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retinue, brought a considerable quantity of coffee with them, and made presents of it to persons both of the court and city, and is supposed to have established the custom of drinking it.

Two years afterwards, an Armenian of the name of Pascal, set up a coffee-house, but meeting with little encouragement, left Paris and came to London.

From Anderson's Chronological History of Commerce, it appears that the use of coffee was introduced into London some years earlier than in Paris. For in 1652, one Mr. Edwards, a Turkey merchant, brought home with him a Greek servant, whose name was Pasqua, who understood the roasting and making of coffee, till then unknown in England. This servant was the first who sold coffee, and kept a house for that purpose in George Yard, Lombard Street.

The first mention of coffee in our statute books is anno 1660 (12 Car. II. c. 24), when a duty of 4d. was laid upon every gallon of coffee, made and sold, to be paid by the maker.

The statute 15 Car. II. c. 11, § 15, an. 1663, directs that all coffee-houses should be licensed at the general quarter sessions of the peace for the county within which they are to be kept.

In 1675 King Charles II. issued a proclamation to shut up the coffee-houses, but in a few days suspended the proclamation by a second. They were charged with being seminaries of sedition.


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The first European author who has made any mention of coffee is Rauwolfus, who was in the Levant in 1573.

Anthony Wood, in his Diary, records, under the year 1654,

Coffey, which had been drank by some persons in Oxon. 1650, was this yeare publickly sold at or neare the Angel, within the Easte Gate of Oxon., as also chocolate, by an outlander or Jew.

And in another place he says:

This yeere Jacob a Jew opened a Coffey-house at the Angel, in the parish of St. Peter in the East, Oxon., and there it was by some, who delighted in noveltie, drank. When he left Oxon. he sold it in Old Southampton Buildings in Holborne, near London, and was living there in 1671.

Aubrey, in his account of Sir Henry Blount (MS. in the Bodleian Library), says of this worthy knight :

When coffee first came in he was a great upholder of it, and hath ever since been a constant frequenter of coffee-houses, especially Mr. Farres at the Rainbowe, by Inner Temple Gate, and lately John's Coffee-house, in Fuller's Rents. The first coffee-house in London was in St. Michael's Alley, in Cornhill, opposite to the church, which was set up by one Bowman (coachman to Mr. Hodges, a Turkey merchant, who putt him upon it), in or about the yeare 1652. 'Twas about 4 yeares before any other was sett up, and that was by Mr. Farr. Jonathan Paynter, over against to St. Michael's Church, was the first apprentice to the trade, viz. to Bowman. Mem. The Bagneo, in Newgate Street, was built and first opened in Decemb. 1679: built by Turkish merchants.

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Of this James Farr, Edward Hatton, in his New View of London, 1708, (vol. i. p. 30,) says:

I find it recorded that one James Farr, a barber, who kept the coffeehouse which is now the Rainbow, by the Inner Temple Gate (one of the first in England), was in the year 1657 prosecuted by the inquest of St. Dunstan's in the West, for making and selling a sort of liquor called coffee, as a great nuisance and prejudice to the neighborhood, &c., and who would then have thought London would ever have had near three thousand such nuisances, and that coffee world have been, as now, so much drank by the best of quality and physicians.

1637. There came in my tyme to the College, Oxford, one Nathaniel Conopios, out of Greece. He was the first I ever saw drink coffee, which custom came not into England till thirty years after.-Evelyn's Diary.

George Sandys, the translator of Ovid's Metamorphoses, travelled in the Turkish empire in 1610. He first published his

Notes in 1615. p. 52:

The following is from the 6th edit. 1652,

Although they be destitute of taverns, yet have they their coffa-houses, which something resemble them. There sit they, chatting most of the day, and sip of a drink called coffa (of the berry that it is made of), in little China dishes, as hot as they can suffer it; black as soot, and tasting not much unlike it (why not that black broth which was in use among the Lacedæmonians?) which helpeth, as they say, digestion, and procureth alacrity, &c.

Burton also (Anatomy of Melancholy) describes it as "like that black drink which was in use among the Lacedæmonians, and perhaps the same."

James Howell, in a letter addressed "to his highly esteemed friend and compatriot, Judge Rumsey, upon his Provang, or rare pectorale Instrument, and his rare experiments of Cophie and Tobacco "—and prefixed to the latter's Organon Salutis: an Instrument to cleanse the stomach, as also divers new experiments of the virtue of Tobacco and Coffee, London, 1657, 8vo.says:

Touching coffee, I concurre with them in opinion, who hold it to be that black-broth which was us'd of old in Lacedemon, whereof the Poets sing; Surely it must needs be salutiferous, because so many sagacious and the wittiest sort of Nations use it so much; as they who have conversed with Shashes and Turbants doe well know. But, besides the exsiccant quality it hath to dry up the crudities of the Stomach, as also to comfort the Brain, to fortifie the sight with its steem, and prevent Dropsies, Gouts, the Scurvie, together with the Spleen and Hypocondriacall windes (all which it doth without any violence or distemper at all), I say, besides all these qualities, 'tis found already, that this Coffee-drink hath caused a greater sobriety among the nations: For whereas formerly Apprentices and Clerks with others, used to take their mornings' draught in Ale, Beer, or Wine, which by the dizziness they cause in the Brain, make many unfit for businesse, they use now to play the Good-fellows in this wakefull and civill drink: Therefore that worthy Gentleman, Mr. Mudiford, who introduced the practice hereof first to London, deserves much respect of the whole Nation.

Of Judge Rumsey and his Provang (which was a flexible

whalebone from two to three feet long, with a small linen or silk button at the end, which was to be introduced into the stomach to produce the effect of an emetic), the reader may find some account in Wood's Athen. (Bliss's edit., vol. iii. p. 509), and this is not the place to speak of them, except as they had to do with coffee; on that point a few more words may be allowed.

Besides the letter of Howell already quoted, two others are prefixed to the book; one from the author to Sir Henry Blount, the other Sir Henry's reply. In the former the Judge says:—

I lately understood that your discovery, in your excellent book of travels, hath brought the use of the Turkes Physick, of Cophie, in great request in England, whereof I have made use, in another form than is used by boyling of it in Turkie, and being less loathsome and troublesome, &c.

And Sir Henry, after a fervent panegyric on coffee, replies:

As for your way of taking both Cophie and Tobacco, the rarity of the invention consists in leaving the old way: For the water of the one and the smoke of the other may be of inconvenience to many: but your way in both takes in the virtue of the Simples without any additional mischief.

As this may excite the reader's curiosity to know what was the Judge's new and superior "way" of using coffee, I will add his prescription for making "electuary of cophy," which is, I believe, the only preparation of it which he used or recommended:

Take equall quantity of Butter and Sallet-oyle, melt them well together, but not boyle them: Then stirre them well that they may incorporate together: Then melt therewith three times as much Honey, and stirre it well together: Then add thereunto Powder of Turkish Cophie, to make it a thick Electuary.-p. 5.

A very little consideration may convince one that this electuary was likely to effect the purpose for which it was recommended.

Whether (says the Judge) it be in time of health or sickness, whensoever find any evill disposition in the stomach, eat a convenient meal of what


meat and drink you please, then walk a little while after it: Then set down your body bending, and thrust the said Whalebone Instrument into your stomach, stirring it very gently, which will make you vomit; then drink a good draught of drink, and so use the Instrument as oft as you please, but never doe this upon an empty stomach. To make the stomach more apt to vomit, and to prepare the humours thereunto before you eat and drink, Take the bigness of a Nutmeg, or more of the said Electuary of Cophie, &c., into your mouth; then take drink to drive it down; then eat and drink, and walk, and use the instrument as before."-p. 19.


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I. "The expression, 'under the rose,' took its origin," says Jenoway, "from the wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster. The parties respectively swore by the red or the white rose, and these opposite emblems were displayed as the signs of two taverns; one of which was by the side of, and the other opposite to, the Parliament House in Old Palace Yard, Westminster. Here the retainers and servants of the noblemen attached to the Duke of York and Henry VI. used to meet. Here also, as disturbances were frequent, measures either of defence or annoyance were taken, and every transaction was said to be done

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