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riter, and Herr Anderssen, the victor in the great International Tournament of 1851. The former was unfornnately called away by his diplomatic duties to a remote quarter of the globe; but the latter consented to emerge tom his studious retirement in the University of. Breslau (where he fills the post of Professor of Mathematics), to visit Paris, and meet the knight who kept the list against all comers. The arrangements for the match were simple, and were concluded with the utmost facility. Seven games were to be won by either combatant, and the two masters sat down to the struggle. At the conclusion, the score stood thus—Morphy 7, Anderssen 2, drawn 2.
Having thus encountered and defeated every living player of celebrity, with the solitary exception of one with whom he could not obtain a meeting, Mr. Morphy felt that his mission in Europe had been fulfilled, as far as it was possible. His thoughts turned homewards; and he shortly made arrangements to re-cross the Atlantic.
His departure from Paris was the source of much regret to his continental friends, and his brief second visit to London was a source of equal pleasure to the chess players of Great Britain. His subsequent movements are thus described in a sketch which accompanied a life-like steel plate portrait of Paul Morphy, published in connection with the “Illustrated News of the World.”
“From this moment the progress of Mr. Morphy was through a series of ovations, in which chess became but a mere accessory to personal, but well-deserved compliments. The St. George's and the London Chess Clubs each invited him to a public banquet; and all parties of chess players (for chess players, like politicians, are split into sections) laid aside their differences, and united to do him honour. Those parties were attended by many of the aristocracy of rank and talent; and his countrymen will not fail to recognize the cosmopolitan spirit in which their hero was received. To Mr. Morphy these entertainments must have been very gratifying; but with a degree of good taste that demands notice, he declined numerous other invitations of the same kind. During his second brief sojourn in London, his time was occupied with Mr. Löwenthal in the preparation of an important literary work,* and occasional privato : visits to the clubs. He had many and strong inducements to return to the United States. His fellow-countrymen hac raised him a magnificent honorary testimonial, and were preparing to welcome his re-appearance in a manner which indicated an exalted sense of his character. Reasons, wes believe, still more cogent pressed him to leave Europe. Mr. Morphy, as we have shown, does not look upon chesis as an employment, but an amusement; and he is desirous of applying his intellectual powers to the profession hé has adopted. Let us hope that in such a sphere he may become as widely known and as generally esteemed as he is in what passes under the description of the 'world of chess. His success in that sphere is without a parallel. It is little more than twelve months since he embarked at New York for England. Never was a reputation so soon and solidly established. He came among us with a local, and returns with an universal fame. His movements in America were recorded in fugitive paragraphs: his marvellous exploits in Europe will become matter of history. If to the renown he has achieved as a chess player he can add the futuro reputation of a great lawyer, he will supply one of the most curious and suggestive illustrations of the exceptional versatility of genius that humanity has produced. We have firm belief that a career of more than national usefulness is open to Paul Morphy.
The Americans are, it is scarcely necessary to say, exceedingly proud of their representative in the world of chess; and since his return home his merits have been worthily recognized. On the 25th of May, 1859, a vast assembly met in the chapel of the New York University, in order to present him with a testimonial, consisting of a magni. ficent set of gold and silver chess men and a board of rosewood inlaid with cornelian; and since that time he has been entertained at a grand banquet at Boston, Massachusetts. Other honours have been showered upon him, too numerous for us to detail.
Who may next dispute the palm of chess-chieftaincy with
* The work referred to is the present volume.
Paul Morphy we cannot tell, but we may quote the opinion of M. St. Amant, once the opponent of Mr. Staunton. That distinguished player is reported to have said that Paul Morphy “must in future give odds to every opponent or play single handed against several in Consultation.”
The precise character of Mr. Morphy's play will be better understood and appreciated from the games and analysis which constitute this work, than from any description of it which we can give in this Memoir. We may observe, however, that its general features are carefulness, exactitude, concentration, invention, and power of combination. The game of chess may be divided into three sarts: the opening, in which a position is striven for; the mid game, in which the position is used; and the end game, in which the results are obtained. The openings depend upon knowledge, and here Paul Morphy with a quickness and accuracy of perception which appears like intuition, seizes upon and employs the best methods developed by the latest analyses. In the turmoil of the mid game his great natural powers in attack and defence are displayed; and the end game he plays with all the mathematical precision of a veteran. He has in the course of a few years attained a position amongst the greatest masters, and long will posterity admire the genius whose marvellous exploits are recorded in the following pages.
MATCHES. WITH ANDERSSEN, HARRWITZ,
LÖWENTHAL, MONGREDIEN, “ALTER.”
MR. MORPHY AND HERR ANDERSSEN.
like that with Herr Harrwitz, was played at the Café de la Régence in Paris. It was commenced on the 20th December, 1858, and brought to a conclusion in the short space of eight days. The winner of the first seven games was to be declared victor. At the termination of the match Mr. Morphy had scored 7, Anderssen 2, and 2 had been drawn. This contest excited intense interest throughout the continent of Europe. Herr Anderssen enjoyed the reputation in France, Germany, and elsewhere, of being one of the best players in Europe.
GAME I.-Evans' GAMBIT.
BLACK, (Mr. A.) 1. P. to K's 4th.
1. P. to K's 4th. 2. Kt. to K. B's 3rd.
2. Kt. to Q. B's 3rd. 3. B. to B's 4th.
3. B. to B's 4th. 4. P. to Q. Kt's 4th.
4. B. takes P. 5. P. to B's 3rd.
5. B. to R's 4th. Since Mr. Waller's analysis of this opening (“ Chess Player's Chronicle,” vol. ix., p. 280) an opinion has gained ground that of the two defences here-B. to R's 4th and B. to B's 4th-the latter is the better. The following moves being given in proof of the weakness of the former :
5. B. to R's 4th. 6. Castles.
6. P. to Q's 3rd. 7. P. to Q's 4th.
7. P. takes P. 8. Q. to Kt's 3rd.
8. Q. to B's 3rd. 9. P. takes P.
9. B. to Kt's 3rd. 10. P. to K's 5th.
10. P. takes P.