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sidered as a most difficult science : from it too, the highborn libertine may see, that as the sphere which he moves in, is wide and brilliant, his conduct and character are in proportion conspicuous, his vices in proportion heinous, and his follies in proportion ridiculous.

Ver. 7.

fecisse silentia turbæ Majestate manus. Lucan, in his first book, says of Julius Cæsar,

tumultum Composuit vultu; dextraque silentia jussit. What a picture does this give us of Cæsar!

It was the custom of orators, and of those who addressed the people, that they should obtain audience by stretching forth the hand; which the Greeks call ησυχαζειν and κλασιγαζειν τ"λεων τη χειρι οι κατασελλειν. So in the Acts of the Apostles, St. Paul, when about to speak, is said έκλείναι την χειρα and καλασειειν τη χειρί ; and so speaks Luke the Evangelist. In the beginning of Herodian, the philosopher goes into the theatre, when the certamen Capitolinum was celebrated TW TE TOS XEupos νευμαι τον δημoν κατασιγαζει. You may read in the Hadrian of Xiphilinus, that the public criers were accustomed to command silence to the people always by the hand, never by the voice. But it was the custom of orators, when they stretched out the right hand, that, with the fourth and little fingers shut, they should extend the others; which Apuleius hath left testified in

his second book. There was another manner of

proclaiming silence, concrepatione digitorum. Thus Hieronymus ad Rusticum monachum.--" As soon as the table being placed, he had exhibited a pile of books, with the eyebrow drawn down, and the nostrils contracted, and the forehead wrinkled, duobus' digitalis concrepabat, inciting his scholars by this sign to listen to him.” So persons, who said any thing in the ear, that they might indicate it to be worthy of being attended to in silence, digitis concrepàbant. Teste eodem Hieronymo.

Ver. 13

vitio præfgere theta. Si quis accepto breviculo (libello) in quo nomina militum continentur, nitatur inspicere quanti ex militibus supersint, quanti in bello ceciderint, et requirens qui inspicere missus est, propriam notam, verbi caussa ut dici solet, ad uniuscujusque defuncti nomen adscribat, et propria rursus nota superstitem signet. Numquid videtur is qui notam ad defuncti nomen apponit, et propria rursus nomen nota superstitem signat, quod egerit aliquid, ut vel hic defuncti, vel ille caussam viventis acciperit. Rufinus.

Casaubon is surely mistaken when he says, cum recensebant laterculos militum, nominibus eorum qui perierant, præfigebant ; hoc erat expungere. The letter theta, the first of the word Oavalos, death, was prefixed to the names of those who were capitally condemned; and was afterwards put in the musteş rolls of the army, before the names of those who had died. It therefore simply indicated that the person, to whose name it was prefixed,

was dead; and thus served to inform the general of an army, what individuals, and what number of them, had perished.

Ver. 16.

Anticyras melior, &c. The Anticyræ were two islands in the Ægean sea, famous for the production of hellebore. See notes to Sat. 1.

Ver. 18.

curata cuticula sole. Era uso de lascivi untarsi prima d'odorosi unguenti, e poi esporsi ai vaggi del sole per far mediante quel calore, che imbevuta la pelle conservasse piu lungamente quella fragranza. Rovigo.

Ver. 20. Dinomaches ego sum.

Alcibiades was the son of Dinomache. See Plutarch.
The reading from ver. 19 should be as follows:
A. Expecta; S. haud aliud respondeat hæc anus. A.

I nunc,
Dinomaches ego sum. S. Suffia. A. Sum candid us.

S. Esto, &C.

Ver. 22.

ocima Casaubon reads ocima in preference to ocyma; between which there is a difference in sense as well as in orthography. The first is that species of plant, to which we give the name of Basil, and which is better known in the south of Europe than with us. The second was an

herb, which, as Varro informs us, the ancients gave to cattle for a purge. The ocimum has an exceedingly strong perfume. It is remarkable, that Ruellius understands these words in direct opposition to Casaubon.

Ver. 24. Sed præcedenti, &c.

Peras imposuit Jupiter nobis duas :

Propriis repletam vitiis post tergum dedit,
Alienis ante pectus suspendit gravem

Hac re videre nostra mala non possumus
Alii simul delinquunt, censores sumus.


Ver. 26.

quantum non milvus aberret.

Dic, passer, cui tot montes, tot prædia servas,
Appula, tot milvos intra tua pascua lassos. Juv.

Ver. 28. - ad compita, &c.

Compita-ubi multæ viæ competunt in unum. The compitum seems to have been what the French call a carrefour.

The compitalia were feasts instituted in honour of the Lares. They were celebrated only by slaves and peasants. (Plin. xxxvi. c. 26. and Dionysius Halicarnassus, L. ix.) The Saturnalia were held in the month of December. To this Juvenal alludes when he says,

Vinum toto nescire Decembri. But the compitalia were held in the beginning of January. Thus Cicero: Ego quoniam quarto nonas Januarii Compitalitius dies est, &c.

It appears, that the rustic crew, having assembled to celebrate the Compitalia, hung up the yokes of oxen in little open temples, erected for the purpose at the crossways : Ubi adicula consecrantur patentes, in his juga fracta ab agricolis ponuntur emeriti et laborati operis indicium. Interp. Pers.

Ver. 30

tunicatum cum sale mordens Cæpe, et farratam pueris plaudentibus ollam,

Pannosam fæcem morientis sorbet aceti?
Dryden translates this,-

To a short meal he makes a tedious grace,
Before the barley pudding comes in place :
Then, bids fall on; himself, for saving charges,
A peeled sliced onion eats, and tipples verjuice.

Ver. 33. At si 'unctus cesses, &c.

In the remainder of this Satire I profess to have imitated, and not to have translated-iny Author ; and the thirty verses between the hooks are perhaps rather founded upon Persius, than imitated from him. I observe the Reviewers, in noticing the first edition of my work, say nothing of the bold intrusion of these thirty lines. May I be allowed here to make a very few remarks to the conductors of the British Critic, and of the Monthly Review?

The author of the British Critic, with undoubtedly a good-natured intention upon his part, commences his

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