Obrázky na stránke

DIVORCE. but when I was told that the style, which what it ails Symmons has expressed himself with less justice, as DIVORCE.

to be so soon distinguishable, I cannot tell, was known appears to us, on the argumentative part) to make by most men, and that some of the Clergy began to in- out a strong case. He points out " who among the veigh and exclaim on what I was credibly informed Fathers have interpreted the words of Christ concernthey had not read; I took it then for my proper sea- ing Divorce, as is here interpreted, and what the Civil son, both to show them a name that could easily con- law of Christian Empires in the primitive Church temn such an indiscreet kind of censure, and to reinforce determined ;" and here he has lavished all the stores the question with a more accurate diligence ; that if of his copious and recondite reading. Justin Martyr, any of them would be so good as to leave railing, and Tertullian, Origen, and Lactantius; the Councils of to let us hear so much of his learning and Christian Eliberis, Neocæsarea, Nantes, and Agatha ; Basil, Epiwisdom, as will be strictly demanded of him in an- phanius, Ambrose, Jerome and Austin; the Emperors swering this problem, care was had he should not Theodosius, and Valentinian, are all militant in his spend his preparation against a nameless pamphlet." service, more or less actively. Among the reformed

Three months after the second edition had appeared Divines he summons as allies, Wickliff, Luther, Me-
with his name, he met with a work, The Kingdom of lancthon, Erasmus, Bucer, Fagius, the Ecclesiastics of
Christ, written by Martin Bucer to Edward VI., in the Strasburgh. Peter Martyr, Musculus, Gualter of
second Book of which be found,“ not without amaze- Zurich, Hemmingius, Hunnius, Bidenbachius, Har-
ment," many of the same reasons, conclusions, and bandus, Wigandus, Beza, Aretius, Alciate, Corasius,
opinions, which he himself had laboured to establish. Wesembachius, and Grotius: names which it must
From this volume therefore he extracted and published be admitted have not all descended with equal lustre
such matter as appeared parallel to his own Treatise, to posterity, but of which, when they are on his side,
under the title of The Judgment of Martin Bucer touching a controversialist may with justice thus deliver him-
Divorce ; from the Preface to which, addressed to the self, “ These authorities without long search I had to
Parliament, our last citation has been borrowed. In produce, all excellent men, some of them such as
1645 he followed up this Treatise by a third, entitled, many ages had brought forth none greater: almost
according to the pedantic and fantastic temper of his the meanest of them might deserve to obtain credit in
days, Tetrachordon : Expositions upon the four chief a singularity, what might not all of them joined in an
places in Scripture which treat of Marriage or Nullitics opinion so consonant to Reason."
in Marriage. On Gen. i. 27, 28, compared and explained But that which he considered of most weight he
by Gen. ii. 18, 23, 21; Deut. xxiv. 1, 2; Matt v. 31, 32, reserved for his conclusion. “Only this one authority
with Matt. xix. from 3 to 11; 1 Cor. vii. from 10 to 16. more, whether in place or out of place, I am not to
Wherein the Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, as was omit; which if any can think a small one, I must be
lately published, is confirmed by erplanation of Scripture, patient, it is no smaller than the whole assembled
by testimony of ancient Fathers, of Civil Law in the Pri- authority of England, both Church and State ; and in
mitive Church, of famousest reformed Divines, and lastly those times which are on record for the purest and
by an intended Act of the Parliament and Church of Eng- sincerest that ever shone yet on the Reformation of
land in the lust year of Edward the Sirth. This, which this Island, the time of Edward the Sixth. That
is by far the most elaborate of his writings on Divorce, worthy Prince, having utterly abolished the Canon
was designed, as himself informs us, for them who Law out of his dominions, as his father did before
desired the alleged Scriptures to be discussed more him, appointed by full vote of Parliament a Committee
fully, and who asked for more authorities and cita- of two and thirty chosen men, Divines and Lawyers,
tions; and it must be confessed, that he has not been of whoin Cranmer the Archbishop, Peter Martyr, and
wanting in either, but that he bas brought forward Walter Haddon, (not without the assistance of Sir
a profusion of learning conveyed in that peculiar ra- John Cheke the King's tutor, a man at that tiine
ciness and magnificence of style of which he had such counted the learnedest of Englishmen, and for piety
ready command. He directs himself particularly not inferior,) were the chief to frame anew
against the common explanation of Gen. ii. 21, which Ecclesiastical laws that might be instead of what was
he thus forcibly and poetically describes, “ This verse, abrogated. The work with great diligence was
as our common herd expounds it, is the great knot finished, and with as great approbation of that reform-
tier which hath undone by tying and by tangling, mil- ing age was received ; and had been, doubtless, as the
lions of guiltless consciences : this is that grisly por- learned preface thereof testifies, established by Act of
ter, who having drawn men and wisest men by subtle Parliament, had not the good King's death so soon
allurement within the train of an unhappy matrimony, ensuing, arrested the further growth of religion also,
claps the dungeon gate upon them as irrecoverable as from that season to this. Those laws, thus founded,

But if we view him well, and hear him are the memorable wisdom and piety of that religious
with not too hasty and precipitant ears, we shall find Parliament and Synod, allow Divorce and second
no such terror in him.” The arguments, as may marriage, not only for adultery or desertion, but for
readily be conceived, are for the most part thin and any capital enmity or plot laid against the other's life,
subtle refinements, little worth but as specimens of in- and likewise for evil and fierce usage ;' nay the twelfth
genuity; they are, as Johnson has well put it, such as Chapter of that title by plain consequence declares,
a man looks for who seeks to justify his own in- that lesser contentions if they be perpetual may
clination. The latter part, in which he rests upon obtain Divorce.''
precedent and authority is far more valuable; and One of Howell's Letters to Sir Edward Spenser
here, if precedent and authority could avail ought, (iv. 7) has been referred to by Mr. Todd in his Life of
against a plain dictum of our Saviour, the utility of Milton, (53 ;) and again in a Note on Milton's XIth
which is most agreeable to common Reason, and evi- Sonnet, to prove that the Tetrachordon certainly was
denced by hourly experience, he might be said (as Dr, received with ridicule.” There can be no doubt that


the grave.


DIVORCE. Howell intends to point to Milton's opinion, and for a caitiff," "a gourmand swelled into a confuter,” DIVORCE.

himself he is sufficiently abusive of it; but he by no a barbarian, the shame of all honest attorneys," "an
means bears out the assertion of Mr. Todd, as to its unswilled bogshead,” “a cock brained solicitor," "a
general reception. Juhnson has noticed the passage most incogitant woodcock," "a tradesman of the
with more correctness, when he says that “ Howell law, whose best ware is only gibberish,” “a presump-
mentioned the new doctrine with contempt." The tuous lozel," "a daw,” “a horsefly,"

“ a bawling
following are bis words, “ But that opinion of a whippet,” “a shin-barker,” “a serving man and soli-
shallow-brain'd puppy," (Papæ ! it is Howell who citor compounded into one mongrel," a brazen ass,"
writes, and it is Milton of whom this is written !) “who “a common adage of ignorance and overweening,"
upon any cause of disaffection, would have men to “ a nuisance." Was ever unhappy pamphleteer,
have a privilege to change their wives or to repudiate before or since, so “ bethumpt with words?"
them, deserves to be hiss'd at rather than confuted ; That Milton was sincere in the opinions which he
for nothing can tend more to usher in all confusion avowed in his singular Tracts, every one who is at all
and beggary thro' out the world: therefore that acquainted with his character will admit with Dr.
Wiseacre deserves of all others to wear a toting Symmons. But, we think that there can be equally

little doubt that these opinions, instead of being the
That it was roughly censured, we have in evidence result of cool deliberation, were founded upon resent-
from two Sonnets which Milton wrote after its appear- ment against a wife who had deserted him, and were
ance ; nor can this excite surprise. The Presbyterian in all respects arising from and adapted to his own in-
Clergy were foremost in their opposition to bis doc- dividual case. He argues rather as a man who is seek-
trine. In 1644, an anonymous Answer appeared to ing to strengthen himself in a recently adopted fancy,
the Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce; another, Divorce than as one who is anxious to impress upon others an
at Pleasure, (“ a jolly slander," as Milton terms it,) ancient conviction. Nevertheless he found followers
probably was called out by the Tetrachordon ; and Dr. at the time ; and all his Biographers speak of a party
Featley, in his Epistle Dedicatory to his Dippers Dipt, called Miltonists, who avowed and maintained his
includes among " the audacious attempts upon Church notions concerning Divorce.
and State, a Tractate of Divorce, in which the bonds We have been insensibly led much farther than we
of marriage are let loose to inordinate lust." The intended to proceed, into a notice of this most in-
Presbyterians summoned Milton before the House of teresting controversy, and as we have yet more to say
Lords, whence however he was speedily and honour- on the existing customs of Divorce, we must content
ably dismissed ; and Herbert Palmer, B. D., a Member ourselves by referring to the titles only of a few works
of the Assembly of Divines, and Parliamentary Master on the general question. The Divorce of Henry VIII.
of Queen's College, Cambridge, attacked him from from Katharine of Arragon, will be found treated by
the pulpit of St. Margaret's Church on a day of extra- Robert Wakefield in his Koster, seu fragmentum codicis
ordinary humiliation, (August 13, 1644,) in a Sermon Wakefeldi in quo probatur conjugium cum Fratrid illici-
which he preached before the two Houses, and pub- tum esse, 1527 ; by Campian, at the end of Nicolas
lished under the fanatical title, The Glasse of God's Harpsfeld's Historia Anglicana Ecclesiastica, 1622; in
Providence towards his Faithful ones. In this, he speaks Grand's Hist. du Divorce, &c. 1688, in An Answer to the
of those who plead conscience for the lawfulness of two first Books of Bishop Burnet's listory of the Refor-
“ Divorce for other causes than Christ and his Apos- mation ; in Nogarola's Disputatio super Regine Britan-
tles mention ; of which a wicked Booke is abroad and norum Dirortio ; and in a Hist, du Divorce, &c. attri-
uncensured, though deserving to be burnt, whose buted to the Abbé Raynal.
Author has been so impudent as to set his name to it On Divorce in general, the following Books may be
and dedicate it to yourselves."

consulted : Hemmingii Libellus de Conjugio, Repudio
This conduct of the Presbyterians totally alienated et Divortio, 1572 ; Pyus, Epist. ad J. Howsonum contra
Milton from their party, and he took his revenge in a novum ejus dogma de Divortiis Judæorum, 1603 ; Selden,
final Tract, which may be cited as a standard vocabu. Uror Hebraica, 1646 ; Beza, de Repudiis et Divortüs,
lary of controversial vituperation. Colasterion ; A Reply 1651; Bunney, Treatise of Dirorce for Adultery and
to a nameless Answer against the Doctrine and Discipline Marrying again, that there is no sufficient warrant so to
of Dirorce. Wherein the trivial author of that answer is do ; Buxtorf, Dissertatio de Sponsalibus ac Dirortiis,
discovered, the Licenser conferred with, and the opinions 1652 ; Ochinus, Dialogue on Polygamy, and another on
which they traduce defended. We shall finish by Divorce, translated by Francis Osborn, 1657 ; Madan,
collecting a few flowers from this pamphlet. The Thelypthora, 1780; and the Debates on Divorce in the
author of the Answer is called an “illiterate and House of Lords in 1800.
arrogant presumer," "a creature," "a pork who The Mohammedan law respecting Divorces is
never read atv philosophy,” “one suddenly taken founded upon four passages in the Corán, (ch. ii. iv.
with a lunacy of law and speaking revelation out of xxxiii. and lxv.) which allow of a separation whenever
The Attorney's Academy only from a lying spirit," the parties seek it mutually, (ii. 227, 238, ed. Maracci,!

a servitor," "a low-pudderer," “ a hoyden," "a provided a sufficient time have elapsed to prove that
groom," "a mere serving man,' a mere and arrant the woman is not pregnant. She is also to have her
pettifoggen," "an unbuttoned fellow,"

an unbuttoned fellow," "a boar in marriage portion, unless she relinquish a part of it as
a vineyard," “ a snout in pickle," “ a handicrafts- an inducement to her husband to consent to the Di-
man of petty cases," "a hackney of the law," "a vorce, (v. 230.) A wife may be received again after
serving man at Addlegate," "an odious fool who having been twice repudiated; "but if the husband
leaves the noisome stench of his rude slot behind him, Divorce her a third time, she shall not be lawful for
maligning that any thing should be spoken or under him again, until she marry another husband." (v. 231.)
stood above his own genuine baseness," "a varlet," The literal interpretation put upon this law by the

DIVORCE. Judges in Syria, may be seen in the following passage personal observation. The Hidáyah, published at Cal- DIVORCE

of D'Arvieux's Mémoires ; after observing that the cutta in Arabic, Persian, and English, gives the law
restitution of the dower and expenses attending the as it is enforced in India ; and the Kitubu'l jinágát and
suit for a Divorce are so considerable a charge, as Mishcátu'l masábin furnish a comprehensive view of
generally to make the husband repent of his rash de- all the leading traditions relative to this subject.
termination, and desirous of being reconciled to his The Hindù law of Divorce gives an almost unre-
wife, he says, (i. 451,) “ Si elle y consent il n'y a plus stricted license to the husband, and places the wife in
qu'une petite cérémonie à faire pour que la paix conjugale a state of abject servitude.

“ Prudent men,” say
soit ratifiée par le Cudi : la voici, toute bizarre et imperti- more texts than one, " instantly forsake a wife who
nente qu'elle est. Le mari plaignant et la femme accusée speaks unkindly," (Digest, book iv. ch. i. v. 66 ; ii.
étant devant le Cadi, il fait venir quelque bon gros garçon, 416, 8vo ed.) Barrenness, or the bearing of daugh-
qu'on a eu la précaution d'instruire ce qu'il a à faire. On ters only, frequenting the houses of strangers, pro-
lui demande s'il connoit cette femme, quoiqu'elle soit voilée, curing abortions, eating in her husband's presence,
et qu'il ne l'ait peut-être jamais vue. Il ne manque pas embezzling his property, leprosy, insanity, catamenial
de répondre qu'il la connoit pour une femme d'honneur ; suppression, any incurable disease, drunkenness, and
le juge lui demande s'il la veut épouser, et il répond qu'il contentious, are all, individually, sufficient pleas for
le souhaite, et qu'il est prét de la prendre pour femme. On putting away a wife : the “ husband, on the contrary,
les conduit dans une chambre, et le pauvre mari est obligé must be constantly revered as a God” by his wife, not-
d'étre présent à une scène qui le couvre de honte et de con- withstanding he is “ devoid of good qualities, or en-
fusion, et qui le fuit réellement ce qu'il s'imaginoit d'étre et amoured of another woman,(Digest, iv. ch. i. v. 103,
peut-étre sans raison. Cette satisfaction achevée, l'honneur vol. ii. 142 ;) and yet this very code, which is so in-
de la femme est réparé; le nouveau mari par honnéteté equitable to the weaker sex on these points, inflicts no
cède son droit à l'ancien mari, et la femme se trouve en severer punishment than degradation in case of adul-
droit de choisir celui qui lui plaît. Elle reprend l'ancien, tery, infanticide, or the murder of a husband, (Ib.
elle en fait sa déclaration au Cadi, et elle retourne en sa v.77 ;) and “ a wife who is superseded by another,
maison, comme si ceite scène honteuse ne se fut pas passée." must be maintained by her husband, (Ib. v. 74.) He
D'Arvieux adds that his own groom at Seždá was in- is also prohibited from putting her to death, or muti-
volved in this distressing dilemma, and entreated his lating her person, (Ib. v. so,) except her paramour is
master to use his interest with the Cádí, to release him a man of a low class,” (Ib. v. 83 ;) and if she be
from this condition prescribed by the law; the Cádí “excessively corrupt," her husband may confine her
replied, that it was not in his power to do so ; and that in her own apartments, allowing her only a ball of rice
were it not for the dread of this particular consequence, for her sustenance ! (Ib. p. 424.)
the judges would be so pestered with squabbles between The same penance is inflicted on husbands also who
man and wife, as to have no leisure for any other suits. are guilty of adultery; and for the illegal desertion of
D'Arvieux is wrong in supposing this onerous condi- a wife“ no atonement is ordained.” (Ib. lxi.) The
tion to have been imposed as a punishment on the supreme law between husband and wife,” says Menu,
husband for having made a rash affidavit : nothing" is in a few words, ' Let mutual fidelity continue till
of the kind appears in the Corán.

death.'” (Ib. cxc.) So that punishment for adul-
The act of Divorce must be publicly made before terous intercourse may be expected by both parties in
the Cádí, in the presence of witnesses, after a lapse of another world, however lenient the laws may be in
three months, if the woman be not pregnant; but not this. The Hindù legislation on this subject is all
till after her delivery, if she be so. “Many injunctions founded on two principles, the utter worthlessness and
are laid upon the husband to treat the wife whom he weakness of the female character, (Ib. xxix.) and the
wishes to Divorce with equity, and even with tender- extreme importance of guarding against an illegal

but as her claim (excepting for her dower) is to intermixture of the Castes. (Ib. viii. x.) The endless
be regulated by his means, a wide opening is left for variety of mixed Castes now found in India, is a
fraud and oppression.

sufficient proof of the inefficiency of these enact-
Several of the texts, upon which this part of the ments, which seem to look for delinquency only on
Mohammedan law is founded, are vague orambiguous; one side, and make the other, judge and jury in its
and are therefore liable to a great diversity of interpre- own cause.
tation ; especially in the application of the rule to par- The Chinese Code, which has probably derived
ticular cases; the Sunnies, moreover, are as much many of its provisions respecting Divorce from the
guided by the Traditions (hadith) as by the Corán; laws of Menu, adds several pleas to those already
their decisions, therefore, are regulated by a greater stated ; such as disregard of the husband's parents,
variety of texts than those furnished by the written loquaciousness, and a jealous temper; but repudiation
law alone. The Persians also, who are Shiaks, admit is barred by three circumstances: 1. the wife's having
of considerable license in the interpretation of doubt- mourned three years for her husband's parents; 2:
ful texts; and in the case of a wife resumed after the his family's having become rich subsequently to his
third Divorce, require her to cohabit forty days with marriage'; and 3. her having no parents living who
her new husband, before she can by a second Divorce can receive her back again.
be restored to her former one. (Chardin, ii. 2 10.) By both of these Codes, Divorce is enjoined in case

Those who wish to enter more minutely into the of adultery, (Ta-tsing-leu-lee, by Sir G. Staunton, and
usages of the different Mohammedan sects, will find Himlù Diy, ib. lxxvii.) and the Chinese law permits a
the doctrine of the Sunnies, and the practice of the woman, who has been deserted by her husband for
Turkish Courts, clearly detailed in the third volume three years, to marry another. The Hindù legislators
of M. d'Ohsson's Tableau Général de l'Empire Othoman; bave in such cases prescribed different terms for the
a work entirely derived from authentic sources and women of different Castes, and only half of the ape

DIVORCE pointed interval when they have borne no children. Chardin, Voy, en Perse, ed. de Langlès, Paris, 1811, DIVORCE

(Dig. ib. cliii.) As women who have been Divorced, Svo, ii. 238; Hamilton's Hedaya, 4 vols. 4to, Calcutta, DIURIS.

DIU. are considered as degraded, it is supposed that no one 1791 ; Hidáyah, (Arabic) 2 vols. 4to, Calcutta, 1816; TURNAL. would receive them as wives; the marriage of such · Hidáyah, (Persian) 4 vols. 8vo, Calcutta, 1807; Mishpersons therefore is not mentioned by the Hindù cat-ul-masabih, or A Collection of the Traditions, &c. Lawyers.

2 vols. 4to, Calcutta, 1809; Kitabu'l jináyát (the CriSee Maracci's Prodromus ad refutationem Alcorani, minal Code) in Arabic, with a Persian Commentary, Paduæ, 1698; Sale's Koran, 4to, Lond. 1734, Prelim. 2 vols. 8vo, Calcutta, 1913; Digest of Hindù Law, Disc. sec. 6. p. 133 ; Sir Paul Ricaut's Present State of by Mr. Colebrooke, London, 1801, 3 vols. 8vo; Tathe Ottoman Empire, folio, 1670 ; Mouradgea d'Ohsson's tsing-leu-lee, or The Chinese Code of Laws, by Sir G. Tabl, Général, Paris, 1820, folio, iii.; Code Civil. liv. ii.; Staunton, Bart., London, 1810, 4to.

one moment.

DIURE TICK, n. Gr. ôlovpn tiròs, from dià, and DIURNÆ, in Zoology, a family of Birds belonging
DIURE'TICK, adj. Soupov, (for opov, from opw, ercito, to the order Accipitres.

DIURE'TICAL. impello,) quod impellitur, vel cum DIU'RNAL, n. Lat. diurnus, from dies, day.
stimulo quodam expellitur, Urina. Scheidius.

DIU'RNAL, udj. Fr. diurnel; Sp. diurnal. Of or

DIU'RNALIST, pertaining to the day; daily.
For although inwardly received it may be very diuretick, and

DiU'RNALLY. A Diurnal, djurnal, journal; a
expulse the stone in the kidney; yet how it should dissolve or
break that in the bladder, will require a further dispute. day-book, a daily paper.
Sir Thomas Brown, book ii. ch. v.

And for bicause that it drew to the night
But he saith withall, that this medicine is nothing good for the

And that the sonne his arke diurnalı dropsie, notwithstanding that it is diureticall.

Ypassed was.
Holland. Plinie, vol. ii. fol. 53.

Chaucer. Of the Blacke Knight.
It (candle weed] is said to be diuretic, but this I do not know

There is an abstruce Astrologer that saith ; If it were not, for from experience.

two things, that are constant, (the one is, That the fixed starres Granger. The Sugar Cane, book iv. (note to v. 613.)

ever stand at like distance, one from another, and never come And in diureticks a very ingenious anatomist and physician told

nearer together, nor go further asunder; the other that the diurme, he tried it with good success.

nall motion perpetually keepeth time ;) no individiall would last Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 89. The Usefulness of Natural Philosophy, Essay 3. part ii.

Bacon. Essaies. Of Vicissitude of Things, 58. My having found them in myself very diuretical and aperitive Upon my entrance on this day s defence, I found myself is not that, which chiefly recommends them to me.

aggrieved at the Diurnal, and another pamphlet of the week,

Id. Ib. Essay 5. part ii. wherein they print whatsover is charged against me, as it it were
DIURETICs are employed not merely to procure a

fully proved, never so much as mentioning what or how I

State Trials. Triul of Archbishop Laud.
watery discharge, for this is mostly attainable, but
to carry off together with this discharge substances

To that purpose, be bronight the man to the king ; who had injurious if retained. Cooling Diuretics are the alkalis

never before taken other notice of him, than for his bringing the

Diurnal constantly to be read to his majesty after dinner, or supcarbonated, or subcarbonated carbonic acid combined per, as he received it. with them in mineral waters, or sometimes in pure Clarendon. History of the Rebellion, vol. iii. part ii. p. 564. water; the neutrals with fixed or volatile alkali, of which

He was by birth, some authors write, the most powerful is carbonated ammonia. Fruits, par

A Russian, some a Muscovite, ticularly the senticosæ, and potherbs. The sedative are

And 'mong the Cossacks had been bred, foxglove, tobacco, wild lettuce, broom, the ice plant,

Of whom we in diurnals read, the winter cherry, wolf's bane, opium, woody night

That serve to fill up pages here,

As with their bodies ditches there. shade, rue, and savine. Caution is requisite in the

Butler. Hudibras, part i. can. 2. use of most of these. The stimulating are naphtha, nitrous ether, oil of wine, parsley, wild carrot roots

Nay some are so studiously changeling in that particular, they and seeds, and others of the umbellatæ ; of the stellata,

esteem an opinion as a diurnal, after a day or two scarce worth

Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 35. Life. asparagus, bardana, and seneca ; of the siliquosa,

Tir'd of earth hedge mustard; of the alliaciæ, garlic, leek, onion

And this diurnol scene, she springs aloft and squill; of the conifere, juniper; and of the liliacee, Through fields of air ; pursues the flying storm ; meadow saffron, (colchicum.) Turpentines of various Rides on the vollied lightning through the heavens; kinds, copaiba, guiacum, gum benjamin, oliganum,

Or, yok'd with wbirlwinds and the northern blast, styrax, and sometimes mercury.

Sweeps the long tract of day.
Gentle walking in the cool air assists the operation

Akenside. The Pleasures of Imagination, book i. v. 186. of Diuretics; too great warmth directs them to the

DIUTU'RNAL Y from day, sc. to day; for a suc

? Lat. dinturnus, from diu; skin.

DIUTU'RNITY. DIURIS, in Botany, a genus of the class Gynandria, cession of days, a continuance, a length of time. order Monandria, natural order Orchideæ. Generic

The authority wherein we have understood your nobleness to character : nectary, a pendulous lip without a spur ; flourish in the British Court, is accounterl not onely the reward calyx five-leaved, the three uppermost coloured ; co- of your merits, but also the patronage of virtue; certainly an rolla, petals four, lateral; style reversed.

excellent renown and every way so worthy, that the people desire
Three species, natives of New South Wales. Will-

a diuternity to be annexed unto it.
Cabbala, p. 216. The Pope to the Duke of Buckingham, Anno


i. e.


DIU. The Pope begins to slack the bridle according to the old rule, Descamps says, that this mystery, as it was then held, was stolen DIVULGE. TURNAL. that there is no diuternities in violence.

from Vaillant by the son of an old man, wlio scraped the grounds

Reliquiæ Wottonianæ, p. 669. of his plates for nim. This might be one of the means of divulg- DIZZARD. DIVULGE.

We thought it conducing to the common good of both Repub- ing the new art, (mezzotinto.)
lics to send George Downing, a person of eminent quality, and

Walpole. Catalogue of Engravers, vol. v. p. 144.
long in our knowledge and esteem for his undoubted fidelity, Here, then is an opportunity of exposing those secrets, which,
probity, and diligence, in many and various negociations, digni- perhaps, the confidence of a friend has made known to the trea-
fied with the character of our agent, to reside with your lord- cherous divulger of them, and of gratifying the malice of a coward
ships, and chiefly to take care of those things by which the peace with safety, and by the infliction of the cruellest injury.
between us may be preserv'd entire and diuturnal.

Knox. Essays, No. 6.
Milton. Prose Works, vol. ii. fol. 218. Letters of State. DIVULSION, see Divell.
DIVU'LGE, Fr. divulguer ; It. divolgare ; Sp. DIXA, in Zoology, a genus of Dipterous insects be-
Divu'LGER, divulgar ; Lat. divulgare, spargere longing to the family Tipuladæ, established by Meigen.
DIVU'LGATE, voces in vulgum. Minsbew. To Generic characler. Antennæ setaceous; two basal

Divu'LGATION. scatter words among the vulgar : joints large, the rest thin, pubescent ; palpi recurved,
and thus,

cylindrical, formed of four joints, the first of which is
To publish ; to make publicly or commonly known; very short; ocelli or smooth eyes none.
to disclose or discover, to make manifest ; to declare. Meigen describes four species, all of which are new,
The councel of Fraunce, caused a common fame (although it

and found in Europe. He named them D. scrotina, D.
were not trewe) to be diuulged abrode that there was a finall æstivalis, D. aprilina, and D. maculata.
peace and a perfit amitie concluded betwene the French kynge & See Meigen, European Diptera.
hys lordes whiche lately were to hym aduersaries.

DIZEN, to dize; to put tow on a distaff, dress it.
Hall. Henry IV. The thirteenth Yere.

Dizen, to dress. Hence, bedizen'd out; over, awk-
It were very perillous, to dyuulgate that noble scyence, to com- wardly or improperly dressed. See Grose, and Ray.
mune people, not lerned in lyberall

sciences and philosophy. Thom. Come quickly, quickly, paint me handsomely,
Sir Thomus Elyot. The Castel of Helth, book iv.

Take heed my nose be not ingrain too;
And that was by pacience and sufferaunce, by which the fayth

Come Doll, Doll, disen me.
was dyuulgate and spred almost thorowe the worlde in litel

Beaumont and Fletcher. Monsieur Thomas, act iv. sc. 6.

Do you hear, master ?
Sir Thomas More. Workes. A Dialogue concerning Heresies.

I put my clothes off, and I dizen'd him.
After this deuulgatiō ye Rychard sonne to Kyng Edward was yet

Id. The Pilgrim, act iv. sc. 3.
liuyng, & had in great honour amongest the Flemminges, there

The bashful Muse will never bear
began sedicion to springe on eury side.

In such a scene to interfere,
Hall. Henry VII. The seventh Yere.

Corinna in the morning dizen'd.
Divert thy course to Goshen then again,

Swift. A beautiful Nymph going to Bed.
And to divulge it constantly be bold,

His gallants are all faultless, bis woinen divine
And their glad eares attractively retain,

And Comedy wonders at being so fine ;
With what, at Sinai, Abraham's God hath told.

Like a Tragedy queen he has dizen'd her out,
Drayton. Moses his Birth and Miracles, book i.

Or rather like Tragedy giving a rout.

Goldsmith. Retaliation.
It is truc that by confessions we find, that false priest Watson,
and arch traitor Percy, to have been the first devisers and

DI'ZZARD, Sherwood says, to dizze, estourdir;
divulgers of this scandalous report.

Dizzy, and Cotgrave, estourdir, to astonish,
State Trials. The Trial of the Conspirators of the Gunpowder DI'ZZINESS, dizze, amaze. Somner has, Dysig-

Dizzy-EYED.) an, ineptire, to be foolish. Dysignesse,
The excellency and purity of the doctrine in all other

points dysinesse ; stultitia, foolishness. Hence, happily, our
man, the sanctified life, constant sufferings, and wonderfull mi- dizzinesse; which proceeds from the weaknesse of
racles of the divulgers of it.

the braine." The progress was probably quite the
Hammond. Works, vol. ii. part 1. fol. 695. The Lord Falkland's reverse. See Daze.

Rather to me for to be thoughte
And when this the prince's escape was divulguted, much people

a doulte, and dizzard vyle,
came ynto him out of euerie quarter, with great ioy thereof.

If that my follye might please me,
For. Martyrs, fol. 306. Prince Edward escapeth out of the

or seeme good for a whyle :
Custody of Earl Simon.

Then to be wyse, and vexed ay.
Bishop of London. There is no such licencious divulging of

Drant. Horace. Epistle to Julius
these books, and none have liberty by authority, to buy them,
except such as Dr. Reynolds, who was supposed would confute well maye be geni to fooles and dizzardes as to

But who is that I praye you that will maruell at the
State Trials. Hampton Court Conferences respecting the Reforma-

learned men.

Hall. Henry VII. 2%: tion of the Church.

Wee accuse others of madnesse, of folly, an There is a time when we must preach Christ on the house top, dizards ourselves. Burton. Democritus to the there is a time, when we must speake him in the eare, and (as it

For as he thus was busy, were) with our lips shut. Secrecy hath no lesse use then divul

A pain he in his head-piece feels

Against a stubbed tree he reels
Hall. Contemplations. Lazarus Raised, vol. ii, fol. 821.

And up went poor Hobgoblin
But when Vlysses, with fallacious arts,

Alas! his brain wasil
Had made impression on the people's hearts;
And forg'd a treason in my patron's name,

For as we see chil
(I speak of things too far divulg'd by fame)

fall down at last My kinsman fell.

who playing in
Dryden. Virgil. Æneid, book ii. such a dicine
Noble Achilles. Would'st thou learn from me

and int
What cause hath mov'd Apollo to this wrath,
T'liou shaft-arm'd king? I shall divulge the cause.

Cowper. Homer. Iliad, bool

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