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Natus ad Euphraten, molles quod in aure fenestræ 105 Arguerint, licet ipse negem ? Sed quinque taberna

Quadringenta parant. Quid confert purpura major sin der
Optandum, si Laurenti custodit in agro
Conductas Corvinus oves? Ego possideo plus

Pallante et Licinis. Exspectent ergo tribuni; 110 Vincant divitiæ: sacro nec cedat honori,

Nuper in hanc urbem pedibus qui venerat albis ;
Quandoquidem inter nos sanctissima Divitiarum
Majestas: etsi funesta Pecunia templo.

Nondum habitas, nullas numorum ereximus aras, 115 Ut colitur Pax atque Fides, Victoria, Virtus,

Quæque salutato crepitat Concordia nido.

104. An immense number of slaves man of Claudius and immensely rich. came from Armenia, Cappadocia, Meso- Suet. Claud. 28. Tac. An. xii. 53. xiv. potamia, and the countries through which 65. Plin. H. N. xxxiii

. 10. Plin. Ep. the Euphrates flowed. PR.

vii. 29. viii. 6. He was put to death by Among the Orientals, even men used Nero for his wealth. Vs. R. to wear ear-rings for ornament. Plin. xi. Licinius, a German, was a freedman of 37. incedunt cum annulatis auribus ; Augustus; he was likewise very rich : xiv. Plaut. Pæd. 14. PR. The boring of 306. but there were also wealthy families the ear was, among many eastern na- of the Licinian clan, viz. the Calvi Stolones; tions, a sign of servitude; see Exodus, Liv. vii. 16. and the Crassi Divites. PR. xxi. 6. This expression may be put by R. Pers. ii. 36. VS. GRÆ. G. hypallage for fenestra in aure molli, 110. Virtus post nurx mos; For. I Ep. according to the proverb auricula mollior; i. 54. GR. omnis enim res, virtus, fuma, Cic. ad Q. Fr. ii. 15. or from being a decus, divina humanaque, pulchris divitiis sign of softness in the wearer. GR. R. parent ; quas qui contraxerit, ille clarus

105. • I have five shops in the Forum erit, fortis, justus. Sapiensne? Etiam : which are let for as much as a knight's et rex, et quicquid volet; Id. II S. iii. 94. estate.' VS. T. Tiberio imperante consti- Et genus et virtus, nisi cum re, vilior alga tulum ne quis in equestri ordine conseretur, est; Id, v. 8. PR. nisi cui ingenuo ipsi, patri, avoque paterno The tribunes were sacrosancti invio. sestertia quadringenta census fuisset; Plin. lable;' Liv. ii. 33. iii. 19.55. Dionys. xxxiii. 2. PR. xiv. 323 sqq. R.

vi. 89. vii. 17. If any one injured them 106. · The greater purple may be by word or deed, he was held accursed, either the consulship,' as toga major; and his goods were confiscated. AD, R. Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 656. or the 111. Vilissimum est crelæ genus, qua broad-bordered tunic of the senator,' as pedes venalium trans mare advectorum depurpura latior and latus clavus; Plin. notare majores instituerant; Plin. II. N. Ep. ii. 9. major cl.; Stat. Silv. III. ii. xxxv. 17. Regnum ipse tenel, quem sa pe 124. felix p. ; Mart. VIII. viii. 4. and on coegit burhara gypsatos ferre catasta pedes; the other hand pauper and angustus cl. de. Tib. II. iii. 59. Pers. vi. 78. cf. v. 53. note the equestrian order; Stat. Silv. V. vii. 16. 120. Suet. Aug. 69. This white ii. 18. Vell. ij. 88. But under the Cæsars mark was the signature either of the slavethis distinction was less rigidly observed. merchant, or of the proprietor, or of the cf. Suet. Aug. 38. Ner. 26. Dom. 10. republic. BRO, SA. PR. R. Plin. xxxiii. I. R. Id. ix. 36 sqq. PR. 113. Pecunia, 'the cause of many a (Livy xxvii, 19, 8. ED.)

death,' was deified ; and universally 108. Corvinus, descended from the worshipped ; though enshrined only Valerian clan. cf. viii. 5. R.

in the hearts of her votaries. Vs. T. PR. 109, Pallas, an Arcadian, was a freed- 116. Ai the temple of Concord was

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Sed quum summus honor finito computet anno,
Sportula quid referat, quantum rationibus addat;

Quid facient comites, quibus hinc toga, calceus hinc est 120 Et panis fumusque domi? Densissima centum

Quadrantes lectica petit, sequiturque maritum
Languida vel prægnans et circumducitur uxor.
Hic petit absenti, nota jam callidus arte,

Die4 Ostendens vacuam et clausam pro conjuge sellam. 125 “ Galla mea est” inquit: “ Citius dimitte?"Moraris ?”.

“ Profer Galla caput.” “ Noli vexare, quiescit.”.

Ipse dies pulcro distinguitur ordine rerum:
Sportula, deinde forum jurisque peritus Apollo

Atque triumphales, inter quas ausus habere
130 Nescio quis titulos Ægyptius atque Arabarches,

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heard the chattering of the stork which est; IV. viii. PR.
had built its nest there, as often as it 128. The clients attended their patron
flew home with food for its young. VS. to the forum' of Augustus, in which
ipsa sibi plaudut crepitante ciconia rostro ; there was an ivory statue of Apollo
Ov. Met. vi. 97. T. FA,

(Plin. xxxvi. 5. vii. 53. Hor. I. S. ix. 117. · Men of the highest rank calcu- 78.); who is called juris peritus from the late on these doles as no inconsiderable number of pleadings, at which he must portion of their annual income.' See have been present. Hence also we have note on 101. LU.

Mursyan caussidicum ; Nart. II. Ixiv. 8. 119. See 46. Mart. III. xxx. R. Hor. I S. vi. 119. In the same spot * These poor dependents had looked to Augustus had erected the triumphal this as a means of paying their tailor's, statues' of the greatest generals; Suet. shoemaker's, baker's, and coalmerchant's Aug. 29. VS. 31. BRI. GR. PR. bills.'

R. 120. Mart. XIII. xv. III. xxx. 3. R. 130. * An effigy with an inscription on

121. 'A crowd of litters brings pe. the pedestal :' claraque dispositis acla titioners.' PR. See 95. R.

subesse viris; Ov. F. v. 566. GR. 124. See 65. PR.

Arabarches. There is much uncer125. Galla is supposed to be the wife's - tainty here both as to the text, and as to name. M.

the person intended. He may be either With inquit understand maritus. PR. (1) Crispinus (v. 26), who was created

126. • Put out your head,' says the Prince of Arabia by Domitian, Schol. dispenser, (because this was a stale Ms. He might also be called the trick' nota ars). Don't disturb her;' Arch-Arabian, sarcastically, as worst of says the husband; • I dare say, she is all the Arab slaves. LU. or (2) Tib. asleep.' LU. Or the whole line may be Alexander, who was governor of Egypt, assigned to the husband only.

brother or nephew of Philo Judæus, 127. The ordinary routine of the day's procurator of Judæa, and a Roman employment is made much the same by knight. Tac. H. i. 11. ii. 79. Eus. ii. Martial; prima salutantes atque altera GY. AL. FA. HO. G. or (3) Josephus, continet hora. Exercet raucos tertia to whom Vespasian granted a triumphal causidicos. In quintam varios extendit statue. Hieronym. FL. PA. Then with Roma labores: sextu quies lassis, septima regard to the word itself, it is doubted finis erit. Sufficit in nonam nitidis octava whether it should be Arabarches or palæstris: imperat exstructos frangere Alabarches; see F. and R's ex

Hora libellorum decima

non a toros.


Cujus ad effigiem non tantum mejere fas est.
Vestibulis abeunt veteres lassique clientes
Votaque deponunt, quamquam longissima cænæ

Spes homini. Caules miseris atque ignis emendus. 135 Optima silvarum interea pelagique vorabit

Rex horum vacuisque toris tantum ipse jacebit.
Nam de tot pulcris et latis orbibus et tam


131. Pers. i. 114. PR. · It is allow. while there is life there is hope.' able to commit any nuisance.' vi. 309. Hence it was that to Hadrian's question BRI. R.

• What is the longest thing ?' Epictetus 132. See 95 sq. Veteres is in aggra- answered Hope.' R. vation of the neglect. R. The two 134. With their paltry dole they have classes of patron and client compre- to buy a bunch of greens and a little hended nearly all the citizens of Rome. firewood on their way home; and then A patron was a man of rank and fortune, they must wait till the vegetables are under whose care the meaner people boiled, before they can appease their voluntarily put themselves, and, in con- hunger.' sequence of it, were denominated his

136. Baoinsīs, Lucian repeatedly; clients. The patron assisted his client doorítas. Id. Nigr. Rex; v. 14. 137. with his influence and advice, and the viii. 161. Hor. I Ep. xvii. 43. Mart. client, in return, gave his vote to his III. vii. 5. V. xxii. 14. dominus ; v. patron, when he sought any office for 81. 92. 147. R. Seneca somewhere himself or friends. The client owed his says that good cheer, without a friend to patron respect, the patron owed his client partake of it, is the entertainment of a protection. The early Romans threw a wild beast: and Alexis abuses a man for sanctity around this obligation on the being povocázos. G. patron's part. It was expressly enforced Ipse, as airós. cf. Aristoph. Th. 472. by a law of the Twelve Tables : patronus 541. si clienti fraudem fecerit, sacer

At their meals, the men used to recline Virgil, many ages after, places the un- on sofas, and the ladies sat in chairs. just patron in Tartarus, among the vio- BO. cf. note on ii. 120. R. lators of natural and moral decorum : 137. See 75. Orbis denotes the hic quibus invisi fratres, pulsatusve parens, slab of a round table;' xi. 122. 173. cf. et fraus innera clienti; 2.vi.608. iv. 132. Mart. II. xliii. 9 sq. IX. lx. This state of mutual dependence, which 7 sqq. Their tables were originally commenced with the monarchy, was pro- square ; v. 2. Varr. iv. 25. R. It was ductive of the happiest effects ; till, as the ancient fashion to place before the riches and pride increased, new duties guests tables with the viands, and not to were imposed on the clients: they were change the dishes on the table. They had harassed with constant attendance, and two iables, one with the meat, &c. the mortified by neglect; in a word, they other with the dessert. When they had were little better than slaves. G.

eaten as much meat as they wished, the 133. Deponere is opposed to suscipere. table itself was withdrawn, and the GR.

second course or dessert was placed beLongissima ' retained to the very last'fore them on a fresh table. The square

' cherished all day long.' Lucian tables went out of fashion with the tri(Figi rão iri podão ouvóvrwv) says of clinia. The new-fashioned couch was of clients, δι' ηδονης ελπίδα μόνον πολλάς a semicircular form called sigma, from αηδίας υπομένειν and πίτρακται αυτούς its shape C; and it held seven or cight oudly iv å rarti Tan Bigo cope os persons; Mart. X. xlviii. 5 sq. XIV. iasidos, . 7 and 8. cf. vi. 166. ixxxvii. to suit these, round tables were Unless the words should be transposed introduced. As luxury advanced the thus votaque deponunt canæ ; longissima number of tables was increased (somequanquam spes homini, according to the times they had a fresh table with every old adage, ægroto dum anima est spes est, course); and the guests either remained



Antiquis una comedunt patrimonia mensa.

Nullus jam parasitus erit ? Sed quis ferat istas
140 Luxuriæ sordes? Quanta est gula, quæ sibi totos

Ponit apros, animal propter convivia natum ! .
Pæna tamen præsens, quum tu deponis amictus
Turgidus et crudum pavonem in balnea portas.

Hinc subitæ mortes atque intestata senectus.
145 It nova nec tristis per cunctas fabula cænas :

Ducitur iratis plaudendum funus amicis.
"These Nil erit'ulterius, quod nostris moribus addat

Posteritas: eadèm' cupient facientque minores.

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in the same place while the tables were 141. Suillum pecus donatum ab natura
changed, or else removed to the fresh dicunt ad epulandum; Var. R. R. II.
tables; which latter Martial calls ambu- iv. 10. PR. A certain philosopher con-
lans cæna ; VII. xlviii. Both the number jectured that is was the same as còs. s
and size of these tables is here noticed. εις θύσιν και σφαγήν μόνον έπιτήδειον: Clem.
The diameter of the table, which consisted Al. Strom. ii. . For a banquet, not for
of a single slab, would depend on the size a solitary meal.' R.
of the citron tree. And the beauty of Natis in usum lætitiæ scyphis pug.
the wood consisted in the number of its nare; Hor. I Od. xxvii. 1. PR, Oves,
knots and veins. Whence Petronius placidum pecus, inque tuendos natum ho-
says, citrearum mensarum Africa emtarum mines; Ov. M. xv. 116 sq. M. boves,
maculas mutari auro viliori, et censum ila animal natum tolerare labores; Id. 120 sq.
turbari. Their antiquity too is not over- (Livy xxii, 4, 3. ED.]
looked: they had been famous in the 142. Culpam pæna premit comes ; Hor.
family for several generations. And yet IV Od. v. 24. GR. III Od. ii. 31 sq. R.
amidst all this profusion, one single course hinc (ex ebrietate) pallor et genæ pendulæ,
cost a fortune! There seems an allusion oculorum ulcera, tremulæ manus effun-
to the gluttony of Clodius Æsopus, the dentes plenu vasa ; et quam sit pæna
actor, and his son. Plin. ix. 35. x. 51. præsens, furiales somni et inquies noc-
Hor. II S. iii. 239 sqq. HN. Plut. Luc. iurna ostendunt; Plin. xiv. 22. BRI.
p. 318 sq. Anton. V. p. 149. Suet. Cal. Primus Q. Hortensius augurali cæna
37. Vit. 13. R. LU. LI. AD.

dicitur pavones posuisse. Quorum pretia 139. • The parasite' (Kapà sirov) paid statim extulerunt multi, ita ut ova eorum for his dinner by flattery of his host. PR. denariis venirent quinis, ipsi fucile quin. Terence has given a masterly portrait of quagenis; Macr. Sat. ii. 13. PR. The such a character in his Gnatho. M. flesh of this bird is very indigestible.

• One consolation is, that the breed of Aug. de Civ. D. xxi. 4. AS. parasites will become extinct! and yet it 143. Pers. iii. 98 sqq. PR. crudi tumay be questioned whether even a para. midique lavemur; Hor. I Ep. vi. 61. M. site could sit still and see such a disgust- 145. Avarus, nisi cum moritur, non recle ing exhibition of selfish gluttony.'

facit. GRÆ. 140. O quanta est gula, centies comesse ! 146. Tristia funera ducunt; Virg. Mart. V. lxx. 5, memorabile magni gut. G. iv. 256. Pers. 105 sq. cf. Eund. vi. turis exemplum; ii. 113. R. P. Ser- 33 sq. LU. The friends are annoyed, vilius Rullus was the first who had a both at the selfishness of the deceased, wild boar dressed whole. Plin. viii. 51. and at their having no legacies from him. PR. cf. v. 116. Suet. Tib. 34. Mart. M. VII. lix. It was often the top dish. 147. See 87. R. Antony had eight served up; Plut. 148. Minores, understand natu, M. Caranus had one to each guest; Ath. ii. 146. viii. 234. opposed to veteres ; xiv. iv. l. R.

189. to majores; Ov. Tr. IV.x. 55. R. D

Il Omne in præcipiti vitium stetit. Utere velis;
150 Totos pande sinus. Dicas hic forsitan “ Unde

Ingenium par materiæ ? unde illa priorum

Scribendi, quodcumque animo flagrante liberet, week lately Simplicitas, cujus non audeo dicere nomen ?

Quid refert dictis ignoscat Mucius, an non?
155 Pone Tigellinum :, tædá lucebis in illa, you

,Qua stantes ardent, qui fixo gutture fumant, feresina
Ét latum media sulcum diducis arena."

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149. The climax is now complete: praved favourites, whose enmity it would vice bas reached its acme.' [Livy xxiv, be perilous to provoke. G. VS. Mart. 7, 1. ED.)

III. xx. 16. GR.E. PR. Suet. Galb. The poet here encourages himself to 15. Pone may mean' pourtray;' Pers. i. give full scope to his indignation in a 70. Hor. A. P. 34. R. familiar metaphor. cf. Virg. G. ii. 41. Tæda--fumant. The dreadful fire, iv. 117. Hor. I Od. xxxiv. 4. II Od. which laid waste a great part of Rome in 1. 23. IV Od. xv. 4. &c. R.

the reign of Nero, was found to have 150. From unde to arena, 157, is an broken out in the house of Tigellinus. anticipation of the objections supposed His notorious intimacy with the emperor to be made by a friend. BRI.

corroborated the general suspicion that 151. Observe the hiatus in materiæ the conflagration was owing to design. unde. See ii. 26. iii. 70. v. 158. vi. 247. Nero was exasperated at the discovery, 468. &c. R.

and to avert the odium from his favourite, Priores viz. Eupolis, Cratinus, Aris- basely taxed the Christians with setting tophanes, Lucilius, Cato Censorious, fire to the house. Thousands of those Terentius Varro, and Horace. PR. cf. innocent victims were sacrificed in conHor. II S. i. 62. R.

sequence : multitudo ingens convicti sunt: 153. Simplicitas, sapnoia. The un. et pereuntibus addita ludibria, ut ferarum utterable name' was libertas. BRI. tergis contecti, laniatu canum interirent, cf. Suet. Cal. 27. PR.

aut crucibus adfiri, aut flammandi; atque, 154. See Pers. i. 114 sq. 'T. Mucius ubi defecisset dies, in usum nocturni luminis Albutius had sufficient magnanimity and urerentur: hortos suos ei spectaculo Nero wisdom to disregard the attacks of Lu- obtulerat, et circense ludicrum edebat ; cilius ; but had it been otherwise, the Tac. An. xv. 44. G. This was called satirist would have little to dread from bis tunica punire molesta; viii. 235. BRO. resentment.' VS. M.

circumdati defixis corporibus ignes; Sen. 155. • Dare to put down the name of de Ira, iii. 3. LI. cogita illam tunicam Tigellinus, and you will be treated as an alimentis ignium illitam et intextum, et incendiary.' c. Offonius Tigellinus of quicquid præter hæc sævitia com Agrigentum was recommended to the Id. ad Lucil. PR. Id. Ep. xiv. R. notice of Nero by his debaucheries. 157. Homines defoderunt in terram dimiAfter the murder of Burrhus, he suc. diatos, ignemque circumposuerunt; ita interceeded to the command of the prætorian fecerunt; Cat.ap.Gell.iii. 14. GRO. [Supguards, and abused his ascendancy over posing this to be the case here,we may read the emperor to the most dreadful pur- (or, at any rate, interpret) the line thus ; poses. He afterwards betrayed him; by Ellatum medius sulcum diducis arena.cf. which, and other acts of perfidy, he Livy v, 38; xxi,55,5; (DR.)xliv,33. ED.] secured himself during Galba's short The ground in which the stake was fixed reign. He was put to death by Otho, to appears to have been more or less exca. the great joy of the people, and died, as vated; pæna Flavii Veiano Nigro tribuno he had lived, a profligate and a coward. mandatur, is proximo in agro scrobem See 59. Who is here designated by the effodi jussit, quam Fluvius ut humilem et name of Tigellinus, cannot now be known; angusta m increpabat; Tac. An. xv. even in Trajan's reign there were de- Scrobem sibi fieri corum imperat dimen

nta est;

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