied by the Diers to be served with the noon luncheon rectors, and the President's carriage was which the company furnishes free to its followed by the carriages of the repreoperators at all the exchanges. Roofsentatives of Congress and diplomatic gardens are said to be a possibility of corps in their most brilliant uniforms and the future at exchanges where no ground robes. At the opening exercises the is available. In the downtown district pressure of the crowd became so great

One planted mignonette The Jamestown Cele

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