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Sensit Alexander, testā cum vidit in illá
Magnum habitatorem, quanto felicior hic, qui
Nil cuperet, quam quitotum sibi posceret orbem,
Passurus gestis aequanda pericula rebus.

Nullum numen habes, si sit prudentia: noste,

Nos facimus, Fortuna, Deam.


Mensura tamen quae

Sufficiat censils, si quis me consulat, edam.
In quantum sitis atque fames et frigora poscunt:
Quantum, Epicure, tibi parvis suffecit in hortis:

Quantum Socratici ceperunt ante Penates.


Acribus exemplis videor te claudere; misce
Ergo aliquid nostris de moribus; effice summam,
Bis septem ordinibus quam lex dignatur Othonis.

Haec quoque si rugam trahit, extenditgue labellum,


Sume duos Equites, fac tertia quadringenta:
Sinondum implevi gremium, si panditur ultra;
Nec Croesi fortuna unquam, nec Persica regna

311. Alexander.] Alexander the Great might easily perceive how much happier, and more content, Diogenes was in his poverty, than he who coveted empire so much as not to be content with one world. This alludes to the story of Alexander's coming to Corinth, where he found Diogenes, and not being saluted by him, Alexander went up to him, and asked him, “if he could do any thing for “ him 2" “Yes,” said Diogenes, “stand “from between me and the sun.” –In that cask.] Testa. This shews that the vessel, or hogshead, which Diogenes lived in, was not made of wood. 312. The great inhabitant..] Diogenes, the chief of the Cynics, very properly so styled, from avay, aves, a dog, from the snarling surliness of their manners; of this we have a specimen in the answer of Diogenes to Alexander above mentioned. 314. About to suffer, &c.] i. e. To expose himself to, and to undergo dangers, proportionate to his attempts to accomplish his vast designs, and equal to all the glory which he might acquire. 315. No divinity, &c.] See sat. x. l. 365, 6, and notes. 316. The measure, &c.] If I were asked what I thought a competency sufficient to furnish the comfortable necessaries of life, I would answer as follows— 318. As much, &c.] That which will

suffice—as much as is required for food and raiment. So St. Paul, 1 Tim. vi. 8.

Nescis quo valeat nummus ; quam prae-
beat usum 2
Panisematur, olus, vinisertarius; adde
Queishumanasibidolcat natura negatis.
HoR. sat. i. l. 73–5.

“Would you the real use of riches know? “Bread, herbs, and wine are all they can bestow. “Or add what Nature's deepest wants “supplies, “These, and no more, thy mass of money buys.” FRANCIs. So Pope, in his use of riches, Eth. ep. iii. 1, 81, 2. “What riches give us let us first inquire, “Meat, fire, und clothes—what more? meat, clothes, and fire.” 319. Little garden.] See sat. xiii. 122, 3, hortis, plur. per synec. pro horto, sing. 320. Socratic Penates, &c.] i. e. As much as Socrates required and took for the maintenance of his household. Here, by meton. called Penates, from the household gods which were in his house. —Before.] i. e. In earlier times, before Epicurus. Socrates died four hundred years before Christ; Epicurus two hundred and seventy-one. 321. Nature never says, &c.] i. e. Nature and wisdom always agree in teachwe,

Alexander perceived, when he saw, in that cask,
The great inhabitant, how much happier this man was, who
Desired nothing, than he, who required the whole world,
About to suffer dangers to be equalled to things done.
Thou hast no divinity, O Fortune, if there be prudence: thee

We make a goddess.


Nevertheless the measure of an estate

Which may suffice, if any should consult me, I will declare.
As much as thirst and hunger, and cold require;
As much, Epicurus, as sufficed thee in thy little garden;

As much as the Socratic Penates had taken before.


NATURE NEvER says on E THING, wisdom ANoTHER.
I seem to confine you by sour examples; mix
Therefore something from our manners, make the sum
What the law thinks worthy the twice seven ranks of Otho.

If this also draws a wrinkle, and extends your lip,

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Take two knights, make the third four hundred.
If as yet I have not filled your bosom, if it be o farther,
Sufficient animo, nec divitiae Narcissi,
Indulsit Caesar cui Claudius omnia, cujus 330
Paruit imperiis, uxorem occidere jussus.

Neither the fortune of Croesus,

ing the same lesson. By nature, here, we must understand that simple principle which leads only to the desire of the necessary comforts of life. If we go farther, the term nature may extend to the appetite and passions, which, in their desires and pursuits, suit but ill with the dictates of wisdom. Mr. Pope, Eth. epist. iii. 1. 25, 6. “What nature wants” (a phrase I must distrust) “Extends to luxury,ertends to lust,”&c. 322. I seem to confine, &c.] By saying this, I may seem, perhaps, too severe, and to circumscribe your desires in too narrow a compass, by mentioning such rigid examples of persons, of what you may think sour dispositions. 323. Our manners.] That I may not be thought too scanty in my allowance, I will permit you to mingle something of our more modern way of thinking and living. —Make the rum, &c.] Suppose you make up, together with what I have mentioned as sufficient, a sum equal to a knight's estate, which, by a law of Roscius Otho the tribune, called the Roscian law, was to amount to four hundred sestertia revenue per annum, about 3,125l. of our money. 324. Twice seven ranks, &c.] Fourteen ranks or rows of seats in the theatre

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nor the Persian kingdoms,

were assigned to the equestrian order. See Host, ep. iv. l. 15, 16; and Juv. sat. iii. l. 155, 6, and notes. 325. If this also draws, &c.] If this contracts your brow into a frown, and makes you pout out your lips, as in disdain or displeasire—as we say, hang the lip—i.e. if this, as well as the examples before mentioned, of Socrates and Epicurus, displeases you— 326. Take two knights.] Possess an estate sufficient for two of the equestrian order. See above, 1.323, note 2. —Make the third four hundred.] E'en add a third knight's estate, have three times four hundred sestertia. 327. Filled your bosom, &c.] A metaphor alluding to the garments of the ancients, which were loose, and which they held open before to receive what was given to them. Comp. Is. lxv. 6, 7. Luke vi. 38. The poet means, If I have not yet satisfied your desires by what I allow you : if I have not thrown enough into your lap, as we say. See sat. vii. 215, and note. —Opened further.] The metaphor is still continued—q. d. If your desires are still extended beyond this. 328. Fortune of Crasus.] The rich king of Lydia. See sat. x. 274. –Persian kingdoms.] The kings of

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Persia, particularly Darius and Xerxes, ficient to gratify your desires.

were famed for their magnificence and -Riches of Narcissus.] A freedman

riches. and favourite of Claudius Caesar, who 329. Suffice your mind.] Will be suf- had such an ascendancy over the em

Will ever suffice your mind, nor the riches of Narcissus,
To whom Claudius Caesar indulged every thing, whose 330
Commands he obey'd, being ordered to kill his wife.

peror, as to prevail on him to put Messalina to death, after her paramour Silius. See sat. x. l. 330–345. Claudius would have pardoned her adultery, but,

at the instigation of Narcissus, he had her killed in the gardens of Lucullus. By the favour of the emperor, Narcissus was possessed of immense wealth.



The Poet in this Satire, which he is supposed to have written when he was under his banishment in Egypt, relates the mortal and irreconcileable hatred, which sprung from a religious quarrel between the Ombites and Tentyrites, inhabitants of two neighbouring cities of Egypt—and describes, in very lively colours, a bloody fray which happened between


He seems to lay this as a ground for those fine re

flections, with which he finishes the Satire, on the nature, use, and intention of civil society. In reading this Satire, it is difficult not to advert to the monstrous cruelties which superstition and bigotry have broughton mankind, while those who have disgraced the Christian name by bearing it, have, with relentless fury, inflicted tortures and

QUIS nescit, Volusi Bithynice, qualia demens
AEgyptus portenta colat? Crocodilon adorat
Pars haec: illa pavet saturam serpentibus Ibin.

Effigies sacrinitet aurea cerco

Dimidio magicae resonant ubi

Line 1. Bithynian Volusius.] Who this Volusius was does not appear; all that we know is, that he came from Bithynia, a country of the Lesser Asia, and was undoubtedly a friend of Juvenal, who addresses this Satire to him.

2. Mad Egypt.] Demens not only means mad, i. e. one that has lost his senses, but also silly, foolish; which perhaps is meant here, in allusion to the silly superstition which possessed the minds of the Egyptians in religious matters.

-This part.] One part of Egypt.

—Adores a crocodile.] That part of

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Egypt which lies near the river Nile
worships the crocodile; a dreadful am-
phibious animal, shaped something like
a lizard, and, from an egg little bigger
than that of a goose, grows to be thirty
feet long. The Egyptians know how
high the river will rise that year, by the
place where the crocodiles lay their eggs.
The crocodile was worshipped with di-
vine honours, because these animals
were supposed to have destroyed the
Libyan and Arabian robbers, who swam
over the river and killed many of the
3. An Ibis.] A certain bird, which is

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