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Nor do they think swine's flesh to be different from human, From which the father abstain'd; and soon they lay aside their

foreskins : But used to despise the Roman laws,

100 They learn, and keep, and fear the Jewish law, Whatsoever Moses hath delivered in the secret volume : Not to shew the ways, unless to one observing the same rites, To lead the circumcised only to a sought-for fountain ; But the father is in fault, to whom every seventh day was 105 Idle, and he did not meddle with any part of life. Young men, nevertheless, imitate the rest of their own accord;

only Avarice they are commanded to exercise against their wills; For vice deceives under the appearance and shadow of virtue, When it is sad in habit, and severe in countenance and dress. Nor is the miser doubtfully praised as frugal,

111 As the thrifty man, and a safeguard of his own affairs,

was handed down from father to son, not common than for vice to be concealed knowing the design and importance of under the garb of virtue, as in the inthe divine command,

stance which the poet is about to men. 106. Meddle, &c.) i. e. He refrained tion. In this sense it may be said, De. from all business, eren such as related to cipimur specie recti. Hor. de Art. the necessaries of common life. The 1. 25. Jews carried this to a superstitious 110. Sad in habit, &c.] The poet, in height; they even condemned works of this line, in which he is describing vice, necessity and charity, if done on the wearing the garb, and putting on the Sabbath. See John vii. 23. They also semblance, of wisdom and virtue, has declared self-defence to be unlawful on probably in his eye the hypocrites, the Sabbath-day. See ANT. Univ. whom he so severely lashes at the beHist. vol. x. p. 272.

ginning of the second Satire. See sat. 107. Young men, &c.] The poet now ii. 1. 120. begins on the subject of avarice, in order Habitu here means outward carriage, to show how this also is communicated demeanour, manner. Sad-triste from father to son : but here he makes a

grave, pensive, demure. distinction. As to other vices, says he, -Severe in countenance, &c.] A seveyouth want no force to be put upon them rity of countenance, and a negligence in to incline them to imitation; whereas, dress, were supposed characteristic of this of avarice, being rather against their wisdom and virtue, and were therefore natural bent towards prodigality, requires in high esteem among the philosophers, somes pains to be taken, in order to instil and those who would be thought wiser it into their minds,

and better than others. Hence, in or-The rest. The other vices which der to deceive, these were assumed by have been mentioned.

vicious people. See Matt. vi. 16. 108. Commanded, &c.] They have 111. Doubtfully praised, &c.] Nobody much pains taken with them to force doubts his sincerity, or that he is other them, as it were, into it, against their than his appearance bespeaks him, viz. natural inclinations,

a frugal man, and careful of his affairs, 109. Vice deceives, &c.] They are de- which is certainly a laudable chaceived at first, by being taught to look racter. upon that as virtuous, from its appear. Sic timidus se cautum vocat, sordidus ance, which in truth, in its real nature parcum.

SEN. and design, is vicious. Nothing is more


Certa magis, quam si fortunas servet easdem
Hesperidum serpens, aut Ponticus: adde quod hunc, de
Quo loquor, egregium populus putat, atque verendum
Artificem: quippe his crescunt patrimonia fabris.
Sed crescunt quocunque modo, majoraque fiunt
Incude assiduâ, semperque ardente camino.
Et pater ergo

animi felices credit avaros,
Qui miratur opes, qui nulla exempla beati
Pauperis esse putat; juvenes hortatur, ut illam
Ire viam pergant, et eidem incumbere sectæ.
Sunt quædam vitiorum elementa: his protinus illos
Imbuit, et cogit minimas ediscere sordes.
Mox acquirendi docet insatiabile votum :
Servorum ventres modio castigat iniquo,




113. More certain, &c.] At the same 116. To these workmen, &c.] Fabris time he is acting from no better princi- here is metaphorical, and is applied to ple, than that of the most sordid avarice, these fabricators of wealth for themand takes care to hoard up and secure selves, because those who coined or his money-bags in such a manner, as made money for the public were called that they are safer than if guarded by fabri, or monetæ fabricatores. Faber the dragon which watched the garden of usually denotes a smith-i. e, a workthe Hesperides, the daughters of Atlas, man in iron and other hard materials, from whence, notwithstanding, Hercules a forger, a hammerer: so these misers, stole the golden apples; or by the who were continually at work to increase dragon, which guarded the golden fleece their wealth, might be said to forge and at Colchis, in Pontus, from whence, hammer out a fortune for themselves, notwithstanding, it was stolen by Ja- and in this sense might be called fabri.

To such as these, says the poet, riches 114. Add.] We may also add to this increase. account of the character here spoken of, 117. By whatsoever means.] They were that he is in high estimation with the not very scrupulous or nice, as to the generality of people, who always judge means of increasing their store, whether of a man by what he is worth.

by right or wrong. At bona pars hominum, decepta cupidinc forge, &c.] The poet still continues his

118. By the assiduous anvil, and the falsa, Nil satis est, inquit, quia tanti quantum beating their iron on the anvil, and have

metaphor. As smiths, by continually habeas, sis. Hor. lib. i. sat. i. 1. 61, 2. ing the forge always heated, fabricate

and complete a great deal of work; so “ Some self-deceived, who think their these misers are always forging and lust of gold

fashioning something or other to inIs but a love of fame, this maxim crease their wealth. Their incessant " hold

toil and labour may be compared to “ No fortune's large enough, since working at the anvil, and the burning others rate

desire of their minds to the lighted forge. Our worth proportion'd to a large Camino here is to be understood of the “ estate."

Francis. forge or furnace in which the iron is 115. The prople think, &c.] They reckon heated. this man,

who has been the fabricator of 119. The father therefore, &c.] Sceing his own fortune to so large an amount, these men abound in wealth, and not an excellent workman in his way, and recollecting what pains it cost them, to be highly reverenced.

both of body and mind, to acquire it,

More certain, than if, those same fortunes, the serpent
Of the Hesperides or of Pontus should keep. Add, that
This man, of whom I speak, the people think an excellent, and

Artist, for to these workmen patrimonies increase :
But they increase by whatsoever means, and become greater
By the assiduous anvil, and the forge always burning.
And the father therefore believes the covetous happy of mind,
Who admires wealth, who thinks that there are no examples
Of an happy poor man; he exhorts his young men, that they
May persist to go that way, and apply earnestly to the same
There are certain elements of vices; with these he immediately
Them, and compels them to learn the most trifling stinginess.
By-and-by he teaches an insatiable wish of acquiring: 125
He chastises the bellies of the servants with an unjust measure,



thinking the rich are the only happy opens his grand plan to them ; and as people, and that a poor man must be they have been taught to be mean and miserable

stingy in lesser matlers, he now instructs 121. Exhorts the young men.] His sons them how to thrive, but applying the that are growing up.

same principles to the science of getting 122. To go that way.) To tread in the money by low and illiberal means. steps of these money-getting people. -Insa ble wish.) A desire that can

- Apply earnestly, &c.] Incumbo never be satisfied such is the inordinate signifies to apply with earnestness and love of money. Amor habendi. Virg. diligence to any thing. The father here Æn. viii. I. 327. recommends it to his sons, to apply 126. He chastises, &c.] The poet in themselves diligently to the practices of this, and in some of the following lines, these people, whom the poet humour. particularizes certain instances of those ously styles a sect, as if they were a minimæ sordes, which he had hinted at, sect of philosophers, to which the word 1. 124, and which the father is supposed properly belongs. Those who joined in to set an example of to his sons, in following the doctrines of Plato, were order to season and prepare their minds said to be of the Platonic sect—so secta for greater acts of sordidness and avaSocratica. Secta comes from sequor, to rice. follow.

First, Juvenal takes notice of the way 123. Certain elements, &c.] Certain in which the father treats his servants. rudiments or beginnings. The father He pinches their bellies, by withholding does not all at once bid his sons to be from them their due allowance of food, covetous, but insinuates into their minds, by giving them short measure, which is by little and little, sordid principles. implied by iniquo modio. The Romans This he does as soon as they are capable measured out the food which they gave of receiving them, which I take to be their slaves ; this was so much a month, the meaning of protinus here. Iinbuo and therefore called demensum, from signifies to season meat, or the like; so, mensis-or rather, perhaps, from deme. hy metaph. to season the mind; also to tior-whence part. demensus-a.um. furnish, or store.

We find this word in TER. Phorm. 124. Compels them to learn, &c.] From act i. sc. i. 1. 9. where Davus is reprehis example, little paltry acts of mean- senting Geta, as having saved some. ness and avarice-minimas sordes. thing out of his allowance, as a present

125. By-and-by.) As they grow up, he for the bride of his master's son. VOL. II.


Ipse quoque esuriens : neque enim omnia sustinet unquam
Mucida cærulei panis consumere frusta,
Hesternum solitus medio servare minutal
Septembri; nec non differre in tempora cænæ

130 Alterius, conchen æstivi cum parte lacerti Signatam, vel dimidio putrique siluro, Filaque sectivi numerata includere porri: Invitatus ad hæc aliquis de ponte nezaret. Sed quo divitias hæc per tormenta coactas ?

135 Cum furor haud dubius, cum sit manifesta phrenesis, Ut locuples moriaris, egenti vivere fato ? Interea pleno cum turgit sacculus ore, CRESCIT AMOR NUMMI, QUANTUM IPSA PECUNIA CRESCIT; Et minus hanc optat, qui non habet. Ergo paratur 140 Altera villa tibi, cum rus non sufficit unum,

Quod ille unciatim vix de demenso suo, into some cupboard, the door of which Suum defrauduns genium, cumparsit had the master's seal upon it. miscr.

131, 2. Part of a summer fish.] Lacerti Geta had saved of his corn, of which æstivi.What fish the lacertus was, I the slaves had so many measures every do not any where find with certainty. month, and turned it into money. Mo- Ainsworth calls it a kind of cheap fish dium was a measure of about a peck and usually salted. This, mentioned here, is an half. Ainsw.

called a summer fish; I suppose, because 127. He also hung'ring.) Half starving caught in the summer time; and for himself at the same time.

this reason, no doubt, not very likely to -Neither docs he, &c.] He does not keep long sweet, suffer, or permit, all the pieces of bread, 132. With half a stinking shad.) See which are so stale as to be blue with sat. iv. 33; and Ainsw. Silurus. Lil. mouldiness, and musty with being and with an half and putrid silurus. boarded up, to be eaten up at once, 133. To shut up.] Includere—i. e. to but makes them serve again and again. include in the same sealed vessel.--The

129. The hash, &c.] Minutal, a dish infinitive includere, like the servare, 1. made with herbs and meat, and other 129, and the non differre, l. 130, is things chopped together ; from minuo, governed by the solitus, l. 129. to diminish, or make a thing less.

- Number'd threads,&c.] Sectivi porri. -Of yesterday.] Which had been In sat, iii. 293, 4, Juvenal calls it sectile dressed the day before, and now served porrum. See there. There were two up again. This he will still keep, though different species of the leek; one sort in the month of September, a time of was called sectum, sectile, and sectivum; year when, from the autumnal damps, the other capitatum; the former of which victuals soon grow putrid. The blasts was reckoned the worst. See Plin. lib. of the south-wind at that time were xix. c. 6. particularly insalubrious. See sat. vi. From the bottom of a leek there are 516, note.

fibres which hang downwards, when the 130. Also to defer, &c.] Who accus. leek is taken out of the ground, which toms himself to keep for a second meal. the poet here calls fila, or ihreads, which

131. The bean.) Conchis. See sat. they resemble. He here humourously ži, 293, note.

represents a person so sordidly avaricious, -Sealed up.] Put into some vessel, as to count the threads, or fibres, at the the cover or mouth of which was sealed bottom of a leek, that if one of these up close with the master's seal, to prevent should be missing he might find it out. the servants getting at it. Or perhaps The epithets, sectivum and sectile, are

with part

a summer

He also hung'ring: for neither does he ever bear
To consume all the musty pieces of blue bread,
Who is used to keep the hash of yesterday in the midst of
September ; also to defer, to the time of another supper, 130
The bean, sealed up

Fish, or with half a stinking shad,
And to shut up the number'd threads of a sective leek:
Any one invited from a bridge to these, would refuse.
But for what end are riches gather'd by these torments, 135
Since it is an undoubted madness, since it is a manifest phrensy,
That you may die rich, to live with a needy fate ?
In the mean time, when the bag swells with a full mouth,

And he wishes for it less, who has it not.

Therefore is prepared

140 Another villa for you, when one country seat is not sufficient;

given to that sort of leek, from its being For Anticyra, see above, Juv. sat, Xiii. usual to cut or shred it into small pieces 1. 97, note, when mixed with victuals of any kind. 137. A needy fate, &c.) i. e. To share See Ainsw. Sectivus.

the fate of the poor; to live as if destined 134. Invited from a bridge.] See sat. to poverty and want, for the sake of iv. 116. The bridges about Rome were being rich when you die, a time when the usual places where beggars took your riches can avail you nothing, be their stand, in order to beg of the pas- they ever so great. sengers.

138. When the bag swells, &c.) And all The poet, to finish his description of this, for which you are tormenting yourthe miser's board of victuals, here tells self at this rate, you find no satisfaction us, that if this wretch were to invite a or contentment in; for when your bags common beggar to such provisions as he are filled up to the very mouth, still you kept for himself and family, the beggar want more. The getting of money and would refuse to come.

the love of money increase together : 135. But for what end, &c.] Some verb the more you have, the more you must be understood here, as habes, or want, possides, or the like-otherwise the ac Crescit indulgens sibi dirus hydrops, 8c. cusative case is without a verb to govern See Hor. lib. ii. ode ii, and lib. iii. ode it.

We may then read the line xvi, 1, 17, 18. To what purpose do you possess riches, Crescentem sequitur cura pecuniam gathered together by these torments Majorumque fames. i. e, with so much punishment and un 140. He wishes for it less, &c.] A poor easiness to himself? See sat. x. I. 12, man looks no farther than for a supply 13.

of his present wants; he never thinks of 136. Undoubted madness, &c.] So HoR. any thing more. sat. jii. lib. ii. l. 82.

Therefore.] Because thou art inDanda est hellebori multo pars maxima satiable in thy desires. avaris,

Is prepared, &c.] Not content Nescio an Anticyram ratio illis destinet with one country-house, another is pur

chased, and gotien ready, prepared for Misers make rehole Anticyra their own; thy reception, as one will not suf. Its hellebore resci ved for them alone. fice,



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