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probably with especial reference to the pleasures of sense, of which PERSIUS has just been speaking. So the “vapor, heavy, hueless, formless, cold,” in Tennyson's “ Vision of Sin." '—crassos dies : sub crasso aere (Jahn).-transisse: Heinr. comp. TIB. 1, 4, 33: vidi iam iuvenem, premeret cum serior aetas, | maerentem stultos praeteriisse dies.-lucem palustrem: boggy'='foggy light' is 'light choked by fog.' Crassos dies lucemque palustrem must be connected closely-gross days in foggy light'-so as to get rid of an awkward Zeugma with transisse.

61. sibi : with ingemuere (Conington).—iam seri: 'too, too late.' On iam, see v. 33. On seri, G., 324, R. 6; A., 47, 6.-ingemuere: like the Gr. Aorist. Comp. v. 187 and 3, 101. G., 228, R. 2; A., 58, 5, c. “Heave a sigh' (Conington).-relictam: anteactam (Casaubon). Tam post terga reliquit sexaginta annos, Juv., 13, 16.

62-65. Contrast of Cornutus's noble mission. His creed the only creed for life.

62. at: in lively contrast.-nocturnis : Comp. 1, 90.-inpal. lescere: Comp. 1, 26.

63. purgatas: Purgare is an agricultural term like our clean,' and the metaphor is kept up. The field is the ear.-inseris : where we should expect seris.—fruge Cleanthea: Cleanthes is selected here on account of his strict life and virtuous poverty, in opposition to the luxury and wealth of the Romulidae, as Knickenberg remarks, 1. c. p. 9.-petite: Mr. Pretor supposes that this is Cornutus's invitation to the world. But if Cornutus speaks here, where does PERSIUS come in again ?-unless he takes up the cudgels for his master in v. 66.--finem=rédos.—viatica: Jahn quotes DioG. LAERT., 1, 5, 80: ¿pódiov åtò veórntog eis vñpas αναλάμβανε σοφίαν; and 5, 11, 21: κάλλιστον εφόδιον τω γήρα η raideia.—miseris: 'wretched else.'-canis: G., 195, R. 1.

66-72. “There is time enough for that,' says an impersonal sinner. • To-morrow will do as well.' 6" To-morrow, and tomorrow,

and to-morrow.” To-morrow never becomes to-day.' 66. Cras hoc fiet, etc. : ‘I will do this that you ask of me tomorrow.' “You will do to-morrow just what you are doing today.' Jalın comp. Ov., R. A., 104: Cras quoque fiet idem. Hermann arranges : Cras hoc fiet idem. Cras fiet? “This will, can be done to-morrow as well as to-day.' "To-morrow, you say ?' Comp. PETRON., 82: quod hodie non est, cras erit.

67. nempe diem donas : Well, what of it? Suppose I go on the same way to-morrow; it will only be a day-a great forsooth, to be haggling about! On nempe, see G., 500, R. 2.cum venit-consumpsimus: more lively than cum venerit-consumpserimus (G., 229). One clause is involved in the other. G., 236, R. 4. This seems to be better than making venit iterative, and consumpsimus an Aoristic Perf.

69. egerit: ‘unloads,'. carts off.' Egerere is the opposite of . ingerere (v. 6). Comp. SEN., Ep., 47, 2: venter maiore opera omnia egerit quam ingessit. Jahn makes egerit= impulerit, in order to save the figure. Compare truditur dies die, HoR., Od., 2, 18, 15, and PETRON., 45 : dies diem trudit; and 82: vita truditur. But even this does not save the figure, and the sudden change of metaphor is in Persius's vein.-paulum erit ultra: “To-morrow will always be a little further on,' is the common rendering, the figure changing at this point.

70. quamvis-vertentem: A later construction. G., 611, R.; M., 443, Obs.—cantum : “tire.'

72. cum curras : ‘seeing that you are running.' Here cum is nearly equivalent to si, as it is thrown by sectabere into the future, and is thus made hypothetical. Comp. G., 591, R. 3, and 584.

73-90. What men need is Liberty—not the freedom of the city, which insures a quota of damaged corn; not the freedom of the freedman, which gives a slave a name to be free, while he is yet a slave; but the liberty wherewith Philosophy sets men free. The freedman demurs to this hard doctrine, but a Stoic adept silences him by his 'Short Method.'

73. hac, ut, quisque: Hac is the adverb, ut=qua, quisque= quicunque (comp. quandoque=quandocumque, 4, 28), a sad complex of harshnesses, which may be rendered thus : ‘Liberty is what is wanted; not after the prevalent (G., 290, 7) fashion, by which each man that has worked his way up to a Publius in the Veline tribe is owner of a ticket for a ration of musty spelt.' Other readings, such as hac quam ut quisque (Passow), hac qua quisque (Meister), are mere devices to relieve the grammatical situation, which is doubtless unnatural in the extreme, as hac seems to belong to libertate, and ut quisque is a familiar combination. Conington makes non hac the beginning of an independent sentence, and translates: 'It is not by this freedom that every fire-new citizen, who gets his name enrolled in a tribe, is privileged to get a pauper's allowance for his ticket.' — Velina : Comp. Hor., Ep., 1, 6, 52: hic multum in Fabia valet, ille Velina. The Veline was one of the last two tribes instituted (Becker, Röm. Alt., 2, 1, 170), and is supposed by some to be one of the four city tribes to which the libertini were restricted. The name of the tribe to which a man belongs is put in the Abl. (as a whence case). So M. Larcius L. f. Pomptina Pudens (Becker, 1. c. 198).

74. Publius : Only freemen were entitled to the praenomen. Comp. HOR., Sat., 2, 5, 32: Quinte, puta, aut Publi (gaudent praenomine molles | auriculae).—emeruit: literally 'has served his time' (of a soldier), ‘has worked his way up to be a Publius' (supplying esse).—tesserula: the well-known tessera frumentaria, SUET., Aug., 41.

75. Quiritem: Rare in the Singular (Schol.).

76. vertigo: the 'twirl' of the familiar process of manumissio per vindictam. The lictor touched the slave with the vindicta, the master turning him round and “dismissing him from his hand” with the words Hunc hominem liberum esse volo' (Conington).-facit: is causal as well as faciat. G., 627, R.; A., 63.—Dama: Anuās=anustpios; according to others for Anuéas (Mehlhorn, Gr. Gr., 183), a common slave's name. - non tressis: Jahn comp. non semissis homo, VATIN. ap. Cic., Fam., 5,

10, 1.

77. vappa: 'dead wine,' hence 'mean liquor.?-lippus: the effect of drinking.—in farragine tenui: “in the matter of,' and hence · for a poor feed of corn.'

78. verterit - exit=si verterit exit. G., 257; A., 57, 5. Comp. v. 189. The Perf. is aoristic, 'give him a whirl.'—ma mento: literally by the motion,' by virtue,' by the act of twirling.' “By dint' would give an ironical turn.

79. Marcus : as Publius, v. 74. Jahn cites an inscription: M· FVFIVS · M · L · DAMA. papae : Ironical admiration.


“Wondrous change! Every body will trust this thief, this liar now! Papae (Gr. mataī, Bapai). “Whew! “Prodigious ! recusas ? Fie on you, if you do! See note on 4, 1.

80. adsigna tabellas : ‘your hand and seal to this document,' witness this document.'

82. mera: “pure and simple' (ironical).-pillea : See 3, 106.

83. An quisquam - Bruto: These words are generally assigned to Dama, and it is certainly more humorous to make the promoted stable-boy argue in mood and figure than to rake up one of Persius's dead-alive spectators, as König does, and after him Pretor. Quisquum, because of the negative answer expected. See 1, 112, and G., 304; A., 21, 2, h.

84. ut voluit : The Stoic formula did not differ from the popular definition. Certainly it does not sound recondite to say: libertas est potestas vivendi ut velis, Cic., Parad., 5, 1, 34; or with ARBIAN, Diss., 4, 1, 1: ελεύθερός εστιν ο ζών ώς βούλεται, but the worls must be understood in their Stoic sense.

85. Mendose colligis : paúlws outloyisel. «Your syllogism is faulty. “Marcus, thou reasonest ill.'

86. stoicus hic: 'our Stoic friend' (Conington). PERSIUS himself.—aurem-lotus: Comp. v. 63 and 1,126. Lotus may be reflexive. G., 332, R. 2; A., 53, 3, c, R.-aceto: Vinegar was used in cases of deafness, CELS., 6, 7, 2, 3 (König).

87. accipio – tolle: ‘PERsius admits the major, but denies the minor; denies both that the man has a will (volo), and that he is free (licet) to follow it’ (Conington). Mr. Pretor limits the concession to vivere (Snv), and explains : “The mere fact that you are a living creature, I admit; the inference contained in licet and ut volo, I altogether deny.' "This dissection of the argument word by word’ may be more in keeping with the character of the Stoic?—the Stoics were great choppers of logic—but it is not in keeping with the style of PERSIUS, who is subtle every where except in his arguments.

88. Vindicta: the festuca, or wand, with which the lictor struck the manumittend. See v.76.-postquam recessi: with a causal tone. See note on 3, 90.-meus : my own man,' hence 'my own master' (G., 299, R.); mei iuris (Schol.).

90. Masuri rubrica: The canon of Masurius.' 'Masurius Sa


binus, an eminent lawyer, lived in the reigns of Tiberius and Nero, and wrote a work in three books, entitled Ius Civile. Rubrica, * because the titles and first few words of the laws were commonly picked out with vermilion. Comp. perlege rubras | maiorum leges, Juv., 14, 192' (Pretor, after Jahn). A low creature like Dama has a soul that is not above the statute-book; lofty spirits, like our Stoic, and believers in the higher law sneer at the canon and its maker. So MARC. ANTONIN., ap. Front., Ep., 2, 7 (p. 32 Naber), speaks of deliramenta Masuriana. Comp. QUINT., 12, 3, 11.—vetavit: for vetuit, reminds us of the slip of another youthful genius, Kirke White, and his 'rudely blowd.' There is no sufficient warrant for the form.

91-131. A Stoic sermon. Text: Do nothing that you will spoil in the doing. You know nothing as you ought to know it, and you can do nothing as you ought to do it. You are ignorant of the first principles of morals; you have no control over your desires, your appetites. You may call yourself free, but you are a slave for all that. For one master without, you have a legion of masters within.

91. Disce: Comp. 3, 66.—naso: the simple Abl. as a whence case. Comp. 1, 83. The nose is the familiar seat of anger. THEOCR., 1, 18: και οι αεί δριμεία χολά ποτί ρινι κάθηται. For Biblical parallels, see Gesenius or Fürst, s. v. 98. The anger is shown by snorting, or, as here, by snarling.-rugosa : Comp. corruget nares, HoR., Ep., 1, 5, 23.--sanna: 1, 62.

92. dum revello: 'while I am plucking'='until I have plucked.' See note on v. 10.-veteres avias : 'old grandmothers,' for 'inveterate, rooted, grandmotherish notions.' Comp. patruos sapere, 1, 11, and ó leyóuevos ypaū v 69.os, Plat., Theaet., 176 B.de pulmone: The lung is the seat of pride in 3, 27 (comp. sufla, 4, 20). Jahn regards it here as the seat of wrath.

93. erat: as you thought.' G., 224, R. 3; A., 58, 3, d.—tenuia rerum officia : 'mastery of the subtle distinctions of duty.' Tenuia, a trisyllable, as often, G., 717. Rerum, parallel with vitae. See 1, 1.

94. usum rapidae vitae: 'the right management of the rapid course of life. The metaphor is taken either from a river (rapidus amnis, rapidi fluminum lapsus, rapidum flumen, rapidus

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